Frequency and Clinical Manifestations of Patients with Primary Immunodeficiency Disorders in Iran: Update from the Iranian Primary Immunodeficiency Registry

Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tebriz, East Azerbaijan, Iran
Journal of Clinical Immunology (Impact Factor: 3.18). 11/2006; 26(6):519-32. DOI: 10.1007/s10875-006-9047-x
Source: PubMed


Primary immunodeficiency disorders (PID) are a heterogeneous group of diseases, characterized by an increased susceptibility to infections. A total of 930 patients (573 males and 357 females) are registered in Iranian PID Registry (IPIDR) during three decades. Predominantly antibody deficiencies were the most common (38.4%), followed by congenital defects of phagocyte number and/or function (28.3%), other well-defined immunodeficiency syndromes (17.7%), combined T- and B-cell immunodeficiencies (11.0%), complement deficiencies (2.4%), and diseases of immune dysregulation (2.3%). Common variable immunodeficiency was the most frequent disorder (20.8%), followed by chronic granulomatous disease, ataxia-telangiectasia, btk deficiency, selective IgA deficiency, and T-B-severe combined immunodeficiency. The frequency of other PID disorders was less than 50 in number (<5%). There is an increasing trend in recognition of more PID in the recent years. Construction of such registry is not only important for its epidemiological aspect but also for its role in increasing the physician's knowledge about such disorders.

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Available from: MOHAMMAD Nabavi, Jul 22, 2014
    • "However, molecular approach including Sanger sequencing is highly recommended to define the precise molecular defect in the β2 subunit [13]. LAD1 is one of the common immunodeficiency disorders in Iran due to the high rate of consanguineous marriages [14] [15]. Two previous reports on Iranian patients described clinical features, ITGB2 mutations and prenatal diagnosis of LAD1 [16] [17]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1 (LAD1) is an autosomal recessive disorder clinically characterized by severe, recurrent bacterial infections, impaired pus formation and wound healing. It is caused by mutation in the ITGB2 gene, encoding the β2 integrin subunit of the leukocyte adhesion cell molecule. This study aimed to identify disease causing mutations in 19 consanguineous families diagnosed with LAD1. Blood samples were collected after informed and written consent was obtained. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood of patients and their parents. PCR amplification of the ITGB2 gene was done using specific primers followed by sequencing for mutation detection. A total number of 14 alterations scattered throughout the ITGB2 gene were ascertained in which 10 mutations were previously reported, including c.329-6C>A, c.382G>T, c.715G>A, c.843delC, c.897+1G>A, c.1062A>T, c.1143delC, c.1877+2T>C, c.1907delA and c.2147G>C. Four novel likely pathogenic mutations consisting of c.576dupC (Asn193GlnfsX72), c.706G>A (Gly236Arg), c.897+1G>T and c.1030G>T (Glu344∗), were identified. The majority of these mutations were located in exon six, suggesting this exon as a hotspot region probably. This study emphasis on allelic heterogeneity of the ITGB2 gene in Iranian patients diagnosed with LAD1. Our results suggest that every population should develop a mutation database for rare genetic disorders to take advantage in genetic counseling clinic as well as genetic testing for rapid diagnostic purposes.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Human Immunology
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    • "The majority (60.27%) had an antibody deficiency. This is in keeping with results in Europe [29], Turkey [31], Iran [32] Japan [33] and a center in India [34].Other centers in India report immune dysregulation and B and T cell disorders [30], and immune dysregulation and phagocytic disorders [35] as the commonest PID. However, these centers deal with pediatric patients. "
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    ABSTRACT: While primary immunodeficiencies (PID has been recognized in the west for decades, recognition has been delayed in the third world. This study attempts to detail the spectrum of PID, the therapy provided, and constraints in the diagnosis and treatment in a middle income country such as Sri Lanka. Nine hundred and forty two patients with recurrent infections and features suggestive of immune deficiency, referred from the entire country in a 4 year period, to the sole immunology unit in Sri Lanka were included. The following tests were performed. Full blood counts, serum Immunoglobulin and complement C3 and C4 levels, functional antibody levels, enumeration of lymphocyte subsets, in vitro and in vivo T cell functional assays,, nitroblue tetrazolium assay to diagnose chronic granulomatous disease, hair shaft assay to diagnose Griscelli syndrome. Sequencing of the common gamma chain to identify x linked severe combined immune deficiency, and X linked agammaglobulinemia was confirmed by assaying for Btk mutations by single sequence conformation polymorphism. HIV/AIDS was excluded in all patients. Seventy three patients were diagnosed with a primary immune deficiency. The majority (60.27%) had antibody deficiency. Common variable immune deficiency was the commonest (28.76%), followed by X linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) (20.54%). Five patients had possible hyper IgM syndrome.Ten patients had severe combined immune deficiency (SCID), including 2 with x linked SCID, in addition to DiGeorge syndrome (2), ataxia telangiectasia (6), autosomal dominant hyper IgE syndrome (2), chronic granulomatous disease (4), leucocyte adhesion deficiency type 1 (2) and Griscelli syndrome (3).Patients with autoinflammatory, innate immune and complement defects could not be identified due to lack of facilities. Antibody deficiency is the commonest PID, as in the west .IgA deficiency is rare. Autoinflammatory diseases, innate immune and complement deficiencies could not be identified due to lack of diagnostic facilities. Lack of awareness of PID among adult physicians result in delay in treatment of adult patients. While treatment of antibody deficiencies provided in state hospitals has extended life expectancy, there is no treatment available for severe T cell defects.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · Allergy Asthma and Clinical Immunology
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    • "Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most symptomatic primary immunodeficiency characterized by defective immunoglobulin and specific antibody production by B lymphocytes [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7]. As a result of this failure, recurrent infections particularly with encapsulated bacteria in respiratory tract are often seen in CVID patients [1] [8] [9]. The antibody response is affected at both early and late stages of B cell maturation including up-regulation of CD70 and CD86 in naïve B cells, somatic hypermutation and antibody affinity maturation [1] [10]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is one of the predominant antibody disorders where abnormalities in regulatory T cells (Tregs) may result in autoimmunity and chronic inflammation. To evaluate Tegs frequency and function, 13 CVID patients and 10 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteer were enrolled. The percentages of Tregs were calculated using flow cytomety method. For assessment of Treg function, Tregs were isolated and their suppressive functions were determined using Tregs suppression assay. The levels of immunoregulatory cytokines IL-10 and TGF-β produced by Tregs were also measured. Our results revealed that Tregs frequency (P<0.001) and their suppressive functions (P<0.001) were impaired in CVID patients. The level of TGF-β did not differ between CVID patients and controls (p=0.09); while the amount of IL-10 was remarkably decreased in CVID patients (P=0.007). Our findings suggest that disturbed Tregs frequency and their functional characteristics might account for aberrant immune responses observed in CVID patients.
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