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History of Mirrors Dating Back 8000 Years

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Abstract

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to consider the ancient history and early development of mirrors, because mirrors played a key role in refraction and magnification for an extended period of time before the invention of spectacles, including broad use in Roman times. Findings: The earliest known manufactured mirrors (approximately 8000 years old) have been found in Anatolia (south central modern-day Turkey). These were made from obsidian (volcanic glass), had a convex surface and remarkably good optical quality. Mirrors from more recent periods have been found both in Egypt and Mesopotamia and still later in China and in the New World. In each of these areas, mirrors were in use by approximately 2000 BC or 4000 years ago.

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... Historically, the first mirrors, which have been dated to around 6000 BC and found in Anatolia, Turkey, were made from well-polished stones such as obsidian stones. Originally, humans were inspired by nature to produce mirrors, since humans noticed the reflections of objects on the surface of water [29]. Since that time, mirror systems have been developed and studied to be used for different purposes and technologies as each human generation has needed, such as for making fire, for sighting aids, televisions, and solar power. ...
... Return the best population, X and the best result (Xbest) [28]. EndWhile [29]. End , (EQ7) -Finally, the particle is evaluated to find the best value As with many meta-heuristic algorithms, PSO suffers from a low convergence rate as well as a weakness of a lack of dynamic velocity adjustment. ...
... Break; //Stop the for loop [29]. ...
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Meta-heuristic algorithms have shown promising performance in solving sophisticated real-world optimisation problems. Nevertheless, many meta-heuristic algorithms are still suffering from a low convergence rate because of the poor balance between exploration (i.e., roaming new potential search areas) and exploitation (i.e., exploiting the existing neighbours). In some complex problems, the convergence rate can still be poor owing to becoming trapped in local optima. Addressing these issues, this research proposes a new general opposition-based learning (OBL) technique inspired by a natural phenomenon of parallel mirrors systems called the Parallel Mirrors Technique (PMT). Like existing OBL-based approaches, the PMT generates new potential solutions based on the currently selected candidate. Unlike existing OBL-based techniques, the PMT generates more than one candidate in multiple solution-space directions. To evaluate the PMT’s performance and adaptability, the PMT has been applied to four contemporary meta-heuristic algorithms, Differential Evolution (DE), Particle Swarm Optimisation (PSO), Simulated Annealing (SA), and Whale Optimisation Algorithm (WOA), to solve 15 well-known benchmark functions. Experimentally, the PMT shows promising results by accelerating the convergence rate against the original algorithms with the same number of fitness evaluations.
... year of life (for Joseph's exact dates in context see Fig. 1), 12 leaving Joseph 110 - (38 -1) = 73 years in Egypt, after which "there arose up a new king over Egypt who knew not Joseph. " 13 But according to the long sojourn 430 years in Egypt advocates, the 400 years persecution began 30 years after the commencement of the 430 years in Egypt: 14 In Genesis 15:13 God told Abram that his descendants would be slaves in a foreign land for 400 years. … Short Answer: The Israelites were enslaved in Egypt for 400 years. ...
... 35:2,4), Jethro, Moses' father-in-law seems to have become a convinced monotheist only after the Exodus (Ex. 18:11), and God tolerated Naaman the Syrian's service to his pagan king (2)(3)(4)(5)(6)(7)(8)(9)(10)(11)(12)(13)(14)(15)(16)(17)(18)(19). No, the issue which dispossessed the Canaanites the was corrupt character at its most fundamental level taken to its limit, taking into consideration all circumstances of every individual, which only God can decide, as illustrated by the 2 Kings 5:1-27 story of Naaman the Syrian royal advisor approved by God in a time of general Divine disapproval of His elected Messianic line stemming from Abraham. ...
... These estimates place the eruption in the second half of the 17th century BCE (9,13). The reliability of this radiocarbon-based date range has been debated (4,5,14) because it places the event earlier in time than certain archaeological synchronizations between sites in the Aegean, Egypt, and Levant would suggest possible. This 365 days estimate was an obvious rough "rule of thumb" used by the SSC Heliopolitan priestastronomers, besides their obvious ability to predict the exact day of the summer solstice, to start watching a day early so as to not miss the next SSC Sothic NYD's cosmical rising of Sirius visual synchronism as historically confirmed in subsec. ...
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Bible chronology is challenged by a divisive error in all modern Bible translations mistiming the Hebrew sojourn of Exodus 12:40 in Egypt as 430 years, suffering a misconstrued 400 of these in Egyptian slavery, herein exposed as founded on failure of translators to regard the context of Ex. 12:40 conditioning the Hebrew meaning of its “sojourn.” The King James version almost alone preserves the correct meaning of Ex. 12:40 fundamental to Moses' religion by chronologically exposing Abraham and not Jacob as Ex. 12:40's chief post-flood covenant propagator and sojourner. Fig. 1's 430 spring-to-spring (ss) years sojourn of Ex. 12:40, whereby Jacob left Canaan for Egypt in its ss year 215, is proven by its Masoretic Text, wherein the liberty of all 73 of Joseph's Egyptian years counted from the year of Jacob's welcomed entry into Egypt to Joseph's untroubled death refutes the dominant theory of 430 years in Egypt divided into 30 years of Hebrew liberty (disqualifyingly including these 73 years of Joseph), and 400 years of Hebrew slavery misreading Genesis 15:13. Sec. 2.2.3 reveals the Fig. 1 Pharaoh Ahmose (who began the Gen. 15:13 Hebrew affliction), rising to power c. 11 years after Joseph died confirming Ex. 1:6-8, disqualifying this 400 years of Egyptian slavery theory, and confirming the Gen. 15:13 400 years of “servitude and/or humiliation (מצחק)” as having begun at Abraham's Gen. 21:8 105th year feast in honor of Isaac's weaning at age 5, mocked by jealous Ishmael. Gen. 15:16 specifies the fourth generation of Abraham's sojourners in Egypt (namely “that nation [Egypt], whom they [Abraham's seed] shall serve” (of Gen. 15:14) entered Canaan, whose first generation entered Egypt as Jacob's Gen. 46:27 household of 70 (including Joseph's family of 4). This produced two candidate 4th generations entering Canaan after the Exodus: either Levi-Kohath-Amram-Moses (disqualified because Moses did not enter Canaan), or Kohath-Amram-Aaron-Eleazar, the winners: Levi and Kohath entered Egypt with Jacob, and Eleazar became Israel's first high priest. Neither the Hebrew, the Greek (LXX), nor the Samaritan Old Testaments explicitly divide the 430 years mentioned in Ex. 12:40-41 into 215-year “halves” anywhere. This division, as shown in Fig. 1, is based only on starting the Ex. 12:40-41 “sojourn” in Abraham's 75th year instead of at Jacob's entry into Egypt at age 131 as based on Appx. A's Gen. 5-11's patriarchal chronogenealogies. This was preserved in Jewish tradition by Josephus as quoted and explained in Sec. 3.3. Until my 2005 repair (Appx. C, chart 11/19) of E. R. Thiele's flawed chronology as matured by May, 2015, despite pretentions to the contrary, there was no absolute Hebrew kings chronology on which its preceding MT chronology unbroken back to the Creation (Appx. A, C, and Fig. 1), was possible. Chronology confirms the MT as the original Hebrew Bible (already archeologically authenticated indistinguishable from its 2nd century BC Dead Sea Scrolls antecedents), back to the start of Joseph's 1661 BC 37th fall-to-fall (ff) year heading its 28 extrabiblical astronomically-based, MT-clarifying synchronisms. Thus the humbling trial of covenant faith of 430 years without a country from Abraham's 75th-year departure from Haran until the Exodus of Fig. 1, and not from Jacob's entry into Egypt, defined the covenant-driven “sojourn” of Exodus 12:40. Abraham's son Isaac and grandson Jacob inherited Abraham's covenant of ownership by faith (without moral right of immediate possession) of “the promised land” along with the promise “in thee shall all the families of the earth be blessed” for Abraham's sake, and due to Abraham's faithfulness as enforced by his covenant alone. And until Canaanite forfeiture of their land first shown to Abraham and later promised to him and his chosen “seed” after him, Abraham and his “seed” inheriting his covenant would remain countryless sojourners according to his covenant which was their deed to Canaan. This successively inherited deed (not its land) remained Abraham's despite its inheritance by and confirmation to Isaac and Jacob, each of whose older brothers, Ishmael and Esau, regarded Abraham's covenant inheritance as their's by birthright. Like for Isaac and Jacob starting the 215thcheck - rewrite year of biblically recorded chronology from Abraham's 75th year, at Jacob's entry into Egypt (cf. Fig. 1), the “sojourning” of “the children of Israel” of Exodus 12:40 extended by another 216 years the landless sojourn covenanted by God in Abraham's 75th year to “get thee out of thy country,” in pursuit of the homeland morally owned by the Amorites until their “iniquity is full” (Gen. 15:16), whose moment arrived at the Exodus, completing the 430 years of the Israelites' covenanted landless “sojourn” status, and commencing preparation for the possession of Canaan which included the construction of their Tabernacle. Thus, the inherited covenant of Abraham, Israel's deed to Canaan, determined that the 430 years “sojourn” of Ex. 12:40 of the children of Israel commenced in Abraham's 75th year, and not at the descent of Jacob into Egypt in his 131st year. Thus the inheritors of Abraham's covenanted prize of Canaan had to extend Abraham's covenanted sojourn, as running Abraham's relay race passing the baton of Abraham's covenant, to win it. Finally, Abraham's covenant promise of Gen. 15:13-16 including 400 years of affliction of his seed “in a land that is not theirs,” was God's answer to Abraham's v. 8 request for a personal sign “whereby shall I know that I shall inherit (Canaan),” like Gideon's fleece (Judges 6:36-40). These 400 years could not have begun after Abraham's lifetime, since their start was shown to Abraham as his grievous sign (Gen. 21:8-13), for him to experience in his 105th year at Ishmael's mocking of God's Messianic “seed of promise”, Isaac. Ishmael's jealousy over his disinheritance as Abraham's firstborn, led to his expulsion from Abraham's family. Yet he was to become a great nation. The biblical highlight of the Exodus from Egypt was discovered securely dated astronomically, and archeologically, after being located in my biblical chronology of Fig. 1. The date and details of the Exodus emerged from my correction of Edwin R. Thiele's chronology of the Hebrew kings exposing a hidden treasure of historical and chronological detail concealed by the three years too early offset of Thiele's dominant chronology preceding Jotham's fall-to-fall 733/732 BC death in his 16th year. From this development emerged the historical witness of the three biblically mentioned Pharaohs performing key roles in the herein proven 216 years sojourn in Egypt climaxing in its Exodus account: Ahmose I (Exodus 1:8), Thutmose III (Exodus 2:15), and Amenhotep II (Exodus 3-15). The entire 430 years long saga of the Exodus is proven to have begun in Abraham's Gen. 12:1-4 75th year, and climaxed in the Exodus drama starting shortly after midnight on Saturday, Julian 21 April 1443 BC, which ended its 7 days flight from Pharaoh in the safety of the far shore of the Red sea (Aqaba), whose Fig. 5 chronology uniquely exposes the rationale of the Exodus story appearing in the 4th commandment of the Deuteronomy 5:6,12-15 Decalogue.
... A flat metallic mirror is a simple outstanding optical device being used since ancient times [1], which is capable of changing sharply the direction of light rays or returning them back at the normal incidence over an extensive spectral bandwidth. A metallic flat mirror reflects the incident light in the specular direction with an only small decrease in its intensity. ...
... from region z > 0 on a periodic structure placed in free space within the layer −h < z < 0 parallel to the xy plane (see Fig. 1, and Fig. 2). Here e (1) is an unit polarization vector and k i is a wave vector. It is convenient to represent the wave vector as the sum of the components transverse (k ⊥ = e x k sin θ i cos φ i + e y k sin θ i sin φ i ) and parallel (γ = (k 2 − k 2 ⊥ ) 1/2 ) to the axis z, where φ i and θ i are the azimuth and the polar angle of the incidence direction (the angle of incidence is π − θ i ), k = ω/c = 2π/λ, vectors e x , e y and e z are unit basis vectors along the axes x, y and z. ...
... on studied metasurface presents the reversed scenario. The wave (6) is plane wave propagates along the direction −k r sl from the region z > 0 (see Fig. 2: Wave 2) and it is backward for reflected d (1) sl exp(−ik r sl r) wave in the direct scenario. The incident wave E (2i) creates its own diffraction pattern E (2) , that contains the reflected partial wave propagating in the exactly opposite direction to E (1i) wave. ...
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An uncommon double-ray scenario of light resonant scattering by a periodic metasurface is proposed to provide strong non-specular reflection. The metasurface is constracted as an array of silicon nanodisks placed on thin silica-on-metal substrate. A low-lossy non-specular resonant reflection for any direction and any polarization of incident wave is revealed by a numerical simulation of light scattering. The conditions for the implementation of an autocollimation scheme of scattering and the observation of non-specular reflected ray that does not lie in the incidence plane are worked out. It is shown that the change of dielectric substrate thickness may be applied to set the width of frequency band of non-specular reflection. The light intensity related to the specular and non-specular reflected ray can be controlled by changing the angle of incidence or by the polarization of incident wave.
... The exact origin of the mirror is unknown. Enoch (2006) suggested early mirrors were probably rock containers filled with water, and that the first mirrors were found in a grave in Anatolia (Asia Minor), dating approximately to 6200-6000 b.C. These mirrors were manufactured out of volcanic glass and soil, and had a diameter of approximately 9cm. ...
... It is suspected that the later mirrors were of Egyptian origin, approximately 4000-3000 b.C. and had a convex shape, that reflected a vertical image. These societies used the mirror as a religious symbol, used it as a time-keeping device, believed it had magical properties and that is symbolized the inner self (Enoch, 2006). ...
Article
Purpose/aims: This study explored the feasibility of educating nurses on an emotionally sensitive topic using video. The aim was to educate nurses on how to assist individuals who have had an amputation of a limb in viewing themselves in the mirror. Design: One-group repeated-measures design with 2 time points (pretest and posttest at 1 month). Methods: Nurses viewed a video in which 8 amputee actors described how and why nurses should support individuals' viewing of self in the mirror following amputation. Results: This video-based education was feasible, and recommendations were made for future research. Participants were engaged and shared insight into how this knowledge would change their nursing practice. Conclusions: A larger educational research study to test the effect of this education on improving nursing confidence and offering the mirror is recommended.
... The exact origin of the mirror is unknown. Enoch (2006) suggested early mirrors were probably rock containers filled with water, and that the first mirrors were found in a grave in Anatolia (Asia Minor), dating approximately to 6200-6000 b.C. These mirrors were manufactured out of volcanic glass and soil, and had a diameter of approximately 9cm. ...
... It is suspected that the later mirrors were of Egyptian origin, approximately 4000-3000 b.C. and had a convex shape, that reflected a vertical image. These societies used the mirror as a religious symbol, used it as a time-keeping device, believed it had magical properties and that is symbolized the inner self (Enoch, 2006). ...
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Aim: In this literature review we aim to understand the importance of the mirror in the daily life of the individual and understand if the mirror can be used as a strategy, assessment and/or intervention in individuals presenting with facial disfigurement caused by trauma or disease. Method: Resorting to the Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection and PsyARTICLES databases, articles that focus on the mirror as therapy were selected. Results: The review suggested that the mirror has been used as a therapeutic strategy, in various contexts (phantom limb pain, substance abuse, hemiplegia, facial paralysis, rehabilitation, dexterity, stroke, body dissatisfaction) with promising results. Recently, a mirror technique has been researched and developed in women who underwent mastectomy, exploring the experience of viewing self in the mirror after surgery (disfigurement). Conclusion: Using the mirror in clinical context is an idiosyncratic and delicate process. The mirror therapy in disfigurement has, recently, focused in the assessment and intervention in women who underwent mastectomy, thus justifying the need to explore this therapy in individuals with facial disfigurement.
... The first mirrors available to humans and nonhuman species were most likely naturally occurring reflective surfaces (see Figure 33.1), such as still pools of water and natural depressions in rocks that could collect water (Enoch, 2006). The earliest artifacts of manufactured mirrors date back to 6200 BCE and were found in graves in Anatolia, in the region of the Neolithic settlement of Çatal Hüyük, in what is now south central Turkey (Enoch, 2006). ...
... such as still pools of water and natural depressions in rocks that could collect water (Enoch, 2006). The earliest artifacts of manufactured mirrors date back to 6200 BCE and were found in graves in Anatolia, in the region of the Neolithic settlement of Çatal Hüyük, in what is now south central Turkey (Enoch, 2006). They were made from ground and polished obsidian, a highly reflective black volcanic glass. ...
... The obsidian mirror in Figure 1.2(a), which was excavated from graves in Reprinted from Enoch. [8] (b) Photograph of a conventional DBR taken by the author. ...
... Anatolia, is believed to be made at around 6000 BC, and they were created by grinding and polishing the surface. [8] Although not as reflective compared to modern metal mirrors, obsidian can be polished to become extremely smooth, [9] making an ideal surface for specular reflection to take place. ...
... All the inclusions have non-zero magnetoelectric polarizability α me due to the fact that they incorporate electrically polarizable straight wires connected to magnetically polarizable wire loops. The required polarizabilities α e , α m , and α me of the inclusions were found based on equations(1). In order to determine the shape and dimensions of practically realizable inclusions with the required polarizabilities, we utilize an approach based on scattering cross sections28 . ...
... The frequency stability of the metamirror performance is shown inSupplementary Fig. S2. It should be stressed that the proposed metamirror based on the wire inclusions is only a conceptual prototype and can be improved by using inclusions of other types29,30 with the properties dictated by equations(1). The function-ality of the metamirror for incident waves from the −z-direction is presented inSupplementary Fig. S3.Focusing at sub-wavelength distances. ...
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Conventional mirrors obey Snell's reflection law: a plane wave is reflected as a plane wave, at the same angle. To engineer spatial distributions of fields reflected from a mirror, one can either shape the reflector (for example, creating a parabolic reflector) or position some phase-correcting elements on top of a mirror surface (for example, designing a reflectarray antenna). Here we show, both theoretically and experimentally, that full-power reflection with general control over reflected wave phase is possible with a single-layer array of deeply sub-wavelength inclusions. These proposed artificial surfaces, metamirrors, provide various functions of shaped or nonuniform reflectors without utilizing any mirror. This can be achieved only if the forward and backward scattering of the inclusions in the array can be engineered independently, and we prove that it is possible using electrically and magnetically polarizable inclusions. The proposed sub-wavelength inclusions possess desired reflecting properties at the operational frequency band, while at other frequencies the array is practically transparent. The metamirror concept leads to a variety of applications over the entire electromagnetic spectrum, such as optically transparent focusing antennas for satellites, multi-frequency reflector antennas for radio astronomy, low-profile conformal antennas for telecommunications, and nano-reflectarray antennas for integrated optics.
... As the chapter in this volume indicate, reflective optical elements are a proof of a sophisticated culture in action. Such objects are mentioned as being employed in several ancient cultures (Andersons 2007;Enoch 2006). The Egyptians used reflective optical elements to illuminate the inside of tombs, or to give the impression of mystery and supernatural power (Enoch 1999). ...
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Complex and time-consuming to produce, pyrite mirrors stand out among Prehispanic artifacts for their aesthetic beauty, their symbolic implications, and the complexity and skill of their assembly. Manufactured Light presents the latest archaeological research on these items, focusing on the intersection of their significance and use and on the technological aspects of the manufacturing processes that created them. The volume covers the production, meaning, and utilization of pyrite mirrors in various Mesoamerican communities. Chapters focus on topics such as experimental archaeology projects and discussions of workshops in archaeological contexts in the Maya, Central Mexico, and northwest Mexico regions. Other chapters concentrate on the employment and ideological associations of these mirrors in Prehispanic times, especially as both sacred and luxury items. The final chapters address continuities in the use of mirrors from Prehispanic to modern times, especially in contemporary indigenous communities, with an emphasis on examining the relationship between ethnographic realities and archaeological interpretations. While the symbolism of these artifacts and the intricacy of their construction have long been recognized in archaeological discussions, Manufactured Light is the first synthesis of this important yet under-studied class of material culture. It is a must-read for students and scholars of Mesoamerican archaeology, ethnography, religion, replicative experimentation, and lithic technology.
... Apart from discussable polished stone mirror from Anatolia [3], no other Stone Age mirrors are known. It could be assumed that during this period a water surface was used as a mirror. ...
Conference Paper
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The tradition to stop the clocks, draw the curtains and cover all mirrors in the house right after the death of one of the inhabitants was still widely spread in the last century. It actually appeared only in the end of 18th century and the beginning of 19th century. This tradition mostly is associated with the Victorian time traditions and the raise of mysticism after the periods of great plague. The mirrors were used also by grave-diggers to ascertain the death of the deceased and make sure there are no signs of life left. The short-lasting tradition of putting the cullet of mirror into the grave appeared in Europe along with the belief that broken mirror can cause misfortune or even death. In the same time, mirrors were used in numerous cults of the dead and their meaning was quite different. Most of them are related to reflections, transparency and deformed images, as well as various interpretations of the visage. There are several general regularities traceable in prehistoric and the following historic times. Most of them reflect the initial provenance and fragmentary heritability of many modern beliefs and customs that were simplified only during last centuries and in general pertained to mirrors and reflections in them.
... Conventional mirrors, known since the dawn of civilization [1], obey the simple law of reflection: the reflection angle is equal to the incidence angle. This follows from the fact that the total tangential electric field at the ideal mirror surface is zero; thus, the phase of the electric field in the reflected wave is the opposite to that in the incident wave. ...
Article
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Conventional mirrors obey the simple reflection law that a plane wave is reflected as a plane wave, at the same angle. To engineer spatial distributions of fields reflected from a mirror, one can either shape the reflector or position some phase-correcting elements on top of a mirror surface. Here we show, both theoretically and experimentally, that full-power reflection with general control over the reflected wave phase is possible with a single-layer array of deeply subwavelength inclusions. These proposed artificial surfaces, metamirrors, provide various functions of shaped or nonuniform reflectors without utilizing any mirror. This can be achieved only if the forward and backward scattering of the inclusions in the array can be engineered independently, and we prove that it is possible using electrically and magnetically polarizable inclusions. The proposed subwavelength inclusions possess desired reflecting properties at the operational frequency band, while at other frequencies the array is practically transparent. The metamirror concept leads to a variety of applications over the entire electromagnetic spectrum, such as optically transparent focusing antennas for satellites, multifrequency reflector antennas for radio astronomy, low-profile conformal antennas for telecommunications, and nanoreflectarray antennas for integrated optics. PRL Editors' Suggestion Featured in Physics (http://physics.aps.org/articles/v8/20)
... An emerging intelligent house device with potentially wide- ranging applications for healthcare outside of traditional medical settings is the smart mirror. These mirrors augment the reflecting surface that underlies this 8000-year-old technology 2 with electronic hardware and computer software to provide passive monitoring, reminders, entertainment, information, and many other possibilities. 3 While applications of smart mirrors have appeared in the automotive 4,5 and clothing industries, 6 real-world examples of this technology in healthcare remains limited. ...
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Abstract Inexpensive embedded computing and the related Internet of Things technologies enable the recent development of smart products that can respond to human needs and improve everyday tasks in an attempt to make traditional environments more “intelligent”. Several projects have augmented mirrors for a range of smarter applications in automobiles and homes. The opportunity to apply smart mirror technology to healthcare to predict and to monitor aspects of health and disease is a natural but mostly underdeveloped idea. We envision that smart mirrors comprising a combination of intelligent hardware and software could identify subtle, yet clinically relevant changes in physique and appearance. Similarly, a smart mirror could record and evaluate body position and motion to identify posture and movement issues, as well as offer feedback for corrective actions. Successful development and implementation of smart mirrors for healthcare applications will require overcoming new challenges in engineering, machine learning, computer vision, and biomedical research. This paper examines the potential uses of smart mirrors in healthcare and explores how this technology might benefit users in various medical environments. We also provide a brief description of the state-of-the-art, including a functional prototype concept developed by our group, and highlight the directions to make this device more mainstream in health-related applications.
... Perhaps the most universally striking optical feature of metals, when polished to a smooth surface, is their high reflectivity. Early human civilizations around the world have utilized mirrors of polished copper as early as 4000 B.C. [35], so the ability of metals to reflect light has been well known through a majority of human civilization. Despite this, our current theoretical framework for understanding the properties of metals only begins around the 20th century with P. Drude's proposal of a kinetic model for the free charge carriers in metals in 1900 [36,37]. ...
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Metallic nanostructures can support so-called plasma oscillations (plasmons). Plasmons allow for the concentration of the energy from light, down to sizes well below the conventional diffraction limit known from optics. Plasmonics thus allows for a plethora of new optical applications at the nanoscale. In this thesis, we have investigated the optical and plasmonic properties of semi-continuous gold films (also called percolation films). These films consist of complex tortuous fractal patterns on the nanoscale. They are an easy, fast, and scalable method to fabricate metallic nanostructures. We show, that despite their very complex overall geometry, a large part of the films' properties can be understood alone based on their strongly localized plasmonic 'hotspots' - areas of just a few nanometres in the films, wherein optical fields are enhanced several thousand times. Additionally, we show that such films can be used for the enhancement of gold two-photon photoluminescence and white light continuum generation. We have also shown that it is possible, via femtosecond-laser pulses, to inscribe information into the films, via phototheral processes. This has potential applications for ultra-dense information storage, and plasmonic colour laser printing.
... Reflection of light has made metal mirrors valued optical instruments since the bronze age 9 . At the macroscopic level the coherent optical response of a metallic surface is well described by the classical Maxwell's equations. ...
Article
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Excitons, electron-hole pairs bound by the Coulomb potential, are fundamental quasiparticles of coherent light-matter interaction energizing processes from photosynthesis to optoelectronics. Excitons are observed in semiconductors, and their existence is implicit in the quantum theory of metals, yet their appearance is tenuous due to the screening of the Coulomb interaction on few femtosecond timescale. Here we present direct evidence for the dominant transient excitonic response at a Ag(111) surface, which precedes the full screening of the Coulomb interaction, in the course of a three-photon photoemission process with <15 femtosecond laser pulses. Electron-hole pair interaction through the excitonic response introduces coherent quasiparticle correlations beyond the single-particle description of the optics of metals, which dominate the multi-photon photoemission process.
... Mirrors are commonly used in daily life, and they can date back to more than 8000 years ago [16]. Although mirrors are common, the peculiar properties and functions of metamaterial mirrors deserve researchers' attention. ...
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Metamaterials are “new materials” with different superior physical properties, which have generated great interest and become popular in scientific research. Various designs and functional devices using metamaterials have formed a new academic world. The application concept of metamaterial is based on designing diverse physical structures that can break through the limitations of traditional optical materials and composites to achieve extraordinary material functions. Therefore, metadevices have been widely studied by the academic community recently. Using the properties of metamaterials, many functional metadevices have been well investigated and further optimized. In this article, different metamaterial structures with varying functions are reviewed, and their working mechanisms and applications are summarized, which are near-field energy transfer devices, metamaterial mirrors, metamaterial biosensors, and quantum-cascade detectors. The development of metamaterials indicates that new materials will become an important breakthrough point and building blocks for new research domains, and therefore they will trigger more practical and wide applications in the future.
... These can be applied by third parties, but are more often self-applied with the use of a mirror or reflecting surface, such as still water. The earliest known obsidian (volcanic glass) mirrors were located in Turkey and date to 8,000 years ago (Enoch 2006). Polished copper mirrors were in use in Egypt from at least 5,000 years ago. ...
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In this chapter I discuss the history and beautifying function of cosmetics, along with the sexual politics that such practices implicate and express. Though tattooing, scarifying, and body painting are other common ways of marking the body and can also serve a beautifying function, I do not consider them. Here I will focus mainly on ways of decorating the face and head. Such practices are widespread and ancient. *** I begin with an overview of the importance of cosmetics in different cultures in the course of history. Of course, this account is incomplete. These are the key points: the use of cosmetics is ancient and ubiquitous, but, nevertheless, the attitude (especially of men) toward cosmetics is also often negative or ambivalent. The term cosmetics derives from the Greek kosmos, meaning order or adornment. Cosmetics include skin-care products, balms, medications, and the like. The term makeup is usually reserved for beauty products.
... Regarding the 20 Fenchurch Street Tower as well as the Vdara Hotel, the problem is due to neglecting a simple matter of optics (light convergence) that has been known for centuries (Enoch, 2006;Mach, n.d.). More strange than why the designer team did not pay attention to this issue is why they repeated it in the second project after having seen the dilemma in the first one. ...
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Today, even in developed countries, performing life-cycle assessment (LCA) is still a challenging and complex process, mixed with the possibility of significant errors—namely due to unreliable input data derived from unrepresentative sampling. Some scientific texts illustrate the so-called Smart World—where such errors are minimized via the exchange of information between everything globally. This may sound contradictory to the fact that now almost half the world population do not even have internet access. However, this chapter shows—by reasoning, review, and synthesis of the literature, theories, and data—that the emergence of the Smart World is plausible. Yet, it will not necessarily be sustainable, unless “smartness” is (re)defined in line with the Sustainable Development Goals. Otherwise, also, LCA might become obsolete, or its goals may transmute to non-sustainable ones. Focusing on examples from the construction industry and their interactions with other sectors, some shortcuts are also suggested to facilitate innovations and development of LCA and decision-making procedures.
... La obsidiana -material casi tan versátil como la madera-es un vidrio natural volcánico brilloso, de distintos colores, duro y frágil. Fue elegido por las tribus de la Costa Este de California para la elaboración de puntas de flecha (Hodgson, 2005), cuchillos ceremoniales para danza (Goldschmidt y Driver, 1940) e incluso como un bien inalienable (Rust, 1905); por los egipcios del periodo Dinástico Temprano, donde se encuentran evidencias materiales del uso y explotación de la obsidiana en yacimientos Mesopotámicos (Frahm, Wisti y Wagensonner, 2019); por los habitantes de Catalhöyük, uno de los sitios Neolíticos más antiguos en el cual se elaboraron espejos pulidos de obsidiana (Enoch, 2006), al igual que herramientas rudimentarias para la agricultura y las actividades domésticas (Catalhöyük Research Project, 2012); y por las culturas Mesoamericanas, quienes utilizaron la obsidiana para elaboración de artefactos de distinta índole: armas, joyería, ornato y objetos mágico-religiosos asociados a deidades prehispánicas. Sin embargo, el tipo de fractura concoidea del material, su manipulación y trabajo requieren una mano experta junto con una práctica refinada para la creación objetos de alta complejidad. ...
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La industria de obsidiana refleja aspectos económicos, políticos y sociales desde la época Prehispánica hasta la Colonia. En este trabajo ofrecemos una perspectiva arqueológica e histórica; examinamos la explotación prehispánica, colonial y contemporánea; y analizamos la problemática que presentan los yacimientos (patrimonio arqueológico y geológico) en México. Al localizar estos depósitos, proponemos una zonificación por medio de un marco normativo y legal que favorecería la conservación de la obsidiana como un recurso natural y social.
... Debate over a date for the Thera eruption: Measurements of radiocarbon ( 14 C) from legumes and grains (3,8,9) buried directly beneath the eruption deposits, and an olive branch (10) buried within them, cluster in the range c.1650-1600 cal BCE relative to the internationally agreed radiocarbon calibration curve, IntCal13 (11), which converts radiocarbon determinations from samples of unknown age into calendar age estimates (12). These estimates place the eruption in the second half of the 17th century BCE (9,13). ...
Preprint
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Six earliest 18th Dynasty high chronology (18DHC) Sothic-dated royal accessions from Amenhotep I through Amenhotep II fall on exact full moon days when their summer solstice Sothic New Year's Days are set to Sirius' day 2 (rarely 3) cosmical rising, for the dead-reckoned 18DHCs of David Aston (2014), E. F. Wente (1975), and D. B. Redford (1973), confirming them and my pre-1320 BC Synchronous Sothic Calendar. The signature full moons include Amenhotep I's 11 May 1559 coregency with dynasty founder Ahmose (nomen The Moon Is Born), and his 14 May 1551 sole reign. This Final Edition brings a few corrections and improvements, but nothing which alert Edition 1.0 readers could not cope with.
... Studies such as those by Sabine Melchior-Bonnet (1994) and Jay M. Enoch (2006) have shown the importance of optical instruments in expanding the range of human vision in diverse ways. Technologies such as the telescope, the microscope or photography are significant in that they use lenses that enable new forms of seeing, a fact that, as Timothy Reiss (1997) explained, has an epistemological impact. ...
... A flat metallic mirror is a simplest optical device being used since antiquity [1]. A remarkable feature of a mirror is exhibited by extremely useful capability of changing sharply the direction of light rays and returning light back at normal incidence over a wide spectral bandwidth. ...
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Nonlinear optical features of a plane structure consisted of silicon disks placed periodically on a silver substrate have been studied in the Littrow reflection scenario. The structure manifests a bistable resonant reflective ability. Values of both specular reflectance and reverse one can be tuned by varying an intensity of incident light.
... The earliest manufactured mirrors were pieces of polished stone, e.g., obsidian, a naturally occurring volcanic glass. Some of the obsidian mirrors excavated by archaeologists at Çatal Höyük, located in Anatolia within the Konya Plain (modern day Turkey), have been dated to around 6000 bce [1][2][3]. ...
... I primi specchi costruiti dall'uomo, costituiti da oggetti di ossidiana (vetro vulcanico) con superfici riflettenti, sono stati ritrovati in Anatolia (Turchia) in siti archeologici risalenti al 6000 a.C. (Enoch, 2006). A partire dal 4000 a.C., iniziarono a essere fabbricati specchi formati da dischetti di metallo lucidato, i quali ebbero grande diffusione nel periodo greco-romano e per tutto il medioevo, grazie allo sviluppo delle tecniche di lavorazione dei metalli (bronzo, argento e oro). ...
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In the paper we will describe three instruments of particular historical and didactic interest belonging to the Historical Collection of Physics Instruments of Palermo University: a convex mirror most likely dating back to the early nineteenth century and a pair of burning mirrors most likely dating back to the mid-nineteenth century. After an introduction on the historical development of mirrors and on their principle of operation, we will describe the characteristics of the instruments of the collection and the interventions carried out.
... Imaging and images are actually commonplace in nature, and have been exploited by humans for millennia. The surfaces of bodies of water and shiny materials have been used as mirrors for over 8000 years (Enoch, 2006). Images of opaque objects appear as shadows when the Sun shines, and have been used for measuring the time since at least as early as 1200 BC (Pilcher, 1923). ...
Thesis
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In this thesis, a novel approach to spaceborne imaging is investigated, building upon the scan imaging technique in which camera motion is used to construct an image. This thesis investigates its use with wide-angle (≥90° field of view) optics mounted on spin stabilised probes for large-coverage imaging of planetary environments, and focusses on two instruments. Firstly, a descent camera concept for a planetary penetrator. The imaging geometry of the instrument is analysed. Image resolution is highest at the penetrator’s nadir and lowest at the horizon, whilst any point on the surface is imaged with highest possible resolution when the camera’s altitude is equal to that point’s radius from nadir. Image simulation is used to demonstrate the camera’s images and investigate analysis techniques. A study of stereophotogrammetric measurement of surface topography using pairs of descent images is conducted. Measurement accuracies and optimum stereo geometries are presented. Secondly, the thesis investigates the EnVisS (Entire Visible Sky) instrument, under development for the Comet Interceptor mission. The camera’s imaging geometry, coverage and exposure times are calculated, and used to model the expected signal and noise in EnVisS observations. It is found that the camera’s images will suffer from low signal, and four methods for mitigating this – binning, coaddition, time-delay integration and repeat sampling – are investigated and described. Use of these methods will be essential if images of sufficient signal are to be acquired, particularly for conducting polarimetry, the performance of which is modelled using Monte Carlo simulation. Methods of simulating planetary cameras’ images are developed to facilitate the study of both cameras. These methods enable the accurate simulation of planetary surfaces and cometary atmospheres, are based on Python libraries commonly used in planetary science, and are intended to be readily modified and expanded for facilitating the study of a variety of planetary cameras.
... Being the most essential components in optical systems, mirrors are widely employed to change the propagation of electromagnetic (EM) waves since they were first explored in Anatolia at the dawn of civilization 1 and have already been used for various applications in imaging, sensing, spectroscopy, and communication, to name but a few. In general, conventional metallic mirrors exhibit isotropic EM responses which can reflect EM waves regardless of their incident polarizations. ...
... Mirrors are reflective surfaces that have been around since the beginning of time and serve multiple purposes such as: viewing one's image, decorative purposes, scientific instruments such as telescopes, and even entertainment (Enoch, 2006). Duval and Wicklund's (1972) Theory of Objective Self-Awareness suggests that reflection of one's self in the mirror contributes to an increased sense of self-awareness. ...
Article
Aim To explore and discuss the perceptions and experiences of caregivers who rendered care to persons with dementia who viewed themselves in the mirror. Background Considerations must be given to caring for those with dementia due to the steady rise of adults 65 and older living with dementia. A literature review revealed limited experiential knowledge concerning aspects of mirror-viewing for persons with dementia. Methods This phenomenological hermeneutic study was analyzed using Ricoeur’s theory of interpretation. Eighteen participants who cared for individuals with dementia in the home, and long-term care facilities took part in the study. A semi-structured interview guide with open- ended questions facilitated an open dialogue about their experiences while caring for persons with dementia when they view themselves in the mirror. Two questions guiding the study were: 1) What are caregivers’ perceptions of what they see and believe when they observe dementia patients whom they care view themselves in a mirror? 2) How do the caregivers’ perceptions of that experience change over time as the dementia worsens? Results The structural analysis uncovered a considerable difference between the numbers of mirrors available in the homes as compared to the long-term care facilities. Two phenomenological findings were uncovered: 1) decision to look in the mirror and 2) viewing self in the mirror. Six subsequent subthemes; mirror as a tool, wanting to look presentable, self- recognition, self-confirmation seeing another and the latent stage were revealed. Conclusion A mirror assessment is needed for individuals who have dementia.
... A rough surface causes diffuse reflection (1) and blurred transmission by destructing spatial phase coherence; in contrast, a flat surface allows specular reflection (2) and distortion-free transmission with uniform distribution of phase difference. Therefore, diffuse reflection and distortion-free transmission are usually incompatible. ...
Article
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Rough surfaces lead to diffused light in both reflection and transmission, thereby blurring the reflected and transmitted images. Here, we merge the traditionally incompatible diffuse reflection and undistorted transmission by introducing the concept of random-flip metasurfaces made of randomly flipped components. These metasurfaces have a globally random phase in reflection that leads to diffuse reflection, while the local space inversion and reciprocity principle ensure distortion-free transmission. Notably, the metasurface reflects like a rough surface yet transmits like a smooth one in a broad spectrum. On the basis of complementary random arrays of gold nanorods, we verified this functionality by both optical spectroscopy and imaging experiments over a broad range of frequencies from the visible to the infrared regime. This feature, which originates from breaking the phase correlation between reflection and transmission by the metasurface, could enable a range of new optical materials and display technology.
... Since the beginning of mankind, the human race has always shown strong interest in the origin of optical phenomena, and how to control them for its own benefit. Evidences of early objects for light control currently date from the beginning of bronze age [1], with the discovery of ancient mirrors and lenses based on polished metals and rock crystal (quartz) respectively (Figure 1.1). Despite there being uncertainty about whether the physics behind such items were known by then, it is believed that their function was to serve as imaging and magnification tools [2]. ...
... Similar reflection and reassurance of self is provided by a glass mirror as well, and this may be one of the inherent incentives for its use [34]. Given that mirrors have not been around since the dawn of humanity [35], a sense of self can likely be formed without one at hand. We propose that the path by which humans could have always observed themselves to get a notion of self is by olfaction. ...
Article
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All primates, including humans, engage in self-face-touching at very high frequency. The functional purpose or antecedents of this behaviour remain unclear. In this hybrid review , we put forth the hypothesis that self-face-touching subserves self-smelling. We first review data implying that humans touch their faces at very high frequency. We then detail evidence from the one study that implicated an olfactory origin for this behaviour: This evidence consists of significantly increased nasal inhalation concurrent with self-face-touching, and predictable increases or decreases in self-face-touching as a function of subliminal odourant tainting. Although we speculate that self-smelling through self-face-touching is largely an unconscious act, we note that in addition, humans also consciously smell themselves at high frequency. To verify this added statement, we administered an online self-report questionnaire. Upon being asked, approximately 94% of approximately 400 respondents acknowledged engaging in smelling themselves. Paradoxically, we observe that although this very prevalent behaviour of self-smelling is of concern to individuals, especially to parents of children overtly exhibiting self-smelling, the behaviour has nearly no traction in the medical or psychological literature. We suggest psychological and cultural explanations for this paradox, and end in suggesting that human self-smelling become a formal topic of investigation in the study of human social olfaction. This article is part of the Theo Murphy meeting issue ‘Olfactory communication in humans’.
... MÖ 3.binden itibaren Mısır'da görsel sanat eserlerinde artık ayna figürleri de görülmeye başlar (Enoch, 2006: fig. 3). ...
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Light reflection, which is inherent to any object, often exhibits detrimental effects on solar energy conversion devices, and causes “light pollution” in our surroundings, affecting humans’ daily activities and the performance of various optical devices. It has been a great challenge to eliminate the reflections for ultra-wide wavebands. We propose an interface-fee region model and prove that ultra-broadband and extremely low reflectance is achievable both experimentally and theoretically. We demonstrate that extremely low reflectance was observed in surface modified Super-clear glass over a very wide range of wavelengths from 300 up to 2360 nm. A generic formula is proposed for the minimum thickness of the zero reflective layer in relation to the maximum wavelength.
Chapter
The symptoms characteristic of Alice in Wonderland syndrome are usually subtle in nature, in the sense that they tend to affect only a minor aspect of a person’s full perceptual experience. As a consequence, everything is perceived just as before, except that, for example, all vertical lines are slanted, as happened to Paul; or time is found to slow down, the way this is experienced by Neo in The Matrix [1]; or one’s body is experienced as shrinking to the height of a thimble, as happened to Alice in the story and to Ms. Rembrandt in real life and so on, in accordance with any of the numerous variations that we have encountered so far, and indeed, many, many more. Sometimes these symptoms occur in conjunction with each other, although they mostly present as isolated perceptual distortions, leaving the rest of what we perceive intact. What is more, even when several symptoms are present, they tend to be experienced in the same sensory modality, being all visual in nature, or all somatosensory and so on. As far as we know, based on the limited number of extant case descriptions, only 15% of all people with Alice in Wonderland syndrome report symptoms in more than one sensory modality [2]. The remaining 85% of them report unimodal experiences—which, as we just saw, tend to consist of a single symptom.
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We investigate the evolution of attosecond to femtosecond screening and emergent potentials that govern the dynamics and energetics of electrons and holes excited in the various stages of multiphoton photoemission processes and control the photoelectron yield in recently reported experiments [X. Cui, C. Wang, A. Argondizzo, S. Garrett-Roe, B. Gumhalter, and H. Petek, Nat. Phys. 10, 505 (2014)]. The study is focused on the dynamical screening of holes created in preexistent quasi-two-dimensional Shockley state bands on Ag(111) and Cu(111) surfaces and of electrons excited to the intermediate and emerging screened states. Using the formalism of self-consistent electronic response, we analyze first the effects of screening on the dynamics of photoexcited electrons and holes and then of the Coulomb correlated photoexcited pair. Special attention is paid to the correlated primary electron-hole states, which commence as transient surface excitons and develop in the course of screening into uncorrelated electrons and holes propagating in the image potential and surface state bands, respectively. The obtained results enable to establish a consistent picture of transient electron dynamics at Ag(111) and Cu(111) surfaces that are becoming accessible by the time-, energy-, and momentum-resolved pump-probe multiphoton photoelectron spectroscopies.
Article
The phase reversal that occurs when light is reflected from a metallic mirror produces a standing wave with reduced intensity near the reflective surface. This effect is highly undesirable in optoelectronic devices that use metal films as both electrical contacts and optical mirrors, because it dictates a minimum spacing between the metal and the underlying active semiconductor layers, therefore posing a fundamental limit to the overall thickness of the device. Here, we show that this challenge can be circumvented by using a metamaterial mirror whose reflection phase is tunable from that of a perfect electric mirror (φ = π) to that of a perfect magnetic mirror (φ = 0). This tunability in reflection phase can also be exploited to optimize the standing wave profile in planar devices to maximize light-matter interaction. Specifically, we show that light absorption and photocurrent generation in a sub-100 nm active semiconductor layer of a model solar cell can be enhanced by ∼20% over a broad spectral band.
Conference Paper
This paper proposes a new model for the creative process of design. This model is developed by combining two of the most accepted models of creativity: the Wallas stage model and the Wertheimer productive thinking model. The paper discusses the importance of Biomimetics in design and presents examples of successful inventions produced when nature is imitated by designers. The role of Biomimetics in the new model for the creative process is discussed. For complementing the new model of creativity, this paper introduces the concept of Artiomimetics as the imitation of artifact structure, shape, features or motion to inspire the development of new inventions. This paper proposes that the incremental evolution of concepts that lead to invention is given by either the application of Biomimetics or Artiomimetics. This paper presents examples where the duality of biomimetic and artiomimetic approaches is used to effectively foster creativity resulting in breakthrough inventions.
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This paper focuses on Harriet Prescott Spofford’s short story “The Ray of Displacement” which appeared in The Metropolitan Magazine in October 1903. The story deals with a crystal structure and the adventures of an unnamed scientist falsely accused of stealing it. The scientist’s invention of a Y-ray, capable of separating atoms and molecules so that solid bodies can penetrate one another, leads him to the discovery of disembodiment and invisibility. The story indirectly refers to St. Paul’s Letter to the Corinthians where Revelation is shown as a riddle or enigma reflected on a looking glass. Spofford offers a hybrid narrative which fuses philanthropy, ethical concerns, and the power of sympathy, typically attributed to the female gender, with scientific forms of perceiving transcendence dominated by male consciousness. Inverting the angelic rhetoric present in the conception of the “Angel in the house,” Spofford displays a complex story that engenders the supernatural.
Article
A general metallic mirror (i.e., a flat metallic surface) has been a popular optical component that can contribute broadband light absorption to thin-film optoelectronic devices; nonetheless, such electric mirror with a reversal of reflection phase inevitably causes the problem of minimized electric field near at the mirror surface (maximized electric field at one quarter of wavelength from mirror). This problem becomes more elucidated, when the deep-subwavelength-scaled two-dimensional (2D) material (e.g., graphene and molybdenum disulfide) is implemented into optoelectronic device as an active channel layer. The purpose of this work was to conceive the idea for using a charge storage layer (spherical Au nanoparticles (AuNPs), embedded into dielectric matrix) of the floating-gate graphene photodetector as a magnetic mirror, which allows the device to harness the increase in broadband light absorption. In particular, we systematically examined whether the versatile assembly of spherical AuNP monolayer within a dielectric matrix (i.e., optical metamaterial mirror), which should be designed to be placed right below the graphene channel layer for floating-gate device, can be indeed treated as the effective magnetic mirror. In addition to being capable of the enhancement of broadband light absorption, versatile access to various structural motifs of AuNPs benefitting from recent advances in chemical synthesis promises compelling opportunities for sophisticated engineering of optical metamaterial mirror. High amenability of the AuNP assembly with the semiconductor-related procedures may make this strategy widely applicable to various thin film optoelectronic devices. Our study thereby illustrates advantages in advancing the design of mirror for rational engineering of light-matter interaction within deep-subwavelength-scaled optoelectronic devices.
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RFID technology is now a part of our daily lives. The corresponding applications are more and more numerous and widespread. This work having been done in the framework of the PACID textile project, this thesis has the ambition to research innovative solutions for RFID readers in order to enhance the management, the traceability and the security of the industrial and commercial textiles.Towards this end, the antenna reader has to be miniature while being low-cost, directive and in circular polarization in the RFID UHF band (0.865-0.868 GHz). The two main technological challenges that we have faced for the reader antenna is managing its main direction of propagation to restrict and control the reading zone as well as the miniaturization of its size in order to easily integrate it into any environment. To respond to this problem, the research areas discussed in this manuscript were: The obtaining of the circular polarization using short-circuited resonators. The study and design of microstrip antennas based on EBG (Electromagnetic Band Gap). Type metamaterials to improve their directivity by using the original properties of these structures. The research of new miniaturization techniques for printed antennas by introducing a new EBG ground plane.
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We present a comprehensive investigation of the systematic and random errors of the nano-metrology instruments used to characterize synchrotron X-ray optics at Diamond Light Source. With experimental skill and careful analysis, we show that these instruments used in combination are capable of measuring state-of-the-art X-ray mirrors. Examples are provided of how Diamondmetrology data have helped to achieve slope errors of <100 nrad for optical systems installed on synchrotron beamlines, including: iterative correction of substrates using ion beam figuring and optimal clamping of monochromator grating blanks in their holders. Simulations demonstrate how random noise from the Diamond-NOM’s autocollimator adds into the overall measured value of the mirror’s slope error, and thus predict how many averaged scans are required to accurately characterize different grades of mirror.
Article
Mirrors are used in telescopes, microscopes, photo cameras, lasers, satellite dishes, and everywhere else, where redirection of electromagnetic radiation is required making them arguably the most important optical component. While conventional isotropic mirrors will reflect linear polarizations without change, the handedness of circularly polarized waves is reversed upon reflection. Here, we demonstrate a type of mirror reflecting one circular polarization without changing its handedness, while absorbing the other. The polarization-preserving mirror consists of a planar metasurface with a subwavelength pattern that cannot be superimposed with its mirror image without being lifted out of its plane, and a conventional mirror spaced by a fraction of the wavelength from the metasurface. Such mirrors enable circularly polarized lasers and Fabry-Pérot cavities with enhanced tunability, gyroscopic applications, polarization-sensitive detectors of electromagnetic waves, and can be used to enhance spectroscopies of chiral media.
Article
In this Letter, we report on encoding and display based on stereo standing U-shaped resonator (SUSR) arrays. The SUSR serves as a perfect absorber at a structure-dependent frequency when the polarization of incident light is parallel to the bottom rim of the SUSR. When the incidence polarization is rotated for 90° (perpendicular to the bottom rim of the SUSR), the SUSR turns to a perfect reflector at broadband frequencies. Further, the resonant frequency sensitively depends on the height of the arms of the SUSR. By introducing SUSRs with different arm heights, a resonant absorption state may occur at different frequencies. By defining the resonant absorption state as "dark" and the reflection state as "bright," we can encode and display binary patterns. Beside, when the SUSR rotates with the direction of the standing arms as axis, a different reflectivity, hence, a different shade will be generated. In this way, we may realize a grayscale display. Experimentally, we demonstrate that this encoding and display scheme indeed works.
Chapter
An optical mirror is a sufficiently smooth surface that reflects light – in some wavelength range – to provide an image from given original object. From early plane mirrors, as quiet water, polished obsidian stone, or brass substrates, subsequent mirror fabrication mainly evolved towards use of glass substrates coated with high a reflectivity metal that may receive a protective layer deposit to prevent from tarnishing. Plane and curved – concave or convex – mirrors are commonly used as domestic devices, safety devices and decorative panels. Mirrors are key components of many scientific instruments, such as telescopes, microscopes, lasers, and cameras. Present state of the art of making and testing a mirror optical surface allows reaching the ultimate theoretical limit of diffraction – then called a diffraction-limited mirror – where the reflected wavefront does not deviate more than a visible quarter-wave length from a required shape.
Article
Many previously observed strong chiroptical effects are limited to chiral metamaterials with complex three-dimensional building blocks. Recently, chiral metamirrors consisting of planar elements are proposed to selectively reflect one particular circularly polarized light (CPL) while absorbing the other, with the reflected one either preserving or altering its spin state. However, they are limited by complicated subwavelength chiral profiles of their unit cells, which are challenging to fabricate in the visible-near infrared (NIR) region. We present an extrinsically 2D-chiral metamirror that reflects one CPL preserving its handedness while strongly absorbing the other, reaching a circular conversion dichroism (CCD) in reflectance as large as 0.43 in the NIR region. Our polarisation-conserving mirror possesses an Au pillar array and a continuous Al film separated by a SiO2 dielectric layer, where the Au pillars are periodically arranged by a rectangular lattice. The rather simple geometry of mirror significantly simplifies its fabrication in the high frequency region. The pronounced CCD originates from a chiral triad of the achiral resonator array and light’s propagation direction. Such a chiral mirror provides an efficient methodology towards handedness-selective modulation of the CPL and find applications in planar photonic devices such as molecular spectroscopy, quantum information, and polarimetric imaging.
Chapter
In this introductory chapter we start with a brief summary of the implications of using radiation-in, radiation-out techniques for the analysis of historical artifacts and then move to the origins, and cultural/historical context of the principles underlying the analytical techniques described in the book. We touch on the use of vision in spectroscopy and discuss the interaction between wave and particle descriptions of radiation in ancient and modern thought. The 1635 discovery of diffraction by Francisco Grimaldi and its consequence, the 1807 “two slit” experiment of Thomas Young, and their ongoing implications for science in general and analytical techniques in particular, are discussed in detail. We then describe how different radiation beams are parameterized, and the implications of these parameters for destructive, nondestructive, and noninvasive analysis.
Chapter
Tool use is observed and shared in animals with and without phylogenetic relationships. Therefore, tool use is an excellent behavioural model to explore dynamic relationships between animals’ physical and cognitive abilities and their environmental conditions. In this chapter, we will focus on tool use in primates, especially Japanese macaques and common marmosets, which have not been observed to use tools in the wild but can be trained to do so through appropriate behavioural training. This approach enables us to determine the conditions that are needed for acquisition, as well as the types of cognitive and neuronal characteristics that can be observed during and after the development of tool use. Several studies of Japanese macaques have indicated that they can be trained to use tools within a few weeks, suggesting that the behavioural and cognitive components for tool use were already present before training. The acquisition of tool use is supported by structural changes in several brain regions throughout training. Furthermore, through careful, step-by-step training, the use of tools to obtain visual cues, such as an endoscope, was successfully established for the first time in macaques. Japanese macaques exhibit different characteristics in the acquisition of tool use than common marmosets as marmosets required much longer periods of time, and they worked mainly according to their own motivation to use tools. These differences were reflected in structural changes in the brain. In the discussion, we will compare the tool use behaviours of primates and other species, particularly birds, to explore the possible physical, cognitive and environmental conditions for exhibiting tool use from a comparative perspective.
Chapter
An optical mirror is a sufficiently smooth surface that reflects light – in some wavelength range – to provide an image from given original object. From early plane mirrors, as quiet water, polished obsidian stone, or brass substrates, subsequent mirror fabrication mainly evolved towards use of glass substrates coated with high a reflectivity metal that may receive a protective layer deposit to prevent from tarnishing. Plane and curved – concave or convex – mirrors are commonly used as domestic devices, safety devices and decorative panels. Mirrors are key components of many scientific instruments, such as telescopes, microscopes, lasers, and cameras. Present state of the art of making and testing a mirror optical surface allows reaching the ultimate theoretical limit of diffraction – then called a diffraction-limited mirror – where the reflected wavefront does not deviate more than a visible quarter-wave length from a required shape.
Chapter
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Cultural interactions can be traced through archaeological evidence linking Mainland Southeast Asia and Island Southeast Asia, as well as linking Southeast Asia, China, and India. Examples are discussed in terms of the movements of raw materials, knowledge, technologies, finished goods, or even craftsmen. Through examining the flows of varied objects such as jade, glass, bronze, iron, and gold from their source or homeland to other locations, a picture can be reconstructed of the complicated inter-community networks in Southeast Asia prehistory. These long-distance and long-term networking activities significantly shaped the cultural diversity of Southeast Asia, as it is known today.
Article
Conventionally a flat, shiny metal surface can be used as a reflector. Here we show that a microstructured metal surface can be switched from a perfect reflector to a perfect absorber by merely changing the polarization of the incident light. The structure consists of arrays of three-dimensional standing U-shaped resonators (SUSRs), which are fabricated by two-photon polymerization followed by blanket coating of the metal. For the incidence with a specific polarization, light can be perfectly reflected. By changing the polarization of incident light for 90°, light neither transmits nor reflects. Since the electromagnetic resonance occurs in between the standing arms of a U-shaped resonator, the heat generated in the absorption process is expected to dissipate more easily. The thermal stability of the SUSR absorber has also been investigated.
Article
The excavations at Çatal Hüyük, the neolithic city mound in the Konya Plain, which were begun in 1961 were continued during the summer of 1962. The second season of excavation began on 7th June and lasted until 14th August, sixty working days, with a labour force which never exceeded thirty-five men, mostly trained under our foreman, Veli Karaaslan, at Beycesultan and Hacılar. Once again our trusted ustas included Rifat Çelimli, Mustafa Duman and Bekir Kalayci. Survey equipment and transport for the expedition were generously provided by Turkse Shell, Ankara. The 1962 season was financed by the Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research, New York, a bequest from the late Mr. Francis Neilson, the Australian Institute of Archaeology and its President, Mr. W. J. Beasley, The British Academy, the University of Edinburgh and the University of Canterbury, New Zealand. In addition the Director had a personal fellowship from the Bollingen Foundation, New York.
Article
The site of Çatal Hüyük was discovered during our survey of the Konya Plain in November, 1958. Rich in surface finds of a type hitherto only known from Professor J. Garstang's excavations at Mersin on the south coast of Anatolia, its importance was soon realised. However, at the time of the discovery, we were engaged in the excavation of the equally important site of Hacılar and it was not until after the completion of excavations there that digging could be contemplated at Çatal Hüyük. After the final season at Hacılar in 1960, we were free to devote our attention to this new site. As Hacılar showed a gap in its culture sequence exactly during the Early Neolithic period, which surface finds showed was best represented at Çatal Hüyük, it was decided to start excavations at this site to complete the sequence and throw further light on Hacılar.
Naturales Quaestiones. With an English translation by Thomas H. Corcoran.
  • Seneca
Possible origins of the Chinese mirror.
  • Julianno
Parallels: Mesoamerican and Ancient Middle Eastern Traditions.
  • Wirth
Mirrors on the fringe.
  • Rubinson