Leishmaniasis and Poverty

Communicable Diseases, Neglected Tropical Diseases Control, World Health Organization, 20 Ave Appia, CH-1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland.
Trends in Parasitology (Impact Factor: 6.2). 01/2007; 22(12):552-7. DOI: 10.1016/
Source: PubMed


Leishmaniasis, a neglected tropical disease, has strong but complex links with poverty. The burden of leishmaniasis falls disproportionately on the poorest segments of the global population. Within endemic areas, increased infection risk is mediated through poor housing conditions and environmental sanitation, lack of personal protective measures and economically driven migration and employment that bring nonimmune hosts into contact with infected sand flies. Poverty is associated with poor nutrition and other infectious diseases, which increase the risk that a person (once infected) will progress to the clinically manifested disease. Lack of healthcare access causes delays in appropriate diagnosis and treatment and accentuates leishmaniasis morbidity and mortality, particularly in women. Leishmaniasis diagnosis and treatment are expensive and families must sell assets and take loans to pay for care, leading to further impoverishment and reinforcement of the vicious cycle of disease and poverty. Public investment in treatment and control would decrease the leishmaniasis disease burden and help to alleviate poverty.

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    • "Globally, the annual incidence rate is approximately 200,000–400,000 cases, the majority of cases are present in Bangladesh , Nepal, and India. Furthermore, twothirds of those cases occur in India where VL (also known as kala-azar; black fever) is endemic in the states of Uttar Pradesh, Jharkhand , West Bengal, and Bihar (Alvar et al. 2006, Joshi et al. 2008, Alvar et al. 2012). "

    Full-text · Article · Jul 2016 · Journal of Arthropod-Borne Diseases
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    • "Leishmaniasis in their various forms appears to be globally emerging in the world (Desjeux, 2001). It is generally seen as one of neglected tropical diseases and has strong links with poverty (Alvar et al., 2006). Cutaneous leishmaniaisis (CL) are generally characterized by large and/or multiple cutaneous lesions with a variable tendency to self-cure. "
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    ABSTRACT: In recent years there has been growing interest in Sergentomyia species. Their role in the spread of mammalian leishmaniasis appears repeatedly in the literature and the possibility of its implication in Leishmania transmission to humans remains controversial. Sergentomyia (Sintonius) clydei is one of several cryptic species sharing therefore common morphologic criteria with others species of the subgenera Sintonius. Little is known about this specie in Tunisia. We sampled and identified using morphological tools different specimens including four specimens S. clydei collected from Sidi Bouzid and Kairouan areas (center of Tunisia). Males S. clydei and S. christophersi are known to share several morphological characters and can be mistaken for. Consequently we took advantage of 5 males S. christophersi available in our collection (Tataouin, South of Tunisia). In our study morphological tools were completed by molecular study of cytochrome b gene to identifie S. clydei. For the detection of Leishmania spp. that might infect our specimens, Leishmania DNA was analyzed by amplification of kinetoplast minicircle DNA using real-time PCR and nested-PCR. Obtained result was confirmed by restriction analysis of the amplified ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1). We provide in our study, the first molecular identification of S. clydei, in Tunisia. Our Neighbor joining tree based on mitochondrial cytochrome b gene shows two different cluster. The first includes the Tunisians S. clydei and others specimens from Africa, Middle East and the Arabic peninsula, and the second cluster containing the specimens from Seychelle. Unexpectedly, we also demonstrate the infection of one anthropophilic female S. clydei by Leishmania major DNA. This finding shows that more attention should be paid when identifying parasites by molecular tools within sandfly vector.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Infection, genetics and evolution: journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases
    • "Approximately 500,000 new cases of VL with over 90% of cases has been seen every year in India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Sudan, and Brazil. VL has become a frequent coinfection in HIV-positive individuals in endemic areas and is associated with enhanced onset of AIDS-related illness and increased VL treatment failure [1]. The treatment options for leishmaniasis caused by L. donovani are limited and unsatisfactory. "
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    ABSTRACT: Targeted drug delivery systems are ideal technology to increase the maximum mechanismof action with smaller dose, we have developed miltefosine encapsulated PLGAPEG nanoparticles (PPEM) to target macrophage of infected tissues against Leishmania donovani. The structural characterization of PLGA-PEG by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has shown a size range of 10 to 15 nm. Synthesis and drug encapsulation confirmed by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and confirmed NP encapsulation. The dose of nano encapsulatedmiltefosine decreased by fifty percent as compared to that of a conventional miltefosine and Amphoterecin B. The inhibition of amastigotes in the splenic tissue with nano encapsulated miltefosine (23.21 ±23) was significantly more than the conventional miltefosine (89.22 ±52.7) and Amphoterecin B (94.12 ±55.1). This study signifies that there is an increased contact surface area of the nano encapsulated drug and significant reduction in size, improved the efficacy in both in vitro and in vivo study than that of the conventional miltefosine, Amphoterecin B.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Materials Science and Engineering C
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