Next-Generation Optical Technologies for Illuminating Genetically Targeted Brain Circuits

Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States
The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience (Impact Factor: 6.34). 11/2006; 26(41):10380-6. DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3863-06.2006
Source: PubMed


Emerging technologies from optics, genetics, and bioengineering are being combined for studies of intact neural circuits. The rapid progression of such interdisciplinary "optogenetic" approaches has expanded capabilities for optical imaging and genetic targeting of specific cell types. Here we explore key recent advances that unite optical and genetic approaches, focusing on promising techniques that either allow novel studies of neural dynamics and behavior or provide fresh perspectives on classic model systems.

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    • "However, optogenetics turned out to have a far wider potential. The method allows to control certain events (with time resolutions on the order of milliseconds, which corresponds to the durations of biological processes) in certain types of cells [2] [3] [4] [5]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The article is devoted to problems of realization and application of optogenetic methods used to identify reasons of various diseases, to monitor the biochemical processes of cell activity and to study various organisms. The problems of delivery, embedding and monitoring the expression of opsin genes into the cell genome of interest have been considered. In the article, the parameters and properties of various opsins and also the main ways of achievement of precise optical control over cell using opsins were presented. The rules for choosing the parameters of a light beam and the features of its putting were pointed out. The characteristic properties of the different measurement technique and recording the experimental quantities were analyzed and given.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015
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    • "To enable temporally precise control of specific cell types within behaving animals, fast ''optogenetic'' (Deisseroth et al., 2006) technologies have been developed involving singlecomponent light-responsive proteins that transduce brief pulses of light into well-defined action potential trains and effector functions in vivo (Boyden et al., 2005; Zhang et al., 2007a, 2007b). Through the use of optogenetics, precisely timed gainof-function or loss-of-function of specified events can be achieved in targeted cells of freely moving mammals and other animals (Adamantidis et al., 2007). "
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    DESCRIPTION: Molecular and Cellular Approaches for Diversifying and Extending Optogenetics (Viviana Gradinaru,Feng Zhang) university of california , los anjeles and caltech
    Full-text · Research · Aug 2015
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    • " presumably because these channels require PI ( 4 , 5 ) P 2 to remain open , and PI3K activity lowers PI ( 4 , 5 ) P 2 levels . Light can thus be used to modulate the activity of specific channels native to animals , as opposed to light - gated microbial opsin ion channels or pumps , the concept that originally gave rise to the term optogenetics ( Deisseroth et al . , 2006 ) . A potential advantage of modulating native - type channels is preservation of the channel responses to endogenous neuronal activity and localization to specific subcellular compartments . This could represent an alternative approach to lumitoxins to modulate the activity of specific channels that are native to animals ."
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    ABSTRACT: In the nervous system, protein activities are highly regulated in space and time. This regulation allows for fine modulation of neuronal structure and function during development and adaptive responses. For example, neurite extension and synaptogenesis both involve localized and transient activation of cytoskeletal and signaling proteins, allowing changes in microarchitecture to occur rapidly and in a localized manner. To investigate the role of specific protein regulation events in these processes, methods to optically control the activity of specific proteins have been developed. In this review, we focus on how photosensory domains enable optical control over protein activity and have been used in neuroscience applications. These tools have demonstrated versatility in controlling various proteins and thereby cellular functions, and possess enormous potential for future applications in nervous systems. Just as optogenetic control of neuronal firing using opsins has changed how we investigate the function of cellular circuits in vivo, optical control may yet yield another revolution in how we study the circuitry of intracellular signaling in the brain.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
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