Expression of endothelin 1 and its angiogenic role in meningiomas
Department of Surgery, University of Pisa, via Roma 57, 56100 Pisa, Italy.Archiv für Pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie und für Klinische Medicin (Impact Factor: 2.65). 12/2006; 449(5):546-53. DOI: 10.1007/s00428-006-0273-7
Meningiomas are one of the most frequent central nervous system tumours. Although slow-growing at times, they continue to be a cause of morbidity and mortality. The endothelin (ET) family consists of three isoforms: ET-1 is the most abundant one. ET-1 may be involved in meningioma tumourigenesis in concert with other growth factors, in particular with angiogenic agents. We analysed ET-1 expression by immunohistochemistry and its activating system by reverse-transcription-polymerase chain reaction in 56 cases of meningioma. We found an association between high-grade meningiomas and high ET-1 expression levels (p=0.002). Moreover, we evaluated the potential angiogenic role of ET-1, finding an elevated microvessel count in tumours with high ET expression levels (p=0.004). ET-1 may contribute to meningioma growth by inducing formation of new blood vessels. The finding that ET-1 expression positively correlates with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in meningiomas (p=0.03) also supports the hypothesized modulating effect of ET-1 on angiogenesis. Thus, the influence of the ET system on the progression of meningiomas may occur through stimulation of VEGF. The association of ET-1 and meningioma represents a potential area for therapeutic intervention with selective ET inhibitors. Additional clinical studies will be needed before inhibitors can be incorporated in clinical practice.
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ABSTRACT: Insufficient perfusion of distal flap areas, which may lead to partial necrosis, still represents a challenge in reconstructive surgery. In the process of microvascular and endothelial dysfunction, endothelins (ETs) and their receptors may play an important role. Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate in a chronic in vivo model the effect of various ET-receptor antagonists in critically perfused flap tissue. A random pattern musculocutaneous flap was elevated in the back of 25 C57BL/6 mice and fixed into a dorsal skinfold chamber. Repetitive intravital fluorescence microscopy was performed over a 10-day observation period, assessing arteriolar diameter, arteriolar blood flow (aBF), functional capillary density (FCD), the area of tissue necrosis, and the development of newly formed blood vessels. ET-receptor blockers were administrated intraperitoneally 30 min before induction of ischemia, as well as daily during the subsequent 4-day period, including (1) BQ-123, a specific ET-A-receptor antagonist (ET-A = 1 mg/kg), (2) BQ-788, a selective ET-B-receptor antagonist (ET-B = 1 mg/kg), and (3) PD-142893, a nonselective ET-AB-receptor antagonist (ET-AB = 0.5 mg/kg). Animals receiving saline only served as controls (n = 7). Despite an increase in aBF during the 10-day observation period (day 1 = 1.92 +/- 0.29 nl/s; day 10 = 4.70 +/- 1.64 nl/s), the flaps of saline-treated controls showed a distinct decrease in FCD (94 +/- 12 cm/cm(2)). This perfusion failure resulted in flap necrosis of 52 +/- 3%. Selective blockade of the ET-B receptor caused a further increase in aBF already at day 1 (2.97 +/- 0.42 nl/s), which persisted during the following 10-day observation period (day 10 = 5.74 +/- 0.69 nl/s). Accordingly, adequate FCD could be maintained (day 10 = 215 +/- 8 cm/cm(2); p < 0.05 vs control), resulting in a significant reduction in flap necrosis (day 10 = 25 +/- 4%; p < 0,05). In contrast, neither selective blockade of the ET-A receptor nor nonselective ET-A- and ET-B-receptor blockade were able to significantly affect aBF when compared to controls (day 1 = ET-A = 1.39 +/- 0.10 nl/s; ET-AB = 1.53 +/- 0.80 nl/s; n.s.). Accordingly, flap necrosis after ET-A- and ET-AB-receptor inhibition did not differ from that of controls (day 10 = ET-A: 46 +/- 10%; ET-AB = 51 +/- 7%). Our data show that only selective ET-B-receptor inhibition is capable of maintaining nutritive perfusion and, hence, reducing necrosis in critically perfused flap tissue. Accordingly, administration of ET-B-receptor antagonists may be considered in the treatment of critically perfused flaps.
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ABSTRACT: We studied the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) and mRNA stability factor HuR in 40 supratentorial meningiomas using RT-PCR, ELISA and immunohistochemistry, and analyzed their associations with the clinicopathological characteristics, including microvascular density (MVD), peritumoral brain edema (PTBE), histological subtypes and grades, and the performance of preoperative arterial embolization. Furthermore, we investigated the involvement of HuR in the upregulation of VEGF-A expression using primary meningioma cell cultures. The level of VEGF-A is elevated in meningiomas with PTBE and in higher grade meningiomas. Preoperative arterial embolization did not significantly increase the level of VEGF-A, but it did increase the expression of HuR in tumor tissues. HuR expression was correlated positively with VEGF-A expression in meningioma tissues. In in vitro experiments, hypoxia induced the upregulation of VEGF-A expression and the cytoplasmic translocation of HuR protein in meningioma cells, and inhibition of the cytoplasmic translocation of HuR reduced the upregulation of VEGF-A expression in meningioma cells. These findings suggest that the expression of VEGF-A relates to the development of PTBE with meningiomas and the histological grade, and that HuR is involved in the upregulation of VEGF-A expression in human meningiomas.
Article: LAG-3 in Cancer Immunotherapy[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: LAG-3 (CD223) is a cell surface molecule expressed on activated T cells (Huard et al. Immunogenetics 39:213-217, 1994), NK cells (Triebel et al. J Exp Med 171:1393-1405, 1990), B cells (Kisielow et al. Eur J Immunol 35:2081-2088, 2005), and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (Workman et al. J Immunol 182:1885-1891, 2009) that plays an important but incompletely understood role in the function of these lymphocyte subsets. In addition, the interaction between LAG-3 and its major ligand, Class II MHC, is thought to play a role in modulating dendritic cell function (Andreae et al. J Immunol 168:3874-3880, 2002). Recent preclinical studies have documented a role for LAG-3 in CD8 T cell exhaustion (Blackburn et al. Nat Immunol 10:29-37, 2009), and blockade of the LAG-3/Class II interaction using a LAG-3 Ig fusion protein is being evaluated in a number of clinical trials in cancer patients. In this review, we will first discuss the basic structural and functional biology of LAG-3, followed by a review of preclinical and clinical data pertinent to a role for LAG-3 in cancer immunotherapy.
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