The LRRK2 Gly2385Arg variant is associated with Parkinson's disease: Genetic and functional evidence
Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands Human Genetics
(Impact Factor: 4.82).
03/2007; 120(6):857-63. DOI: 10.1007/s00439-006-0268-0
Evidence of LRRK2 haplotypes associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) risk was recently found in the Chinese population from Singapore, and a common LRRK2 missense variant, Gly2385Arg, was independently detected as a putative risk factor for PD in the Chinese population from Taiwan. To test the association between the Gly2385Arg variant in a large case-control sample of Chinese ethnicity from Singapore, and to perform functional studies of the wild type and Gly2385Arg LRRK2 protein in human cell lines. In a case-control study involving 989 Chinese subjects, the frequency of the heterozygous Gly2385Arg genotype was higher in PD compared to controls (7.3 vs. 3.6%, odds ratio = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.1-3.9, P = 0.014); these values yield an estimated population attributable risk (PAR) of approximately 4%. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis with the disease group (PD vs. controls) as the dependent variable and the genotype as an independent factor with adjustments made for the effect of age and gender, the heterozygous Gly2385Arg genotype remained associated with an increased risk of PD compared to wild type genotype (odds ratio = 2.67, 95% CI: 1.43-4.99, P = 0.002). The glycine at position 2385 is a candidate site for N-myristoylation, and the Gly2385Arg variant replaces the hydrophobic glycine with the hydrophilic arginine, and increases the net positive charge of the LRRK2 WD40 domain. In transfection studies, we demonstrated that both the wild type and Gly2385Arg variant LRRK2 protein localize to the cytoplasm and form aggregates. However, under condition of oxidative stress, the Gly2385Arg variant was more toxic and associated with a higher rate of apoptosis. Our study lends support to the contention that the Gly2385Arg is a common risk factor for PD in the Chinese population. Our bioinformatics and in-vitro studies also suggest that the Gly2385Arg variant is biologically relevant and it might act through pro-apoptotic mechanisms.
Available from: Yip-Boon Chong
- "Taiwan 305 PD, 176 controls OR 17.00 (í µí± = 0.0002) Farrer et al., 2007  Taiwan 410 PD, 335 controls OR 2.24 (í µí± = 0.014) Tan et al., 2007  Singapore 495 PD, 494 controls OR 2.14 (í µí± = 0.014) Tan et al., 2007  Non-Chinese "
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ABSTRACT: The LRRK2 gene has been associated with both familial and sporadic forms of Parkinson's disease (PD). The G2019S variant is commonly found in North African Arab and Caucasian PD patients, but this locus is monomorphic in Asians. The G2385R and R1628P variants are associated with a higher risk of developing PD in certain Asian populations but have not been studied in the Malaysian population. Therefore, we screened the G2385R and R1628P variants in 1,202 Malaysian subjects consisting of 695 cases and 507 controls. The G2385R and R1628P variants were associated with a 2.2-fold (P = 0.019) and 1.2-fold (P = 0.054) increased risk of PD, respectively. Our data concur with other reported findings in Chinese, Taiwanese, Singaporean, and Korean studies.
Available from: PubMed Central
- "A common recurrent mutation G2019S has an average worldwide frequency of 1% in sporadic PD patients  and 2%–7% in Caucasian familial cases [8–11], and up to 20% in Ashkenazi Jews  and 40% in North African Arabs , but not in East Indians . G2385R and R1628P, which are important risk factors of PD, occur predominantly in the Asian populations [9,14–17], and are very rare or absent in other populations. These observations suggest that LRRK2 mutation/variant frequency is ethnicity-dependent. "
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ABSTRACT: Genome Wide Association Studies (GWASs) have identified trait-associated polymorphisms via a hypothesis-free approach. However, it is challenging when attempting to reproduce GWAS findings in different populations as it fundamentally relies on the similar patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD) between the unknown causal variants and the genotyped single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). To address this potential limitation, we examined the regional LD pattern of leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene, which is responsible for both autosomal dominant and sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD), in Caucasians (CEU), Japanese (JPT) and Chinese (CHB) from HapMap and Chinese (CHS), Malays (MAS) and Indians (INS) from the Singapore Genome Variation Project (SGVP) utilizing the traditional heatmaps and targeted analysis of LRRK2 gene via Monte Carlo simulation through varLD scores of these ethnic groups. Both heatmaps and targeted analysis showed that LD pattern of JPT was different from that of INS (P=0.0001); while LD pattern of CEU was different from that in Asian except for INS (all P=0.0001). Our study suggests that there is a higher chance to detect associations between PD and those trait-associated SNPs of LRRK2 gene found in Caucasian studies in INS, while those found in Japanese studies are likely to be better replicated among CHB.
Available from: Zoë Bichler
- "R1441G is the second most common site of pathogenic LRRK2 substitutions. We have previously identified other common genetic variants such as G2385R that are unique to Chinese . "
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ABSTRACT: Non-motor symptoms are increasingly recognized as important features of Parkinson's disease (PD). LRRK2 mutations are common causes of familial and sporadic PD. Non-motor features have not been yet comprehensively evaluated in LRRK2 transgenic mouse models.
Using a transgenic mouse model overexpressing the R1441G mutation of the human LRRK2 gene, we have investigated the longitudinal correlation between motor and non-motor symptoms and determined if specific non-motor phenotypes precede motor symptoms.
We investigated the onset of motor and non-motor phenotypes on the LRRK2(R1441G) BAC transgenic mice and their littermate controls from 4 to 21 month-old using a battery of behavioral tests. The transgenic mutant mice displayed mild hypokinesia in the open field from 16 months old, with gastrointestinal dysfunctions beginning at 6 months old. Non-motor features such as depression and anxiety-like behaviors, sensorial functions (pain sensitivity and olfaction), and learning and memory abilities in the passive avoidance test were similar in the transgenic animals compared to littermate controls.
LRRK2(R1441G) BAC transgenic mice displayed gastrointestinal dysfunction at an early stage but did not have abnormalities in fine behaviors, olfaction, pain sensitivity, mood disorders and learning and memory compared to non-transgenic littermate controls. The observations on olfaction and gastrointestinal dysfunction in this model validate findings in human carriers. These mice did recapitulate mild Parkinsonian motor features at late stages but compensatory mechanisms modulating the progression of PD in these models should be further evaluated.
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