Rogers RD, Ramnani N, Mackay C, Wilson JL, Jezzard P, Carter CS et al. Distinct portions of anterior cingulate cortex and medial prefrontal cortex are activated by reward processing in separable phases of decision-making cognition. Biol Psychiatry 55: 594-602

Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Oxford, England, United Kingdom
Biological Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 10.26). 04/2004; 55(6):594-602. DOI: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2003.11.012
Source: PubMed


Choosing between actions associated with uncertain rewards and punishments is mediated by neural circuitry encompassing the orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and striatum; however, the precise conditions under which these different components are activated during decision-making cognition remain uncertain.
Fourteen healthy volunteers completed an event-based functional magnetic resonance imaging protocol to investigate blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) responses during independently modeled phases of choice cognition. In the "decision phase," participants decided which of two simultaneous visually presented gambles they wished to play for monetary reward. The gambles differed in their magnitude of gains, magnitude of losses, and the probabilities with which these outcomes were delivered. In the "outcome phase," the result of each choice was indicated on the visual display.
In the decision phase, choices involving large gains were associated with increased BOLD responses in the pregenual ACC, paracingulate, and right posterior orbitolateral cortex compared with choices involving small gains. In the outcome phase, good outcomes were associated with increased BOLD responses in the posterior orbitomedial cortex, subcallosal ACC, and ventral striatum compared with negative outcomes. There was only limited overlap between reward-related activity in ACC and orbitofrontal cortex during the decision and outcome phases.
Neural activity within the medial and lateral orbitofrontal cortex, pregenual ACC, and striatum mediate distinct representations of reward-related information that are deployed at different stages during a decision-making episode.

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    • "employed a two-phase gambling task (Rogers et al., 1999) with two phases; decision and outcome, and event-related functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and showed the role of the upper part of Prefrontal Cortex (PFC; superior PFC and caudal Anterior Cingulate Cortex; ACC) in decision phase and lower parts of PFC (Orbitofrontal Cortex; OFC and subgenual ACC) in outcome phase. Some of the problems with the task used in Rogers et al. (1999) were mentioned in the following paper by these researchers (Rogers et al., 2004). Especially, the role of preparation by further separating the chance to win and the gamble itself demand more investigations. "
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: The current study aimed to elucidate the role of preparatory cognitive control in decision making and its neural correlates using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). To this effect, by employing a series of new cognitive tasks, we assessed the role of preparatory cognitive control in monetary (risky) decision making. Methods: The participants had to decide between a risky and a safe gamble based on their chance of winning (high or low). In the 2-phase gambling task (similar to Cambridge gambling task), the chance and the gamble were presented at the same time (i.e. in a single phase), but in a new 3-phase gambling task, the chance is presented before the gamble. The tasks ended with a feedback phase. Results: In the 3-phase task, holding the chance in memory to guide their decision enabled the participants to have more control on their risk taking behaviors as shown by activation in a network of brain areas involved in the control and conflict, including dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex (dACC), indexed by faster reaction times and better performance in the gambling task, and the temporal lobe, which has a role in holding contextual information. Discussion: Holding information in memory to guide decision presumably enables the participants to have more control on their risk taking behaviors. The conflict and uncertainty resulting from this risky decision was indexed by the activation of dACC, known to be activated in conflict and cognitive control.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015
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    • "Un ejemplo de ello es el estudio de Tomporowski y Tinsley (1996), en el que utilizando una tarea de atención sostenida, observaron que cuando los participantes eran reforzados económicamente por su participación conseguían mantener la atención, mientras que cuando no se les recompensaba la atención sostenida disminuía significativamente. Los resultados funcionales obtenidos han mostrado que la red neuronal involucrada en la interacción entre el control cognitivo y la motivación apetitiva incluye áreas (1) frontales como el córtex prefrontal medio o el giro frontal inferior, (2) parietales como el sulco intraparietal o ínsula, y (3) estriatales como el nucleo accumbens, o el putamen (Padmala y Pessoa, 2011; Stoppel y cols., 2011; Padmala y Pessoa, 2010; Savine y Braver, 2010; Beck y cols., 2010; Pochon y cols., 2002; Rogers y cols., 2004). De igual modo, los apuntan a la dopamina como principal neurotransmisor involucrado en esta interacción (Engelmann y cols., 2009; Zink y cols., 2004; Pessoa y Engelmann, 2010; Ávila y cols., 2012). "

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    • "FRN, then, may indicate activity in the ventral striatum, caudate, amygdala, medial prefrontal cortex, and orbitalfrontal cortex in response to rewards compared to nonrewards (see also Foti, Weinberg, Dien, & Hajcak, 2011; but see Cohen, Cavanaugh, & Slagter, 2011). Functional MRI data indicating that the medial prefrontal cortex may be more active in response to gain relative to losses (Fujiwara, Tobler, Taira, Iijima, & Tsutsui, 2009; Rogers et al., 2004) and to pleasant versus unpleasant images (Sabatinelli, Bradley, Lang, Costa, & Versace , 2007) appears to support Carlson and colleagues' contention. "
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    ABSTRACT: Conservatives, compared to liberals, are consistently found to exhibit physiological sensitivity to aversive stimuli. However, it remains unknown whether conservatives are also sensitive to salient positively valenced stimuli. We therefore used event-related potentials to determine the relationship between system justification (SJ), a fundamental component of conservative political ideology, and neural processing of negative and positive feedback. Participants (N = 29) filled out questionnaire assessments of SJ. Feedback-related negativity (FRN), an event-related potential component thought to index activity in neural regions associated with reward processing, was assessed in response to positive and negative feedback on a time estimation task. A significant interaction was noted between SJ and feedback type in predicting FRN. Simple effects tests suggested that SJ predicted greater FRN in response to positive but not to negative feedback. Conservatives may experience salient positive information with a heightened intensity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Journal of Experimental Psychology General
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