Identity and Intimacy Crises and Their Relationship to Internet Dependence among College Students

Center for Teacher Education, Tainan National University of the Arts, 66 Da-Chi Village, Tainan County, Taiwan.
CyberPsychology & Behavior (Impact Factor: 2.71). 11/2006; 9(5):571-6. DOI: 10.1089/cpb.2006.9.571
Source: PubMed


In an attempt to test Kandell's proposition that internet dependents used the internet as a coping mechanism against underlying psychological issues, this study investigated the extent to which the fifth and sixth Eriksonian crises (identity, intimacy), were related to internet dependence (online chatting, gaming) among college students. Students spending more than 10 hours per week on chatting/gaming were classified as dependents. On the basis of a national sample of freshmen in Taiwan, this study found that the dependents scored significantly lower on most of the measures that reflected the successful resolution of the crises, and higher on the measures that reflected unsuccessful resolution of the crises. Kandell's proposition was supported.

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Available from: Ya-Rong Huang, Mar 10, 2015
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    • "IAD has not been officially define yet, but different researchers agree that certain online activities including, gaming, chatting, gambling, and pornography through various websites engaged individuals and create stamina cause to more use of internet [8]. Moreover, Social applications include online chatting and social networking sites (SNSs) such as face book and finally online instant messengers also contributing to engage individuals with internet [54] [55] [56] [57]. Further researches required literature to elaborate IAD in present time as a disorder, as well defines inclusion criteria for psychiatric classification [58]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The current research aims to explain the excessive use of internet as becomes internet addiction and its relation with loneliness. The sample of (N =1020) undergraduates from Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan (BZU) and The Islamia University of Bahawalpur (IUB) were taken, including 255 male and 255 female from each university. A-Priori sample size was calculated to estimate minimum sample size that was 974 to remove biasness; I was taken twenty three respondents additionally from each university. There were two questionnaires used for measuring variables that were Chen Internet Addiction Scale, and UCLA Loneliness Scale was employed. Cross-sectional survey research design was used. Data was collected through purposive sampling technique and it analyzed by using SPSS version 21.0. Statistical techniques Regression, t-test, mean, and standard deviation were used. The results confirm from the collected data, 28% students have internet addicts, and 13.5% have high level of loneliness. Comparatively BZU students have more prevalence of internet addiction and high level of loneliness as compared to IUB. Likewise male students have more occurrences of these psychological problem as compared to female students overall. Study provides the potential negative impact and effect of internet addiction, developed a consensus definition, sign and symptoms of IA, and explored the physical, psychological and sociological outcomes of IA. INTRODUCTION The Internet is one of the most widely accessible media in the world [1]. Internets users grow adversely whole of the world [2]. The highly internet users are younger and they label or called as net generation [3,4]. The risk of adolescent " s health increased day by day due to emerging phenomenon of problematic internet use, it is less theoretical frame work and need more study to explore it [5]. The rise of the Internet has been accompanied by worries regarding its impact on the health and well-being of children and adolescents. Pakistani youth have been accepted as one of the rising nation of internet users. Users of social networking site Facebook in Pakistan have crossed the nine million mark, making Pakistan the 27th most popular country on Facebook. Around 44,000 new Pakistani users join Facebook every week [6]. There are fewer researches in Pakistan particularly only shocking consequences of internet addiction that " s way the present research conduct to investigate the appalling outcomes of Internet addiction and its relation Loneliness [7-10]. Internet Addiction The internet has emerged to become a daily part and important factor of our lives. Majority of individuals avail vast opportunity to contact with global world, as well as engaged diverse activities including receive any kind of information, educational principles as completing school-work, entertainment as playing online games, reading and writing emails and engaging in real time chatting, business enhancement, and improving standard or quality of life [11-12]. Glasser [13] described addiction positively and explains as addiction an activity had to integrate following features non-challenging and non-competitive with other daily activities, it relatively easy to complete, it could be done single individual without companion, it had completely engaged to the individual, during usage some enhancement would result, and finally it involved without criticism and not occurrence of self-disapproval. Although it is simple criteria could apply to the use of the internet, but the important questioned arises that if positive addictions are actual addictions, it really fulfill many of the signs/ components of standard addictions such as tolerance and withdrawal [14]. Similarly becoming " " addicted " " to the internet, some researchers have further described a correlation between the amount of time that spent individuals during online mostly reported negative consequences [15]. According to Griffiths [16] there are two types of addict individuals, first those who used technology to gain pleasure, and spent easy, enjoyable life. Second those who are using the technology to escape difficulties or divert their attentions from difficult and responsible life toward easy and comfortable life. According
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    • "In a study on students, Huang stated that different levels of internet addiction are associated with the identity and intimacy crisis mentioned in Erikson's theory of psychosocial development.[4] "
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    ABSTRACT: Backgrounds: The present study was carried out in order to compare national and personal identity and their subscales in internet addicts and nonaddicts. Materials and Methods: This study was a descriptive-analytical research, and was carried out on 384 student internet users in different universities in the city of Isfahan who were selected using quota sampling. Subjects completed the questionnaires, then, subscales of personal and national identity questionnaires in internet addict and nonaddict were analyzed via SPSS16 software. Results: Results indicated a significant difference between the scores of national identity and personal identity as well as all subscales in internet addicts and nonaddicts, except for national heritage and homeland defence factors. In addition, there was a negative and significant relationship between addiction to internet and personal and national identity, except for the fourth and fifth factors of national identity (viewpoints of others considering the national group and homeland defence). Moreover, after controlling for the sex variable, internet addiction had an effect on personal and national identity. Conclusion: The findings of this research indicate that an excess of internet use and overinvolvement in cyberspace and the addiction to them, could be associated with defects in some aspects of national and personal identity.
    No preview · Article · May 2014 · International Journal of Health Promotion and Education
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    • "Este término fue utilizado por primera vez en 1996 en la Reunión Anual de la Asociación Psicológica Americana (Young, 1998b), iniciando una polémica entre académicos que se ha extendido hasta la actualidad (Tonioni, 2011; van den Eijnden, Spijkerman, Vermulst, van Rooij & Engels, 2009; Viñas, 2009). No obstante, destacan por su continuidad y creciente número de estudios países como Estados Unidos (Fortson, Scotti, Chen, Malone & Del Ben, 2007; Morahan-Martin & Schumacher, 2000; Moreno et ál., 2011; Young, 1998b) y China (Cao, Sun, Wan, Hao & Tao, 2003; Huang, 2006; Yen, Ko, Yen, Chang & Cheng, 2009). Algunos autores prefieren denominar la adicción a Internet como uso patológico de Internet –Pathological Internet Use (PIU)– (Davis, 2001; Morahan-Martin & Schumacher, 2000), uso compulsivo de Internet (Greenfield, 1999) y dependencia a Internet (Davis, Flett & Besser, 2002). "
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    ABSTRACT: Internet is a tool that facilitates the development of academic and social activities, business and entertainment. However, particular bevavior may arise in relation with its overuse. This research aims to identify socio-demographic characteristics and type of Internet use in a sample of Colombian university students and relate it to the possible use problematic. The sample consisted of 595 students from the University of Ibagué of 16-34 years of age who completed all three sections of the questionnaire: (1) socio-demographic data, (2) Internet usage information and (3) an adapted version of the Internet Addiction Test -IAT- (Young, 1998a). The results showed two groups, one with controlled use of the internet (88%) and one with problematic use (12%), only one case showed addictive use. Problematic Internet use was related to the number of hours spent on social networks, chat, sites with adult content and movies. The use of these Internet applications generated interference in daily activities.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · Avances en Psicologia Latinoamericana
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