Article

Role of Interleukin-13 in Cancer, Pulmonary Fibrosis, and Other TH2-Type Diseases

University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States
Vitamins & Hormones (Impact Factor: 2.04). 02/2006; 74:479-504. DOI: 10.1016/S0083-6729(06)74019-5
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Interleukin (IL)-13 plays a major role in various inflammatory diseases including cancer, asthma, and allergy. It mediates a variety of different effects on various cell types including B cells, monocytes, natural killer cells, endothelial cells, and fibroblasts. IL-13 binds to two primary receptor chains IL-13Ralpha1 and IL-13Ralpha2. The IL-13Ralpha2 but not IL-13Ralpha1 chain binds IL-13 with high affinity and is overexpressed in a variety of human cancer cells derived from glioma, squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck, and AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma. We have also demonstrated that IL-13Ralpha2 expression is greatly increased in lung cells when mice were challenged intranasally with bleomycin or Aspergillus fumigatus. In addition, IL-13Ralpha2 increased in surgical lung biopsies from patients with usual interstitial pneumonia, nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, and respiratory bronchiolitic interstitial pneumonia of unknown origin. Based on various studies, it is concluded that IL-13Ralpha2-expressing cells are involved in various pulmonary pathological conditions. In contrast, normal tissues such as brain, lung, endothelial cells, and head and neck tissues express IL-13Ralpha1 chain, but show only marginal expression of IL-13Ralpha2 chain. Thus, IL-13Ralpha2 chain may serve as a novel biomarker for diseased cells such as cancer or fibrosis and a target for receptor-directed therapeutic agents. To target IL-13R, a recombinant fusion protein composed of IL-13 and a derivative of Pseudomonas exotoxin (PE) has been produced. This cytotoxin termed as IL-13PE38QQR or IL-13PE38, or IL-13PE is highly and specifically cytotoxic to a variety of human tumor cell lines. In preclinical models of human glioblastoma, head and neck and AIDS-associated Kaposi's cancer, IL-13PE has been found to have significant antitumor activity at a tolerated dose. Several phase I clinical trials have been completed in patients with recurrent malignant glioma. Recently a phase III clinical trial (PRECISE) in patients with recurrent malignant glioma has been completed recruiting a total of 294 patients. IL-13PE cytotoxin has also shown a significant therapeutic effect in preclinical bleomycin or A. fumigatus or Schistosoma mansoni-induced pulmonary pathology including granulomatous fibrosis in mouse models. A clinical study in these diseases has yet to be initiated.

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    • "Thus, the expression patterns of cytokine receptors on cancer cells may alter their response to the tumor microenvironment and influence their tumorigenic and metastatic potential. IL-13 is a T helper 2 (Th2) cell-derived cytokine that plays a pivotal role in inflammation and immune system regulation [9]. It shares structural and biological similarities with IL-4 and is known to function by initially binding to IL13Rα1, followed by recruitment and heterodimerization with IL4Rα to transduce signaling predominantly via the Janus kinase 2-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) pathway101112. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction Basal-like breast cancer (BLBC) is an aggressive subtype often characterized by distant metastasis, poor patient prognosis, and limited treatment options. Therefore, the discovery of alternative targets to restrain its metastatic potential is urgently needed. In this study, we aimed to identify novel genes that drive metastasis of BLBC and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of action. Methods An unbiased approach using gene expression profiling of a BLBC progression model and in silico leveraging of pre-existing tumor transcriptomes were used to uncover metastasis-promoting genes. Lentiviral-mediated knockdown of interleukin-13 receptor alpha 2 (IL13Ralpha2) coupled with whole-body in vivo bioluminescence imaging was performed to assess its role in regulating breast cancer tumor growth and lung metastasis. Gene expression microarray analysis was followed by in vitro validation and cell migration assays to elucidate the downstream molecular pathways involved in this process. Results We found that overexpression of the decoy receptor IL13Ralpha2 is significantly enriched in basal compared with luminal primary breast tumors as well as in a subset of metastatic basal-B breast cancer cells. Importantly, breast cancer patients with high-grade tumors and increased IL13Ralpha2 levels had significantly worse prognosis for metastasis-free survival compared with patients with low expression. Depletion of IL13Ralpha2 in metastatic breast cancer cells modestly delayed primary tumor growth but dramatically suppressed lung metastasis in vivo. Furthermore, IL13Ralpha2 silencing was associated with enhanced IL-13-mediated phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) and impaired migratory ability of metastatic breast cancer cells. Interestingly, genome-wide transcriptional analysis revealed that IL13Ralpha2 knockdown and IL-13 treatment cooperatively upregulated the metastasis suppressor tumor protein 63 (TP63) in a STAT6-dependent manner. These observations are consistent with increased metastasis-free survival of breast cancer patients with high levels of TP63 and STAT6 expression and suggest that the STAT6-TP63 pathway could be involved in impairing metastatic dissemination of breast cancer cells to the lungs. Conclusion Our findings indicate that IL13Ralpha2 could be used as a promising biomarker to predict patient outcome and provide a rationale for assessing the efficacy of anti-IL13Ralpha2 therapies in a subset of highly aggressive basal-like breast tumors as a strategy to prevent metastatic disease.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Breast Cancer Research
    • "Our results indicate that IL13Rα2 is preferentially expressed at high levels in a subset of patient tumors of high virulence in the context of mesenchymal-associated genes. Given the relationship of IL13Rα2 to immune-related pathways indicated by IPA analysis, the involvement of IL13Rα2 expression in Th2 inflammatory diseases [13,47], and the suggested role of inflammation in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and cancer progression [48,49], it is tempting to suggest that IL13Rα2 expression may mark tumor progression [17,38] as a reflection of activation of inflammation-related signaling pathways. This work therefore provides a framework within which future studies can further investigate our hypothesized association of IL13Rα2 expression and immune pathway activation. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A major challenge for successful immunotherapy against glioma is the identification and characterization of validated targets. We have taken a bioinformatics approach towards understanding the biological context of IL-13 receptor α2 (IL13Rα2) expression in brain tumors, and its functional significance for patient survival. Querying multiple gene expression databases, we show that IL13Rα2 expression increases with glioma malignancy grade, and expression for high-grade tumors is bimodal, with approximately 58% of WHO grade IV gliomas over-expressing this receptor. By several measures, IL13Rα2 expression in patient samples and low-passage primary glioma lines most consistently correlates with the expression of signature genes defining mesenchymal subclass tumors and negatively correlates with proneural signature genes as defined by two studies. Positive associations were also noted with proliferative signature genes, whereas no consistent associations were found with either classical or neural signature genes. Probing the potential functional consequences of this mesenchymal association through IPA analysis suggests that IL13Rα2 expression is associated with activation of proinflammatory and immune pathways characteristic of mesenchymal subclass tumors. In addition, survival analyses indicate that IL13Rα2 over-expression is associated with poor patient prognosis, a single gene correlation ranking IL13Rα2 in the top ~1% of total gene expression probes with regard to survival association with WHO IV gliomas. This study better defines the functional consequences of IL13Rα2 expression by demonstrating association with mesenchymal signature gene expression and poor patient prognosis. It thus highlights the utility of IL13Rα2 as a therapeutic target, and helps define patient populations most likely to respond to immunotherapy in present and future clinical trials.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2013 · PLoS ONE
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    • "IL-13 Rα1 is expressed in healthy tissue and binds IL-13 with low affinity by itself, but when paired with IL-4α, it binds IL-13 with high affinity and forms a functional IL-13 receptor that signals and results in activation of JAK/Stat6 pathway (Hershey, 2003;Figure 1). IL-13Rα2, on the other hand, is only marginally expressed in normal tissues, but over-expressed in several abnormal conditions, including in cancer cells and during fibrosis (Jakubzick et al., 2002Jakubzick et al., , 2004 Joshi et al., 2006 ). In contrast to its interaction with the IL-13Rα1, IL- 13 shows higher affinity binding to IL-13Rα2 which has a short cytoplasmic tail and thus is generally considered a decoy receptor in murine system as described above (Chiaramonte et al., 2003; Mentink-Kane et al., 2004; Wynn et al., 2004a). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Liver fibrosis is the final common pathway of chronic liver diseases irrespective of etiology. However, etiology deeply impacts progression and characteristics of liver fibrogenesis. IL-13 is the dominant pro-fibrotic cytokine in Schistosomiasis associated liver fibrogenesis. In vitro, IL-13 directly induces expression of fibrosis-associated genes, e.g., collagens or connective tissue growth factor, in hepatic stellate cells. Recently, potential effects of IL-13 in non-Schistosomiasis associated liver fibrosis have been uncovered. This review summarizes the potential roles of IL-13 in chronic liver disease of different etiologies, and the downstream events mediating IL-13 signaling in liver fibrogenesis.
    Full-text · Article · May 2012 · Frontiers in Immunology
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