Article

Does low mercury containing skin-lightening cream (Fair & Lovely) affect the kidney, liver, and brain of female mice?

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Fair & Lovely is an over-the-counter skin-lightening cream sold widely in Saudi markets. Its mercury content is 0.304+/-0.316 microg/g, in the range of 0.102 to 0.775 microg/g. This study was designed to evaluate its toxic effects on mice. The cream was applied on mice for a period of 1 month at different intervals. Mercury levels were measured in the liver, kidney, and brain tissue samples of a total of 75 adult female CD1 mice by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer coupled to a Vapor Generator Accessory. The mean mercury concentrations in the tissues of the treated mice were 0.193+/-0.319 microg/g; whereas for the control group, it was 0.041 microg/g+/-0.041microg/g. While the kidney was found to have the highest mercury content, the brain was found to have the lowest content. Treated mice showed a significant reduction in body weight. Marked histological changes were clearly noted in the kidney and, to a lesser extent, in the brain and liver. These results indicate that although Fair & Lovely mercury content is less than the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) permissible limits histopathological changes in the brain, kidney, and liver tissues are evidence of its possible toxicity.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Urinary excretion is the major route of elimination (Chan, 2011, Copan et al., 2015, Sin and Tsang, 2003. Inorganic Hg concentrates mainly in the kidney, in particular in the tubular region where lesions have been observed after acute oral intake of Hg 2+ salts (Al-Saleh et al., 2005). With repeated applications, the cumulative effect of prolonged low-dose exposure may lead to nephrotoxic effects, proteinuria and nephritis (Al-Saleh et al., 2005, Engler, 2005. ...
... Inorganic Hg concentrates mainly in the kidney, in particular in the tubular region where lesions have been observed after acute oral intake of Hg 2+ salts (Al-Saleh et al., 2005). With repeated applications, the cumulative effect of prolonged low-dose exposure may lead to nephrotoxic effects, proteinuria and nephritis (Al-Saleh et al., 2005, Engler, 2005. The central nervous system can also be affected by inorganic Hg under certain conditions. ...
Article
Full-text available
Skin lightening products are types of cosmetics (creams, gels, lotions and soaps) applied voluntarily on skin. Several of these products contain a variety of active ingredients that are highly toxic. Among those toxic agents, the present study focuses on mercury, hydroquinone, and clobetasol propionate. Out of the 93 lightening soaps and 98 creams purchased in large city markets in sub-Saharan West Africa and in small ethnic shops in Canada, 68-84% of all creams and 7.5-65% of all soaps exceeded regulatory guidelines for at least one active ingredient when considering different regulations. Mercury was found in high concentrations mainly in soaps, while hydroquinone and clobetasol propionate concentrations exceeded US FDA standards in some creams for all countries included in our study. Concentrations of the three compounds declared on labels of soaps and creams usually did not correspond to concentrations actually measured, particularly for mercury and hydroquinone. Overall, our results indicate that most studied skin-lightening products are potentially toxic and that product labels are frequently inaccurate with respect to the presence of toxic agents.
... Injury in liver and kidney due to mercury exposure was also supported by the findings from histological alterations. Similar changes were also reported by Al-Saleh et al. (2005) in liver tissue after mercury exposure. Rumbeiha et al. (2000), Al-Saleh et al. (2005), Alam et al. (2007) and Augusti et al. (2007) have also reported similar changes in mercury induced nephrotoxicity. ...
... Similar changes were also reported by Al-Saleh et al. (2005) in liver tissue after mercury exposure. Rumbeiha et al. (2000), Al-Saleh et al. (2005), Alam et al. (2007) and Augusti et al. (2007) have also reported similar changes in mercury induced nephrotoxicity. Exposure of mercury to the body stimulates the kidney to induce metallothionein synthesis, which affords partial protection against mercury toxicity (Zalups and Cherian, 1992;Morcillo and Santamaria, 1996;Hu, 1998). ...
Article
We have examined the effect of both pre- and post-treatment of vitamin E on mercury induced acute toxicity in rats. Mercury (12μmol/kg b.w., single intraperitoneal injection) resulted in oxidative injury and metallothionein mRNA expression together with alterations in tissue histology and accumulation of mercury in the body organs. The ameliorating potential of vitamin E (24μmol/kg b.w., single intraperitoneal injection) was observed in mercury administered rats. Our findings indicate that vitamin E provides complete protection from mercury toxicity in the liver with both pre- and post-treatments. As mercury is nephrotoxic and neurotoxic, it is interesting to note that post-treatment of vitamin E showed more protection in the kidney compared to pre-treatment. In brain tissue, partial protection was observed on oxidative stress parameters. Our results thus suggest that post-treatment with vitamin E could be more beneficial than pre- treatment in mercury intoxication.
... Polyoxyethylene sorbitan (5.0%) 22 Rose oil (2.0%) 23 Sorbic acid (2.0%) 24 Sorbitan monooleate (Span 80) (5.0%) 25 Sorbitan sesquioleate (arlacel 83) (20.0%) 26 Stearyl alcohol (30.0%) 27 ...
... Al-Saleh and Al-Doush [22] after analyzing 38 commercially available skin lightening creams in 1997 noted that 45% of the tested samples contained mercury at levels far surpassing 1 ppm (the maximum permitted limit by FDA). More recently in 2005, they also analyzed "Fair & Lovely" fairness cream and found traces of mercury that was otherwise not its listed component [23]. Thiomersal was third common allergen in order of frequency eliciting positive reactions in our 7 (24%) patients who were using various fairness creams ( Figure 5). ...
Article
Full-text available
. Some of the patients with melasma perhaps have pigmented cosmetic dermatitis. However, cosmetic contact sensitivity in melasma remains poorly studied particularly in the Indian context. Objectives . To study cosmetic contact sensitivity in patients with melasma. Materials and Methods . 67 (F : M = 55 : 12) consecutive patients with melasma between 19 and 49 years of age were patch tested sequentially during January–December, 2012, with Indian Cosmetic and Fragrance Series, Indian Sunscreen Series, p -phenylenediamine, and patient’s own cosmetic products. Results . 52 (78%) patients were in the age group of 20–40 years. The duration of melasma varied from 1 month to 20 years. Centrofacial, malar, and mandibular patterns were observed in 48 (72%), 18 (27%), and 1 (1%) patients, respectively. Indian Cosmetics and Fragrance Series elicited positive reactions in 29 (43.3%) patients. Cetrimide was the most common contact sensitizers eliciting positivity in 15 (52%) patients, followed by gallate mix in 9 (31%) patients and thiomersal in 7 (24%) patients. Only 2 of the 42 patients showed positive reaction from their own cosmetics while the other 5 patients had irritant reaction. Indian Sunscreen Series did not elicit any positive reaction. Conclusion . Cosmetics contact sensitivity appears as an important cause of melasma not associated with pregnancy, lactation, or hormone therapy.
... Earlier studies have shown the toxic impact of mercury on the central nervous system, immune system, cardiovascular system, liver, and kidneys. [2,3]. Mercury exposure also leads to gastrointestinal disorders and hormonal imbalance [4]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Mercury is a relentless pollutant, and its toxicity contributes to significant health problems due to exposure to the environment. The present study has determined the impact of flaxseed oil on mercuric chloride (HgCl2)-mediated hepatic oxidative toxicity in rats. Methods Twenty-four healthy male Wistar rats were divided into four groups with six animals in each group. Group-A was the Control group treated with saline; Group-B received 1.0 ml oral dosage of flaxseed oil; Group-C was given 200 µl intraperitoneal injection of HgCl2, and Group-D received 1.0 ml oral dosage of flaxseed oil (one hour after treatment with 200 µl intraperitoneal injection of HgCl2. Results Mercuric chloride (HgCl2) increased the production of malondialdehyde (MDA), reactive oxygen species (ROS), glutathione (GSH), and the concentration of HgCl2 in the liver tissue with a simultaneous decrease in the activities of Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). Furthermore, serum HgCl2 elevated the activity of alanine transaminase (ALT) and Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Histopathological changes showed that liver injury was caused by mercuric chloride. Treatment with flaxseed oil ameliorated ROS production and reversed enzymes in serum and liver. Also, a noticeable improvement was observed in all the histopathological characteristics in the rats. Conclusions The findings of this study concluded that flaxseed oil had an outstanding remedial effect on mercuric chloride-mediated hepatic cytotoxicity.
... Histopathological alterations also supported these findings in the liver and kidney tissues associated with mercury toxicity. We found hepatocyte damage, loss of nuclei and picnotic nuclei in the liver tissue (Fig. 3), which is due to mercury toxicity as also reported by Carmichael and Fowler (1979) and Al-Saleh et al. (2005). In kidney tissue, the sign of toxicity was also observed (Figs 4 and 5). ...
Article
Curcumin, a safe nutritional component and a highly promising natural antioxidant with a wide spectrum of biological functions, has been examined in several metal toxicity studies, but its role in protection against mercury toxicity has not been investigated. Therefore, the detoxification and antioxidant effects of curcumin were examined to determine its prophylactic/therapeutic role in rats experimentally exposed to mercury (in the from of mercuric chloride-HgCl(2), 12 micromol kg(-1) b.w. single intraperitoneal injection). Curcumin treatment (80 mg kg(-1) b.w. daily for 3 days, orally) was found to have a protective effect on mercury-induced oxidative stress parameters, namely, lipid peroxidation and glutathione levels and superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities in the liver, kidney and brain. Curcumin treatment was also effective for reversing mercury-induced serum biochemical changes, which are the markers of liver and kidney injury. Mercury concentration in the tissues was also decreased by the pre/post-treatment with curcumin. However, histopathological alterations in the liver and kidney were not reversed by curcumin treatment. Mercury exposure resulted in the induction of metallothionein (MT) mRNA expressions in the liver and kidney. Metallothionein mRNA expression levels were found to decrease after the pre-treatment with curcumin, whereas post-treatment with curcumin further increased MT mRNA expression levels. Our findings suggest that curcumin pretreatment has a protective effect and that curcumin can be used as a therapeutic agent in mercury intoxication. The study indicates that curcumin, an effective antioxidant, may have a protective effect through its routine dietary intake against mercury exposure.
... 11 Although banned in many countries, a number of studies showed that a number of marketed lightening products still contain these compounds. 12,13 About 45% of commonly used skin-lightening creams in Saudi Arabia were shown to contain mercury above the FDA's acceptable limit of 1ppm. 14 However, even with the best quality products containing approved components, mainly the ones containing hydroquinone, some of the dermatological side effects can be seen and they are usually associated with the misuse of these products. ...
Article
The use and misuse of skin-lightening products among women living in Arab communities have not been documented previously. This study investigates the determinants, the prevalence and users awareness associated with the use and misuse of skin-lightening products among women living in Jordan. Female customers arriving at selected pharmacy stores were randomly asked to complete a questionnaire. A total of 318 women completed the questionnaire, of which 60.7% reported the use of skin-lightening products. Users included women from different age and economic groups. Main reasons for use were preference of lighter skin tone, the treatment of hyperpigmentary disorders or both. More than a third of the users were not aware of the potential side effects of these products. A significantly larger proportion of skin-lightening product users believed that lighter skin tone plays a role in self-esteem, perception of beauty and youth, marriage and employment opportunities when compared with nonusers. Skin lightening is a common practice among women living in Jordan. It is reinforced by the association of lighter skin tone with a number of perceived benefits including perception of beauty, job and marriage opportunity. User's awareness regarding the safety of skin-lightening products and instructions for proper use are important considerations when developing interventions to control the misuse of these products.
... Inhibition in the activity of renal antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), GSH-Px, and catalase, in addition to depletion of GSH levels was also reported earlier. 40 [42][43][44][45] Pretreatment with AG attenuated the Hg-induced oxidative damage. Hence, pretreatment with AG significantly restored the increased TBARS and decreased GSH levels to the normal values. ...
Article
Full-text available
The effects of Arabic gum (AG) against nephrotoxicity of mercury (Hg), an oxidative-stress inducing substance, in rats were investigated. A single dose of mercuric chloride (5 mg/kg intraperitoneal injection) induced renal toxicity, manifested biochemically by a significant increase in serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and total nitrate/nitrite production in kidney tissues. In addition, reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase enzymes in renal tissues were significantly decreased. Pretreatment of rats with AG (7.5 g/kg/day per oral administration), starting 5 days before mercuric chloride injection and continuing through the experimental period, resulted in a complete reversal of Hg-induced increase in creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and total nitrate/nitrite to control values. Histopathologic examination of kidney tissues confirmed the biochemical data; pretreatment of AG prevented Hg-induced degenerative changes of kidney tissues. These results indicate that AG is an efficient cytoprotective agent against Hg-induced nephrotoxicity by a mechanism related at least in part to its ability to decrease oxidative and nitrosative stress and preserve the activity of antioxidant enzymes in kidney tissues.
... Pregnancy is a period of high risk for the use of skin lightening products, especially during the third trimester [2], so exposure of placental cells to mercury causes accumulation of the metal in the placental membrane and lowers the membrane fluidity which affects membrane function and causes damage to the developing fetus [6]- [8]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to examine the use of bleaching creams containing hydroquinone, cor- ticosteroids and mercury for skin lightening among higher secondary school students in central Sudan. A cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted at 19 different girls’ schools. A total of 1187 young students aged 16 - 19 years old were randomly selected and approached, using a well-structured questionnaire. The main outcome measure was a number of epidemiological factors per abusers. Results revealed that, 55.4% of the respondents misused this product, whilst 51.6% of girls used cosmetics to lighten their skin for 1 - 3 years with skin irritations prevalence of 3.3%, and the face was reported as main application site (35.4%). In conclusion, the lack of health awareness and ignorance was the main causative factor, whilst education, competent authorities awareness and prescriptions restrictions were highly recommended.
... The harmful effects of even low levels of mercury in skin-lightening cosmetics have been reported. For instance, 0.319μg/g of mercury in skin-lightening cosmetics was reported to cause histopathological changes in the brain, liver and kidney tissue of mice [46]. Similarly, consistent use of mercury-containing skinlightening cosmetics during pregnancy and lactation caused growth dysfunction in infants [47]. ...
... Reduced capacity for the reactivation of glucocorticoids in rheumatoid arthritis synovial cells: possible role of the sympathetic nervous system? Arthritis Rheum 2005;52:1711–20. 3. Hardy RS, Filer A, Cooper MS, Parsonage G, Raza K, Hardie DL, et al. ...
... These values were below the USDA recommended limit of <1.0µg/g, but exceeds the EU limit of 0µg/g. Mercury levels as low as 0.319µg/g in skin lightening creams have been found to cause histopathological changes to brain, liver and kidney tissue in mice (31). Low levels of Mercury based skin lightening creams used during pregnancy and lactation have been found to impair infant development (32). ...
Article
Full-text available
em>Background Skin lightening is very popular among women and some men of the Caribbean, and its popularity appears to be growing. The lightening of skin colour is done to produce a lighter complexion which is believed to increase attractiveness, social standing and improves one’s potential of being successful. Design and Methods Fifteen (15) common skin lightening creams found in pharmacies and cosmetic retailers throughout Trinidad and Tobago were evaluated for Mercury by Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (CVAAS) and Arsenic by Hydride Generation Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (HGAAS). The results obtained were compared to global standards and previous research. Results Fourteen (14) of the fifteen samples analysed contained Mercury in the range of 0.473µg/g to 0.766µg/g. One sample had a Mercury content of 14,507.74±490.75µg/g which was over 14,000 times higher than the USFDA limit for mercury in cosmetics of 1µg/g. All samples contained Arsenic in the range 1.016µg/g to 6.612µg/g, which exceeds the EU limit for cosmetics of 0µg/g. Conclusion All the samples analysed contained significant amounts of Mercury and Arsenic and none of them can be considered “safe” for prolonged human use. The samples that contained Mercury levels which were lower than the USFDA contained Arsenic levels which exceeded the EU standard of 0µg/g in cosmetics. The popularity of these skin lightening creams in the Caribbean region places the population at elevated risk of chronic Mercury and Arsenic poisoning and possibly acute Mercury Poisoning.
... With the high dose of mercury was observed, moderate hyperplasia of Kupffer cells. Similar changes have also been reported by Al-Saleh et al. (2005);Jadhav et al. (2007); Wadaan (2009) and Agarwal et al. (2010); Oda and El-Ashmawy (2012), in liver tissue after exposure to mercury. In rats of group Ic and IIc intoxicated and treated with vitamin C, it was observed a slight vacuolar modification of periportal hepatocytes and a moderate congestion of the hepatic veins. ...
Article
Full-text available
Effets protecteurs de la vitamine C sur les reins, le foie et le cerveau: une étude chez des rats de souche Wistar intoxiqués au mercure Résumé: La présente étude a été conçue pour étudier les effets néfastes de l'intoxication chronique du mercure sur le rein, le foie et le cerveau et les possibilités allégeantes probables de l'acide ascorbique (vitamine C) contre de tels impacts. Ainsi, 25 rats mâles albinos de souche Wistar ont été subdivisés en 5 groupes de 5 animaux y compris le groupe contrôle. Les deux premiers groupes (I; II) ont été exposés respectivement au mercure (0,12 mg/kg ; 1,2 mg/kg). Les deux derniers groupes (Ic; IIc) ont reçu respectivement en plus de ces différentes doses précédentes, une dose journalière de 150 mg/kg de Vitamine C pendant la même période. Le groupe contrôle (G) a reçu uniquement le même volume d'eau distillée. Le mercure de même que la vitamine C ont été administrés oralement pendant 28 jours consécutifs aux rats. A la fin de l'exposition, le foie, les reins et le cerveau des rats ont été examinés par l'histopathologie. L'intoxication au mercure induit une dégénération et une altération nécrotique du rein, du foie et du cerveau. Les résultats de cette étude révèlent que l'intoxication au mercure a produit des effets délétères néphro-hépatiques et neurotoxiques qui ont été corrigés par l'acide ascorbique utilisée comme complé-ment alimentaire. Abstract: The present study was designed to investigate the effects of chronic mercury poisoning on the kidney, liver and brain and possible remedies with vitamin C feeding. For this purpose, 25 male albino Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups of 5 animals including a control group. Two groups (I & II) were exposed, respectively, to mercury chloride at concentrations of 0.12 mg/kg and 1.2 mg/kg. and the last two groups (Ic; IIc) have respectively received in addition to the previous doses of mercury a daily dose of 150 mg/kg vitamin C during the same period. The control group received the same volume of distilled water. Mercury as well as vitamin C were administered orally for 28 consecutive days to the rats. At the end of this exposure, the liver, kidneys and brain of rats were examined by histopathology. Mercury induced degeneration and necrotic alteration of the kidney, liver and brain. The results of this study reveal that mercury poisoning induced hepato-nephro-neurotic dele-terious effects which were reversed by vitamin C used as a dietary supplement.
... Mercury in the range of 0.102 to 0.775 μg/g was found in this cream, with some samples containing mercury greater than the Food and Drug Administration permissible limit of 1 ppm. 18 In India, stigma related to dark skin color unfortunately still exists, making the use of skin lightening agents rampant. This is reflected by the fact that skin lightening creams were the second most commonly used agents (n = 108), next only to hair coloring products (n = 139). ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Pigmented cosmetic dermatitis (PCD) is frequently encountered in dark-skinned individuals as gradual hyperpigmentation on the face without preceding erythema or itching. Little is known about the allergen profile in PCD. Objectives: The aim of the study was to describe the clinical profile and common allergens in PCD and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) to cosmetics in Delhi. Methods: Records of patients suspected of PCD and ACD to cosmetics were analyzed. All patients were patch tested with the Indian standard series, Indian cosmetic and fragrance series, and personal cosmetics and, in relevant cases, hairdresser series. Results: One hundred six patients were analyzed. Patch test was positive in 77 cases (72.6%). Cetrimonium, gallate mix, thiomerosal, and skin lightening creams were more frequently positive in cases of PCD (P = 0.019-0.003), whereas p-phenylenediamine, toluene-2,5 diamine sulfate, p-aminophenol, m-aminophenol, and nitro-p-phenylenediamine were predominantly positive in ACD to cosmetics (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Preservatives, antioxidants, and skin lightening creams seem to play a role in causation of PCD, whereas hair dye allergens cause ACD to cosmetics in India.
... For example, Hamann et al. (2014) found that 6% of 549 sampled SLPs in the United States contain mercury concentrations > 10 0 0 ppm. In addition, Al-Saleh et al. (2005) found that 45% of the most commonly used SLPs in Saudi Arabia contain high levels of mercury, in excess of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's acceptable limit of 1 ppm. The current study found that around 11.5% of SLP users have used products that contain mercury. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Skin-lightening products (SLPs) are commonly used worldwide, and their improper use and overuse is becoming a burden on health care workers, including dermatologists. Objective: This study aimed to determine the characteristics, determinants, preferences, and side effects of the use of SLPs among Saudi female students and their association with mental health. Methods: A cross-sectional analytic study, using a self-administered prevalidated questionnaire, was conducted among female students in the Aljouf region of Saudi Arabia. We used the consecutive nonprobability sampling technique to recruit participants. The questionnaire contained demographic data, two questions about knowledge of SLPs, eight questions regarding perceptions of fair skin, and three proxy scales for mental health (depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and Internet addiction). Results: The mean age of the participants (± standard deviation) was 29 ± 9.6 years. Of the 760 responders, 427 (56.2%) used SLPs; all were women with relatively light skin (types III-V). There was a unanimous positive perception of lighter skin tone among women. The participants used skin-lighteners for cosmetic and medical conditions (67.2% and 17.5%, respectively). The practice was significantly associated with poor mental health status, poor level of knowledge, and lower sociodemographic status (p < .05). Conclusions: The use of SLPs is highly prevalent among Saudi female students. Users believe that fairer skin is associated with beauty and social advantage. Female students with a lower economic status and poor mental health are more prone to overuse SLPs. A need exists for targeted public health campaigns to raise public awareness about uncontrolled skin lightener usage.
... a Urea, b creatinine, c albumin of male Wistar albino rats treated for 5 days. Data represent the mean ± SEM. *Significantly different (p < 0.05) from HgCl 2 group, **Significantly different (p < 0.05) from the saline group tubular epithelial cells and interstitial nephritis and similar histological changes as reported by others [39,40]. These studies have clearly demonstrated that mercury is highly toxic and cause severe harm to different systems. ...
Article
Full-text available
The toxicity of heavy metals such as mercury (Hg) in humans and animals is well documented. The kidney is the primary deposition site of inorganic-Hg and target organ of its toxicity. The present study investigated the protective efficacy of flaxseed lignan-Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) on nephrotoxicity induced by mercuric chloride (HgCl2). Rats were intraperitoneally injected with HgCl2 (2 mg/kg/day) and renal toxicity was induced. Subcutaneous administration of rats with SDG (5 mg/kg/day) as a pre-treatment caused a significant reversal of HgCl2 induced increase in blood urea, creatinine, glutathione s-transferase and catalase (CAT). On the other hand, administration of SDG with HgCl2 restored normal levels of albumin and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Histological examination of kidneys confirmed that pre-treatment of SDG before HgCl2 administration significantly reduced its pathological effects. Thus, the results of the present investigation suggest that SDG can significantly reduce renal damage, serum and tissue biochemical profiles caused by HgCl2 induced nephrotoxicity. Hence, SDG may be recommended for clinical trials in the treatment of kidney disorders caused by exposure to Hg.
Article
Many studies have highlighted the widespread use of skin-lightening creams containing mercury by women during and after pregnancy to remove dark spots. Women, especially pregnant and lactating mothers using these products are at risk of mercury poisoning because sometimes it has no clinical symptoms, particularly during early exposure. Studies have shown that prenatal and postnatal mercury exposure can cause permanent neurological damage in children. Furthermore, mercury can cause women infertility and birth defects. Even though several studies have examined the reproductive and/or developmental consequences of gestational and lactational mercury exposure from fish consumption and/or dental amalgam, no studies have assessed the possible effects of the long-term use of mercury-containing skin- lightening products by women of childbearing age on their pregnancy outcome and children’s health. This commentary aims to collate information on the popular use of mercury-containing skin-lightening creams and sheds the light to the readers about the limitations of the available data on its impact during a prenatal and/or postnatal period. There is an urgent need to assess the adverse health effects of applying these products during pregnancy or lactation on child growth and development through birth cohort studies. Until data from these studies are available, women should be advised not to use topical skin-lightening creams during pregnancy and lactation.
Article
Full-text available
A 28-year-old female suffered from nephrotic syndrome after a long-term use of mercury-containing, skin-lightening cream. The blood and urinary mercury content of this patient increased with use. Renal biopsy showed minimal change disease. Her symptoms were relieved 6 months after discontinuing use of the cream and receiving sodium dimercaptosulfonate and glucocorticosteroid treatments. Proteinuria disappeared, and blood and urinary mercury levels returned to normal. Previous reports of nephrotic syndrome caused by mercury-containing, skin-lightening creams have mostly been identified as be.ing due to membranous nephropathy. Minimal change disease has been reported in a few case reports published in the English language. Here we report a case of nephrotic syndrome with minimal change disease following exposure to a mercury-containing, skin-lightening cream. We also reviewed relevant published reports to summarize clinical features and treatments and to explore the possible mechanisms involved.
Article
Penampilan yang menarik tentu menjadi dambaan setiap orang. Terutama bagi kaum wanita, memiliki wajah yang putih bersih masih menjadi ikon kecantikan sehingga terus dilakukan segala cara untuk mendapatkannya. Salah satu upaya yang dipilih adalah dengan menggunakan produk kosmetika, seperti krim pemutih kulit. Dalam artikel ini dibahas terkait kestabilan krim, bahan berbahaya pada kosmetika, dan cara memilih krim pemutih wajah yang aman.Kata kunci : krim, pemutih wajah, kosmetika
Article
Mercury is a ubiquitous environmental toxin that can produce a wide range of health effects in humans. It is found in three chemical forms: organic, inorganic and elemental (mercury). The sources of exposure are also markedly different for the different forms of mercury. Diet, especially fish and other seafood, is the main source of exposure of the general public to organic mercury. Dental amalgam is the most important source for elemental mercury vapour in the general population. Inorganic mercury compounds are known as 'mercuric salts', which are sometimes used in skin-lightening creams and as antiseptic creams and ointments. Though its use has been banned in some countries, these products are still available on the world market. Each mercury form possesses a different risk to human health. Mercury can be transferred prenatally to the developing foetus via the placenta or postnatally from breast milk to the nursing infant. Children are potentially more susceptible to mercury than adults due to differences in the stages of brain development and organ growth that occur during the foetal, infant and childhood developmental periods. The objective of this paper is to review the relevant literature concerning transplacental and lactational exposure to mercury, taking into account mercury speciation, in order to have a critical assessment of its adverse health effects. Attention is also given to available studies in Saudi Arabia where skin-lightening creams, dental amalgam and thimerosal are still in use.
Article
Full-text available
Skin lightening for cosmetic reasons is associated with profound negative impacts on well-being, and adverse effects on the skin, resulting in immense challenges for dermatologists. Despite current regulations, lightening agents continue to dominate the cosmetic industry. In this review, our international team of dermatologists tackles the topic of skin lightening as a global public health issue, one of great concern for both women’s health and racial implications. We have examined skin lightening in Africa, throughout Asia, the Middle East, and the Americas. We aim to inspire a global discourse on how we as modern dermatologists can utilize scientific evidence and cultural competency to serve and protect our patients of diverse skin types and backgrounds. In doing so, we hope to promote healthy skin and inclusive concepts of beauty in our patients and society.
Technical Report
The Minamata Convention on Mercury is a global treaty designed to protect human health and the environment from the adverse effects of mercury, Bangladesh signed the Minamata Convention on 10 October 2013 and is actively proceeding towards ratification. The Bangladesh Government will aim to protect human health and environment by adopting measures for reduction of mercury emissions and releases. In this regard, the Global Environmental Facility (GEF) has developed a set of pre-ratification activities, called Minamata Initial Assessments (MIA), designed to prepare countries for treaty ratification and implementation. The MIA project in Bangladesh was developed with the support of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) as implementing Agency and the technical assistance and capacity-building provided by the United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR). In Bangladesh, major mercury emission sources are use and disposal of products with mercury content, production of mercury-added products, open fire waste burning, informal dumping of general waste, production of oil and natural gas, and coal combustion. Bangladesh manufactures three consumer products (lamps, paint and cosmetic products) that potentially contain mercury, while all other consumer products are imported, such us dental amalgam, that remains the preferred restorative material in dental practice. The national mercury inventory was prepared as a part of the Minamata Initial Assessment (MIA) project. This inventory analysis was performed using UN Environment’s Toolkit for identification and quantification of mercury releases. Both levels 1 and 2 were utilized to prepare this inventory. From the inventory, the total mercury releases in Bangladesh are approximately 32,660 kg per year with major mercury emissions from the following sources (Figure ES-1(a)): 1. waste incineration and open waste burning: 44 per cent (14,323 kg Hg/y), 2. use and disposal of other products (including thermometers, paints with mercury preservatives (/pigments), other laboratory and medical equipment with mercury, polyurethane produced with mercury catalysts, and switches and relays): 20 per cent (6,564 kg Hg/y), 3. oil and gas production: 8 per cent (2,675 kg Hg/y), 4. informal dumping of general waste: 7 per cent (2,397 kg Hg/y), 5. crematoria and cemeteries: 6 per cent (2,066 kg Hg/y), 6. coal combustion and other coal use: 2 per cent (781 kg Hg/y), and 7. production of products with mercury contents (thermometers, paints, cosmetics, light, battery): 4 per cent (1,258 kg Hg/y).
Article
Full-text available
Mercury (II) is an important factor in nephro-hepatoxicity that can enter the body through marine diets and amalgams. The present study was designed to investigate the protective effect of the Ginkgo biloba leaves (GB) extract on acute mercury intoxication on the liver and kidney. Rats were divided into six groups. Group I as control;; group II and III rats were injected intraperitoneal with GB extract at dose of(200,400) mg/kg.b.wt/day for twenty five days, group IV rats were given orally of mercuric chloride at dose (5 mg/kg b.wt) for five days ,group V were given mercuric chloride (5 mg/kg) for five days then rats received GB extract at dose (200 mg/kg/day) intraperitoneal for twenty five day ,and groupe VI rats were orally given mercuric chloride (5 mg/kg) for five days then rats received GB extract at dose (400 mg/kg/day) intraperitoneal for twenty five day, Twenty four hrs after last treatment all rats were euthanized ,all groups were treated daily. Mercury induced a significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) and a significant reduction in reduced glutathione (GSH) levels in tissue liver and kidney, significant changes in serum hepatic and renal function parameters (, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total protein, , uric acid and creatinine.), Mercury founded marked degenerative and necrotic alterations in kidneys and liver tissue. Gingko biloba returned MDA and GSH to the normal values, improved the mercury-induced serum biochemical changes of kidney and liver functions as well as histopathological & histophotometry alteration. Our results suggest that acute mercury intoxication induced marked nephro-hepatic deleterious effects which were corrected by ginkgo biloba treatment. ‫اﻟﺨﻼﺻﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻜﺒﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻀﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺴﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻴﺴﺒﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﹲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻏﺫﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻁﺭﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﺩﺨل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺯﺌﺒﻕ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺍﺀ.‬ ‫ﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻗﺎﺌﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﺤﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺼﻤﻤﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﺨﻠﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺴﺒﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻜﺒﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻤﻡ‬ ‫ﻀﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻴﻠﻭﺒﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻨﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﻨﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﺍﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺤـﻲ‬ ‫ﺒـﺎﻟﻤﺤﻠﻭل‬ ‫ﻋﻭﻤﻠـﺕ‬ ‫ﺴﻴﻁﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻭﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ‬ ، ‫ﻤﺠﺎﻤﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﺴﺘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺭﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﻭﺍﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻗﺴﻤﺕ‬. ‫ﻟﻠﺯﺌﺒﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺴﻴﻭﻟﻭﺠﻲ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﻠﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻴﺘﻭﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺸﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺕ‬ ‫ﺤﻘﻨﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﹶ‬ ‫ﻴﻭﻤـﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﺸﺭﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺨﻤﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻤﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻨﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﻨﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻻﻭﺭﺍﻕ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺎﻟﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ)‬ 200 ‫ﻭ‬ 400 , ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫/.ﻴﻭﻡ‬ ‫/ﻜﻐﻡ‬ ‫(ﻤﺎﻴﻜﺭﻭﻏﺭﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺒﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺭﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺯﺌﺒﻕ‬ ‫ﻜﻠﻭﺭﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﹶ‬ ‫ﻓﻤﻭﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻋﻁﻴﺕ‬ 5 / ‫ﻤﺎﻴﻜﺭﻏﺭﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻜﻐﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺨﻤﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺯﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻨ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺯﺌﺒﻕ‬ ‫ﻜﻠﻭﺭﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﹶ‬ ‫ﻓﻤﻭﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻋﻁﻴﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻤﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺭﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ 5 ‫ﺍﻴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺨﻤﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺩﺓ‬ ‫/ﻜﻐﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺎﻜﺭﻭﻏﺭﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻤﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻨﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﻨﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻻﻭﺭﺍﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﻠﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻴﺘﻭﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺸﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺕ‬ ‫ﺤﻘﻨﺕ‬ ‫ﺜﻡ‬ 25 ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩ‬ ‫ﻴﻭﻡ‬ 200 ‫ﻓﻴﻤـﺎ‬ ، ‫ﻴﻭﻡ‬ / ‫/ﻜﻐﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺎﻴﻜﺭﻭﻏﺭﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠ‬ ‫ﻨﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻻﻭﺭﺍﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﻠﺹ‬ ‫ﺤﻘﻨﺕ‬ ‫ﺜﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺨﻤﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺯﺌﺒﻕ‬ ‫ﻜﻠﻭﺭﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﻠﻤﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩ‬ ‫ﻨﻜﺔ‬ 400 ‫ﻤﺎﻴﻜﺭﻭﻏﺭﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﺩ‬. ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺭﻉ‬ ‫ﺤﺴﺏ‬ ‫ﹶ‬ ‫ﻴﻭﻤﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻭﻤﻠﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻤﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﻴﻊ‬. ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻴﺘﻭﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺸﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺕ‬ ‫/ﻴﻭﻡ‬ ‫/ﻜﻐﻡ‬ 24 ‫ﺠﻤﻴـﻊ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻁـﺎﺓ‬ ‫ﺠﺭﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺨﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺴﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻭﻨﻘﺼﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻭﻨﺩﻴﻬﺎﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺯﺌﺒﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺴﺒﺒﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ.‬ ‫ﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺠﺭﻴﺕ‬ ‫ﺸﺭﺤﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻴﻭﺍﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻌﻨﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺒـﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﻅﻴﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﻌﻴﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻭﺤﻴﺎﺘﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻀﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻜﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻨﺴﺠﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻭﺘﺎﺜﻴﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻴﻭﺭﻴﻙ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﻤﺽ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﻅﻴﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ‬ ‫ﺤﻭل‬ ‫ﻜﺩﻟﻴل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻭﺴﻔﺎﺘﻴﺯ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺒﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺘﻤﺜﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺭﻴﺎﺘﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻨﺒـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻻﻭﺭﺍﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﻠﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻤﻠﺔ‬. ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻨﺴﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻀﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﻨﺴﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺤﺩﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﹶ‬ ‫.ﻓﻀﻼ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻅﻴﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ‬ ‫ﻜﺩﻟﻴل‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺒـﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﺴـﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺯﺌﺒﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﺤﺩﺜﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﺴﻨﺕ‬ ، ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻠﻭﺘﺎﺜﻴﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻭﻨﺩﻴﻬﺎﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻜل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻋﺎﺩﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻨﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻨﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﻨﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻻﻭﺭﺍﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﻠﺹ‬ ‫ﺒﺄﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺘﺭﺤﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ.ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻨﺴﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺨﻼﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺴﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﹶ‬ ‫ﻓﻀﻼ‬ ، ‫ﻜﻴﻤﻭﺤﻴﺎﺘﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺴﺒﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀﺭﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﺼﻼﺡ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺯﺌﺒﻕ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﻤﻡ‬ .
Article
To evaluate the effect of pre- or posttreatment of selenium (6 micromol/kg b.w., single intraperitoneal injection) in mercury intoxication, rats were exposed to mercury (12 micromol/kg b.w., single intraperitoneal injection). Exposure to mercury resulted in induced oxidative stress in liver, kidney, and brain tissues. Marked changes in serum biochemical parameters together with alterations in histopathology and an induction in metallothionein-I and metallothionein-II mRNA expression in the liver and kidney were observed. Pretreatment with selenium to mercury-exposed animals had protective effect on the liver, whereas posttreatment had partial protection on restoration of altered oxidative stress parameters. In the kidney, pretreatment with selenium showed partial protection on restoration of altered biochemical parameters, whereas no protection was observed in posttreatment. The pretreatment with selenium resulted in restoration of mercury-induced metallothionein-I and metallothionein-II mRNA expression, which was completely restored in the liver whereas partial restoration was observed in the kidney. Posttreatment with selenium resulted in further induction in metallothionein-I and metallothionein-II mRNA expression in the liver and kidney. In the brain, selenium showed partial protection on alerted biochemical parameters. Results indicate that pretreatment with selenium is beneficial in comparison to posttreatment in mercury intoxication. Thus, dietary intake of selenium within safe limit may, therefore, enable us in combating any foreseen effects due to mercury exposure.
Article
Skin-lightening creams are being increasingly used by women in particular, worldwide in an attempt to whiten their skin. Men and older people use these creams to remove age spots or other pigmentation disorders. Several studies have reported the presence of high mercury levels in skin-lightening cream. Women, especially pregnant and nursing mothers, who use these creams are at risk of mercury toxicity because long-term exposure can cause permanent neurological damage, nephrological disorders, fertility problems, and birth defects. Early exposure usually has no clinical symptoms. Mercury levels were measured in a total of 49 ovary tissue samples. The mean mercury contents in the ovaries of non-treated mice (11.70 +/- 13.38 ng/g) were compared to mice treated with Rose skin-lightening cream samples (2,471.92 +/- 1,336.31 ng/g) and those treated with Fair & Lovely skin-lightening creams (58.47 +/- 39.51 ng/g). The mercury content in the ovary tissues increased with number of cream applications and were highest in the ovaries of mice treated twice a day with Fair & Lovely (87.79 +/- 26.20 ng/g) and once a day with Rose (3,515.61 +/- 1,099.78 ng/g). Our data indicate that dermal exposure to mercury can result in a significant accumulation in the ovaries of mice following the application of skin-lightening cream. This may cause alterations in reproductive behavior and contribute to infertility or ovarian failure. Of course, these results need to be confirmed by further research. Imported or locally made skin-lightening creams are widely available in Saudi market. It would be ideal to ban the sale of these creams but unfortunately, advertisements in the mass media presenting celebrities and beauty specialists make these products more popular. Alternatively, public health authorities should encourage more reliance on prescribed creams for the treatment of skin pigmentation problems.
Article
The present study was designed to investigate the detrimental effects of acute mercury intoxication on the liver and kidney and the probable alleviating capability of silymarin against such effects. Rats were divided into four groups. Group I control; group II rats were received a single subcutaneous (s/c) injection of mercuric chloride at dose of 5 mg/kg bwt; group III rats were orally given silymarin at dose of 200 mg/kg bwt/day for 7 days, then rats were injected s/c with a single dose of mercuric chloride (5 mg/kg bwt) and group IV rats were orally administered silymarin. Twenty four hrs after mercury injection all rats were euthanized. Mercury induced a significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) and a significant reduction in reduced glutathione (GSH) levels, significant changes in serum hepatic and renal function parameters (alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total protein, albumin, urea and creatinine. Mercury revealed marked degenerative and necrotic alterations in kidneys and liver. Silymarin returned MDA and GSH to the normal values, improved the mercury-induced serum biochemical changes of kidney and liver functions as well as histopathological alteration. Our results suggest that acute mercury intoxication induced marked nephro-hepatic deleterious effects which alleviated by silymarin pretreatment.
Article
Full-text available
A 46 year old woman developed membranous nephropathy following the use of a mercury-containing skin lightening cream. This association has not been reported in the literature for over a decade and apparently never from this country. It is important that clinicians are aware of this usually eminently treatable cause of the nephrotic syndrome as it is likely to be missed unless specifically enquired for.
Article
Full-text available
Our previous studies have demonstrated that mercury vapour exposure of Brown Norway rats induced an autoimmune response with development of glomerulonephritis and resulted in mercury deposition in the central nervous system, particularly in the neurons. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect on the central nervous system. A loss of Purkinje cells accompanied by Bergmann glial cell proliferation was found at a brain mercury level of 0.71 micrograms/g and became even more pronounced as the exposure dose increased. At a brain mercury level of 5.0 micrograms/g, a heavy gliosis was present in the brain stem, particularly around the pontine nuclei. In comparison with our previous study, the pathological changes in the brain appeared at the same mercury exposure dose as the glomerulonephritis. However, the location of pathological changes at the mercury level of 0.71 micrograms/g was not completely in accordance with the mercury distribution in the brain, which might be due to the sequence of mercury deposition, its amount or the vulnerability of the various cells classes.
Article
The clinical picture of poisonings with gray mercury ointment in 56 patients after its cutaneous applications is described. The patients developed gastrointestinal disorders, nephro- and hepatopathies, fever, and dermatitis. The concentration of mercury in the blood was as high as 800 μg/liter. The principal agent in conservative therapy is unithiol as an antidote. In grave and medium-severe poisonings hemoperfusion is the most effective modality; early administration of this measure helps appreciably alleviate the course of the disease and prevent the complications most hazardous for life (acute renal failure, etc.).
Article
UNLABELLED: Formamide is used as a softener for paper, gums, and animal glues; as an ionizing solvent; and in the manufacture of formic esters and hydrocyanic acid. Formamide was nominated for reproductive and genetic toxicity evaluation by the Environmental Defense Fund and for carcinogenicity evaluation by the National Cancer Institute because of the potential for human exposure associated with its widespread industrial use, the absence of data adequately characterizing its potential for reproductive and genetic toxicity, and the fact that acetamide, a compound structurally related to form-amide, is hepatocarcinogenic in rats when administered in feed. Male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice were administered formamide (approximately 100% pure) in deionized water by gavage for 2 weeks, 3 months, or 2 years. Genetic toxicology studies were conducted in Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli, Drosophila melanogaster, and mouse peripheral blood erythrocytes. 3-MONTH STUDY IN RATS: Groups of 10 male and 10 female rats were administered 0, 10, 20, 40, 80, or 160 mg formamide/kg body weight in deionized water by gavage, 5 days per week for 14 weeks. Additional groups of 10 male and 10 female rats (clinical pathology study) and five male and five female rats (plasma concentration study) were administered the same doses, 5 days per week for up to 14 weeks. All core study rats survived to the end of the study. Mean body weights of females in the 40 mg/kg group and males and females in the 80 and 160 mg/kg groups were significantly less than those of the vehicle controls. On day 23 and at week 14, there was a dose-related increase in the erythron, evidenced by increases in hematocrit values, hemoglobin concentrations, and erythrocyte counts. The incidences of degeneration of the germinal epithelium of the testes and epididymis were significantly increased in 160 mg/kg males. 3-MONTH STUDY IN MICE: Groups of 10 male and 10 female mice were administered 0, 10, 20, 40, 80, or 160 mg formamide/kg body weight in deionized water by gavage, 5 days per week for 14 weeks. Additional groups of five male and five female mice (plasma concentration study) were administered the same doses, 5 days per week for 14 weeks. All mice survived to the end of the study. Final mean body weights of the 80 and 160 mg/kg males and mean body weight gains of 40, 80, and 160 mg/kg males were significantly less than those of the vehicle controls. Dosed females differed significantly from vehicle controls in the relative amount of time spent in the estrous stages. All 160 mg/kg males had abnormal residual bodies in the testes. 2-YEAR STUDY IN RATS: Groups of 50 male and 50 female rats were administered 0, 20, 40, or 80 mg formamide/kg body weight, 5 days per week for 104 to 105 weeks in deionized water by gavage. Survival of all dosed groups of rats was similar to that of the vehicle controls. Mean body weights of 80 mg/kg males were less than those of the vehicle controls throughout most of the study. Mean body weights of 40 and 80 mg/kg females were somewhat less than those of the vehicle controls during the second year of the study. A significant increase in the incidence of bone marrow hyperplasia occurred in 80 mg/kg males. No neoplasms were attributed to exposure to formamide. 2-YEAR STUDY IN MICE: Groups of 50 male and 50 female mice were administered 0, 20, 40, or 80 mg formamide/kg body weight, 5 days per week for 104 to 105 weeks in deionized water by gavage. Survival of all dosed groups of mice was similar to that of the vehicle controls. Mean body weights of 80 mg/kg males and females were generally less than those of the vehicle controls throughout the study; mean body weights of 40 mg/kg females were generally less after week 13 of the study. The incidences of hemangiosarcoma of the liver occurred with a positive trend in males, and the incidences were significantly increased in the 40 and 80 mg/kg groups. The incidence of hepatocellular adenoma or carcinoma (combined) in 80 mg/kg females was significantly increased. The incidences of mineralization of the testicular arteries and testicular tunic were significantly increased in 80 mg/kg males. The incidence of hematopoietic cell proliferation of the spleen was significantly increased in 80 mg/kg males.
Article
Epidemiological studies finding menstrual cycle abnormalities among women occupationally exposed to Hg° prompted us to investigate the mechanisms of reproductive toxicity of Hg° in the female rat. Nose-only Hg° vapor inhalation exposures were conducted on regularly cycling rats 80-90 days of age in dose-response and acute time-course studies, which have previously proven useful as a model to identify ovarian toxicants. Vaginal smears were evaluated daily and serum hormone levels were correlated with cycle and with ovarian morphology at necropsy. Exposure concentration-related effects of Hg° were evaluated by exposing rats to 0, 1, 2, or 4 mg/m 3 Hg° vapor 2 h/day for 11 consecutive days. Tissue Hg levels correlated with exposure concentration and duration. Exposure of rats to 4 mg/m 3 (but not 1 or 2 mg/m 3 ) Hg vapor for 11 days resulted in significant decreases in body weights relative to controls. Estrous cycles were slightly prolonged in the 2 and 4 mg/m 3 dose groups, and serum estradiol and progesterone levels were significantly different in the 4 mg/m 3 group compared to controls. The alterations in cycle and hormones at the 4 mg/m 3 exposure concentration were attributed to body weight loss and generalized toxicity. In the time-course study, rats were exposed to 2 mg/m 3 Hg° or air beginning in metestrus and evaluated daily for 8 days. A lengthening of the cycle was detected and morphological changes were observed in the corpora lutea (CL) after exposure for 6 days. To determine if changes in the CL and cyclicity correlated with a functional defect, rats were exposed to Hg° vapor and evaluated for pregnancy outcome. There were no significant effects on pregnancy rate or numbers of implantation sites when rats were exposed to 1 or 2 mg/m 3 Hg° for 8 days prior to breeding, or when exposed for 8 days after breeding. These studies indicate that exposure to Hg° vapor altered estrous cyclicity, but had no significant effect on ovulation, implantation, or maintenance of first pregnancy during exposure of short duration in female rats.
Article
Objectives To describe demographic characteristics, patterns of use, and symptoms associated with mercury poisoning among persons who used aMexican beauty cream containing mercurous chloride and to estimate the prevalence of cream use in Texas near the Mexico border. Design Case series and cross-sectional survey. Setting Border communities ofArizona, California, New Mexico, and Texas. Participants Persons who used the cream and contacted a health department in response to announcements about the cream and households that participated in the Survey of Health andEnvironmental Conditions in Texas Border Counties and Colonias, 1997. Mainoutcome measures Urine mercury concentrations, self-reported symptoms, and prevalence of cream use among households. Results Of 330 cream users who contacted their health department, 96% were women, and 95% were Hispanic.The mean urine mercury concentration was 146.7 μg/L (reference range : 0-20μg/L). In 5% of 2,194 randomly selected Texas households near the Mexico border, at least 1 person had used “Crema de Belleza-Manning”(Laboratorios Vida Natural, S.A., Tampico, Tamaulipas, Mexico) in the previous year. Conclusions Most cream users had increased urine mercury concentrations. Cream use was common in Texas near the Mexico border.Physicians should consider toxicity in patients with neurologic symptoms of unclear cause and use public health departments when investigating unusual illnesses.
• The signs and symptoms of methylmercury poisoning and the concentrations of mercury in samples of blood, hair, and milk are reported and compared in two infant-mother pairs exposed in the recent Iraq outbreak.1 In one pair, the infant was born prior to the exposure of the mother, and was exposed only from ingestion of methylmercury in mother's milk. In the other pair, the mother was exposed during pregnancy and did not breast feed the infant, who died 30 days after birth. Both mothers had some signs and symptoms of poisoning, but the infants did not. The infants had maximum estimated blood mercury levels between
Article
IT IS well known that mercury can affect renal function. Organic mercurials can produce diuresis, and organic or inorganic mercurial compounds taken in therapeutic or excessive dosages may cause tubular necrosis, proteinuria, or the nephrotic syndrome. This syndrome has been associated with mercurial diuretics1-4; mercurous chloride in calomel-containing powders5,6; the mercury salt of fulminic acid 7; vapor from paint additives containing mercuric chloride, mercury, and phenol mercury 1; the protiodide of mercury8; and vapor in the mercury industry containing mercury, mercurous chloride, mercuric chloride, mercuric oxide, and phenyl mercury acetate.9 Ammoniated mercury, an inorganic compound whose formula is HgNH2CL, has been implicated in the production of proteinuria10-12 and the nephrotic syndrome 1,13 14 (Table 1). Following is a report of a case of nephrotic syndrome associated with use of ammoniated mercury. Report of a Case A 24-year-old white man, a bank cashier from
Article
Various doses of mercuric acetate and phenylmercuric acetate were administered intravenously to anesthetized pregnant golden hamsters early on the eighth day of gestation in order to study their potential teratogenicity in this species. Fetuses removed from the females on either the twelfth or fourteenth day of gestation exhibited a delayed growth rate and varying degrees of a dorsally localized subcutaneous edema. All doses of mercuric acetate and the three larger doses of phenylmercuric acetate also induced resorption rates significantly higher than the control level of 4%. A small number of miscellaneous abnormalities including: exencephaly, encephalocele, anophthalmia, microphthalmia, cleft lip and palate, rib fusions and syndactylia were also observed in the fetuses from the treated females. Both mercurials also produced the following manifestations of toxicity in the maternal system: weight loss, kidney lesions, diarrhea, slight tremor and somnolence.
Article
Methylmercury (MeHg) is a neurotoxin present in both fresh and saltwater fish throughout the world. Increased levels of MeHg can be found in individuals who regularly consume fish. The developing brain is very sensitive to the deleterious effects of MeHg, and prenatal exposure can occur when the mother has a diet high in fish. If the level of MeHg exposure achieved by eating fish adversely affects the fetus or child's neurological development it could have far reaching public health implications. Studies of human prenatal MeHg poisoning in Iraq suggest that MeHg levels achieved by eating fish may affect neurological development even when the fish MeHg levels are not elevated by obvious pollution. Studies in fish eating populations have identified adverse neurological and developmental outcomes, but these findings have not been consistent. Additional studies are presently underway to determine whether consistent adverse outcomes can be identified using more sensitive testing methods and examining children older than in previous studies. This review examines studies of human prenatal and postnatal MeHg exposure. Studies of poisoning episodes where children are symptomatic and studies of fish eating populations where no symptoms are apparent will be addressed. Individuals around the world depend on fish as a protein source and increasing evidence suggests that regular fish consumption has cardiovascular benefits. It is not presently clear whether MeHg exposures from a high fish diet adversely affect children's neurological development, but it is an important question to answer.
Article
Sumario: The organs most frequently affected by metallic mercury in chronically exposed subjects are the nervous system, kidney, and mucosal surfaces of the mouth. The central nervous system is probably the most sensitive organ. Many studies on the neurotoxic effects of mercury have been reported. Some of the more recent studies generally lack adequate measurements on exposure to mercury
Article
Three mercury compounds; mercuric acetate, mercuric nitrate and phenylmercuric acetate, labeled with 203Hg, were administered to pregnant hamsters early on the 8th gestation day. Mercury levels of selected tissues were measured 24 and 96 hours after injection. Significant concentrations of mercury were found in maternal tissues, placentae, and embryos. The results are discussed in relation to other reports on the placental transfer of radiolabeled cadmium, manganese, mercury, and zinc.
Article
A nine year old patient developed the nephrotic syndrome as a result of the use of topical medication containing mercury. The relationship of this entity to other forms of mercury toxicity is discussed.
Article
Both sexes of F344 rats were gavaged with maximal tolerated doses of mercuric chloride for periods from 2 wk to up to 2 yr to investigate chronic nephrotoxicity and potential carcinogenicity. The toxicity of mercuric chloride was excessive after 2 wk of exposure to doses ranging from 1.25 to 20 mg/kg, compromising renal function by selectively destroying cells of the proximal tubules, and eliciting marked elevations in urinary biomarker enzymes diagnostic for acute renal tubule necrosis. In the 2-wk studies, urinary alkaline phosphatase and aspartate amino-transferase were most sensitive to renal mercury toxicity among a panel of six enzymes, exhibiting twofold increases above controls at the 5.0 mg/kg dose, before changes in the other enzymes occurred. Urinary lactate dehydrogenase was the most responsive enzyme, with up to 11-fold increases in activity above controls. In response to mercuric chloride exposure of 5.0 mg/kg for 2-6 mo, the greatest and most persistent increases in elevation of urinary enzyme activities were exhibited by alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyl transferase, which increased two-to threefold above controls. At this interval, the maximal severity of the renal lesions in both sexes of rats was graded as minimal to mild. Beyond 6 mo none of the urinary enzymes measured in this study was adequate as biomarkers of nephrotoxicity, although the severity of the renal lesions had progressed. Mercury accumulated in a dose-related fashion primarily in the kidney, and to a lesser extent in the liver. The severity of the renal lesions was increased by continued exposure to mercuric chloride, as tissue concentrations of mercury rose in proportion to dose. Mercuric chloride treatment for 2 yr clearly exacerbated the severity of the spontaneous nephrotoxicity prevalent in aging F344 rats. The excessive mortality that occurred in the male rats was probably due to a combination of these factors. No renal tumors were detected in rats, possibly because the potential for their development was reduced; however, direct tissue contact with mercury induced squamous-cell papillomas of the forestomach in both sexes.
Article
Neurobehavioural tests were performed by 98 dentists (mean age 32, range 24-49) exposed to elemental mercury vapour and 54 controls (mean age 34, range 23-50) with no history of occupational exposure to mercury. The dentists were exposed to an average personal air concentration time weighted average (TWA) of 0.014 (range 0.0007-0.042) mg/m3 for a mean period of 5.5 (range 0.7-24) years and had a mean blood mercury concentration of 9.8 (range 0.6-57) micrograms/l. In neurobehavioural tests measuring motor speed (finger tapping), visual scanning (trail making), visuomotor coordination and concentration (digit symbol), verbal memory (digit span, logical memory delayed recall), visual memory (visual reproduction, immediate and delayed recall), and visuomotor coordination speed (bender-gestalt time), the performance of the dentists was significantly worse than that of the controls. The dentists scored 3.9 to 38.9% (mean 13.9%) worse in these tests. In trail making, digit span, logical memory delayed recall, visual reproduction delayed recall, and bender-gestalt time test scores were more than 10% poorer. In each of the tests in which significant differences were found and in the block design time, the performance decreased as the exposed dose (product of the TWA of air mercury concentrations and the years of exposure) increased. These results raise the question as to whether the current threshold limit value of 0.050 mg/m3 (TWA) provides adequate protection against adverse effects of mercury.
Article
The histochemical technique of autometallography was used in the present study to demonstrate the zonal and tubular localization of inorganic mercury in the kidneys of unilaterally nephrectomized (NPX) and sham-operated (SO) rats given either a nontoxic 0.5 mumol/kg or a toxic 2.5 mumol/kg dose of mercuric chloride 10 days after surgery. Deposits were found in the cortex and outer stripe of the outer medulla in both groups of rats given either dose of mercuric chloride. The deposits were localized exclusively in the convoluted and straight portion of the proximal tubule. Forty eight hours after the administration of the 0.5 mumol/kg dose of mercuric chloride, there were significantly more deposits in the renal outer stripe of the NPX rats than in the renal outer stripe of the SO rats. The number of deposits in the renal outer stripe of the NPX and SO rats given the 2.5 mumol/kg dose of mercuric chloride was similar after 24 hr, but was greater than the corresponding rats given the nontoxic dose. These findings suggest that the proximal tubule (particularly the pars recta) is the primary site for the accumulation of inorganic mercury in the kidney. They also suggest that, in the rat, there is enhanced accumulation of inorganic mercury in the pars recta of proximal tubules in the outer stripe of the renal outer medulla when a nontoxic dose of inorganic mercury is given after unilateral nephrectomy or when a toxic dose of mercuric chloride is administered.
Article
The distribution and cellular localization of mercury in the in situ brain and upper cervical spinal cord of adult Wistar rats were studied at various time intervals after oral administration of methylmercuric chloride (CH3HgCl; 20 mg x liter-1). Coronal sections of the brain and transverse sections of the cervical spinal cord were prepared for visualization of the mercury by the autometallographic silver-enhancement method. Following mercury administration there was a latent period before the metal appeared in the tissue. Mercury staining was first detected after 10 days in cell bodies of five specific areas of the brain stem: the mesencephalic nucleus of the trigeminal nerve, the red nuclei, the ventral cochlear nucleus, the superior vestibular nucleus, and the nucleus reticularis pontis caudalis. After 28 days of treatment, a fairly even distribution of mercury was seen in the brain and spinal cord. Longer periods of treatment caused no further increase in the density of mercury within the stained cell bodies. In cerebral cortex, staining commenced in piriform and entorhinal cortices. This was followed by staining in neurons of lamina III in the isocortex and ultimately all layers were stained after 28 days of treatment. After 20 days of treatment, mercury deposits in the cerebellar cortex were restricted to Purkinje cells, Golgi epithelial cells, and Golgi cells, while in the spinal cord the majority of mercury was located in the anterior horn motoneurons. Scattered ependymal cells and epithelial cells of the choroid plexus also exhibited mercury staining. The principal target cells were neurons followed by the glial and ependymal cells. Ultrastructurally, the bulk of detectable mercury was localized in lysosomes.
Article
The purpose of the present study is to characterize the accumulation of inorganic mercury along the proximal tubule of the rabbit. New Zealand white rabbits were given a 0.5 mumol/kg dose of mercuric chloride along with 150 microCi of 203Hg. Forty-eight hours after the animals had been treated, individual segments of the nephron were obtained by microdissection. The segments of the nephron were measured in length and then were counted in a gamma counter to determine the percentage of the administered dose of inorganic mercury that had accumulated in them. There was significant accumulation of mercury along the proximal tubule during the 48 hr after the dose of mercuric chloride was administered. The S1 segment of the proximal tubule accumulated 0.000226 +/- 0.000031% (mean +/- SE) of the administered dose of inorganic mercury per millimeter tubule. The amount of mercury that accumulated in the S2 segment of the proximal tubule was similar to that in the S1 segment. By contrast, only half as much inorganic mercury accumulated in each millimeter of the S3 segment of the proximal tubule. No significant accumulation of inorganic mercury could be detected in pooled samples of various segments of the distal nephron. The findings in the present study indicate that the renal accumulation of inorganic mercury in the rabbit occurs mainly as a result of the accumulation of the metal in the proximal tubule, with the accumulation predominating in the S1 and S2 segments.
Article
A new method of estimating fetal exposure is used in a dose-response analysis of data from the 1971 outbreak of methyl mercury poisoning in rural Iraq. An X-ray fluorescence instrument for the measurement of single strands of human hair was employed to obtain longitudinal profiles recapitulating fetal exposure. Logit and hockey-stick models as well as nonparametric smoothing are used to describe data on delayed development and central nervous system abnormality.
Article
Details are given of the mercury level and deposition in a human brain with Minamata disease following a twenty-six year clinical course after the first severe attack in 1956. This is the first report of a case in which the methylmercury level within the brain has returned to normal limits in a severely affected victim. However, the total mercury remained high in the brain, and mercury was clearly demonstrated histochemically in microglial cells or macrophages over wide areas of the brain and in neurons of specific brain areas. Bergmann's glial cells also contained mercury deposits, whereas Purkinje's cells had relatively little or no deposition. Mild deposition of the metal was demonstrable in the epithelial cells of the choroid plexus.
Article
We have studied the effect of acute induction of metallothionein on the biliary excretion of a bolus of metal in the rat. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were administered zinc chloride (6.5 mg/kg) or dexamethasone (2 mg/kg), ip in saline daily for 3 d; control animals received saline alone. Zinc causes a 17-fold induction in hepatic metallothionein levels, while dexamethasone caused a 5-fold induction. A bolus of metal chloride, either zinc, mercury, or cadmium, 1 mg/kg iv, was administered, and bile and plasma samples were collected and analyzed for metal content. At 3 h the rats were killed, livers excised, and both metallothionein and the metals associated with metallothionein estimated. Cadmium was excreted into the bile in inverse proportion to the hepatic metallothionein content, while metallothionein content did not appear to bear any relationship to biliary excretion of mercury or zinc. Metallothionein from rats pretreated with zinc contained twice as much zinc per molecule of metallothionein as that found in control rats. Cadmium, which exhibits a very high affinity for metallothionein, replaced this zinc found in association with metallothionein. Conversely, mercury only partially replaced the zinc associated with metallothionein, and a bolus of zinc was completely unable to bind to the already zinc-saturated metallothionein. Consequently, the bolus zinc was found associated with alternative cytosolic proteins, here termed the high-molecular-weight fraction. These findings support the hypothesis that the inhibitory effect of metallothionein on the biliary excretion of metals is dependent on the ability of the metal in question to replace any existing metals associated with metallothionein. Biliary metal excretion was directly proportional to the free metal content, regardless of the metal studied. Consequently, acute induction of metallothionein was inhibitory to biliary cadmium excretion, slightly inhibitory to biliary mercury excretion, and without effect on biliary zinc excretion.
Article
Two cases of mercury poisoning with predominantly dermatological symptoms are reported. The mercury intoxication was caused by the application of an over-the-counter metallic mercury ointment. The calculations of mercury excretion suggest strongly that cutaneous absorption could have been a significant route of entry.
Article
This report examines recent publications on the health hazards associated with the use of mercury in dentistry with emphasis on the release of mercury vapor from silver-amalgam restorations. While there is consistent evidence indicating release of mercury vapor from the restorations during chewing, tooth brushing, and other oral activities, proof of a causal link of this specific source of the heavy metal to any major human health problem is lacking. Several gaps in our knowledge of the metabolism of mercury vapor in the human militate against accurate prediction of the potential health significance of chronic exposure to this source of mercury, and some relevant lines of research have been recommended.
Article
A case of slight renal tubular dysfunction associated with cataract and anaemia was diagnosed in a 3-month-old black boy in whom high levels of mercury were found in blood and urine. Several arguments suggest that the renal, ocular and haematological defects may have resulted from exposure to mercury during foetal life and the 1-month lactation period due to the extensive use of inorganic mercury containing cosmetics by the mother.
Article
Mercuric mercury (Hg2+), when injected IV into the pregnant Wistar rat, is retained mainly in the maternal compartment and uptake by the conceptuses is small. Thus if the dose is based on total body weight, the maternal body burden, particularly in late gestation, is greater than the whole body burden in the non-pregnant animal. The LD50 of Hg2+ (mg/kg total body weight), however, remains essentially constant (1.0-1.2 mg Hg2+/kg) throughout pregnancy. It seems, therefore, that the rat becomes more resistant to Hg2+ with increasing gestational age. This increased resistance does not correlate with differences in (a) the uptake of Hg2+ by the kidneys, the target organs of toxicity, (b) the severity of the histopathologically detected renal damage and (c) the inhibition of glomerular filtration. Biochemical measurements, however, suggest that kidney function may become less susceptible to Hg2+ as pregnancy advances from conception to near term. During mid-gestation the minimum effective teratogenic dose of Hg2+ (0.79 mg/kg total body weight) is high in relation to the maternal LD50 and the incidence of foetal malformations, mainly brain defects (23% in all live foetuses), is low. In rats of different gestational ages uptake of Hg2+ by the embryo/foetus at this dose level decreases sharply between day 12 and day 13. The teratogenic effects in the foetus and both the structural and functional damage to the maternal kidneys, however, are essentially the same in animals that are dosed with Hg2+ either immediately before, or immediately after these gestational ages.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Article
Forty-two workers from a chemical plant producing inorganic mercury compounds were evaluated for neurologic, nephrotic, and ophthalmologic toxicity. Despite elevated blood and urinary mercury levels, routine clinical testing such as physical examination, blood chemistries, and urinalysis were generally normal. These findings from the routine examination are in contrast to the complaints of neuropsychological symptoms, elevated urinary n-acetyl B-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) levels, decreased motor nerve conduction velocities, and the presence of lenticular opacities on slit-lamp examination that were found, when organ systems known to be affected by mercury were targeted. More sensitive but objective indicators of toxicity need to be included in routine medical screening so as to help diagnose the etiology of neuropsychological symptoms and prevent long-term sequelae in workers exposed to mercury.
Article
Forty-one over-the-counter skin lightening creams were analysed for hydroquinone content, and the accuracy of tables of contents supplied with these products was assessed. Eight of the 41 were found to contain more than 2% hydroquinone, the maximum concentration permitted by the U.K. Cosmetic Products Regulations. Eighteen of these preparations failed to comply with labelling requirements. A list is given of those products containing less than 2% hydroquinone which are adequately labelled.
Article
Proteinuria in a woman treated for psoriasis with ammoniated mercury lead to the discovery of membranous glomerulonephritis. This report reviews the literature and experimental models of mercury nephropathy.
Article
The pattern of use of mercury-containing skin lightening creams in a group of young healthy African women was strikingly reflected by the excretion of mercury in urine. Although the levels of mercury in urine frequently associated with manifestations of systemic toxicity were not observed, the mean concentration of mercury in urine, at random sampling, was significantly more than the acceptable upper limit of normal in the group of subjects using mercury-containing skin lightening creams at the time of study. When use of these preparations was discontinued, progressive reduction in mercury concentration in urine Was manifest. Continued use, however, resulted in a variable pattern of subsequent excretion of mercury in urine for which a probable explanation is presented. No definite evidence o of renal damage was obtained, and in particular there were no stigmata of the nephrotic syndrome. The previously published data concerning the association of the nephrotic syndrome with exposure to mercury is reviewed. It is felt that in this respect the subjects of this study constitute a vulnerable population.
Article
Discusses incidence of methylmercury poisoning throughout the world with increasing industrial and agricultural use of mercury compounds. Describes recent epidemic in Iraq resulting from use of wheat treated with methylmercurial fungicide. New data are presented on the toxicity of methylmercury and its metabolic fate in the human body. (JR)
Article
1 A woman developed severe mercury intoxication from ingestion of about 2.5 g of mercuric chloride. 2 Antidotal treatment with a dithiol (BAL i.m.) and a monothiol (tiopronin i.v.) was started promptly. 3 Dialysis treatment thereafter markedly increased the elimination of mercury, thus hastening recovery. 4 It is suggested that chelating agents associated with dialysis are an effective treatment for mercury poisoning.
Article
Skin on the forearms of male human volunteers was exposed to aqueous HgCl2 solutions. It was assumed that loss of mercury from the test solution was equivalent to percutaneous absorption. Two parameters important for influencing uptake considered as the rate of absorption were investigated: the concentration of HgCl2 solutions (0.01, 0.1 and 0.2 M) and the time of exposure (5, 10, 15, 30 and 60 min). The absorption rate from 0.1 M HgCl2 solution decreased from 9.3 micrograms cm-2 min-1 during a 5 min exposure to 2.5 micrograms cm-2 min-1 during a 1 h exposure. A ten-fold decrease of HgCl2 concentration resulted in an approximately ten-fold decrease of the absorption rate, from 4.6 to 0.4 microgram cm-2 min-1 during a 30 min exposure. The results indicate that the absorption rate is a directly related function of concentration and an indirectly related function of time of exposure.
Article
This report compares the mercury-induced embryotoxicity among one noninbred (LVG) and five inbred (CB, LHC, LSH, MHA, PD4) strains of hamsters. A single dose of mercuric acetate (15 mg/kg, sc) was injected into pregnant hamsters on the morning of the 8th gestation day. Treated and control animals were killed on either the 12th or 15th gestation day and studied for the types and frequency of external and internal abnormalities as well as the incidence of resorption sites. The hamster strains exhibited significant resorption rates as well as a variety of abnormalities including edema, retardation, ventral wall defects, pericardial cavity distention, cleft palate, hydrocephalus, and heart defects. Significant but varied interstrain differences were observed for most of these indicators of mercury-induced embryotoxicity. The results of this study were compared with prior work in which the same hamster strains were exposed to cadmium or lead.
Article
Previous studies have reported that mercury accumulates in cord blood during pregnancy. This study was carried out to determine where in cord blood the mercury accumulates, i.e., in cord erythrocytes, in cord plasma, or in both, and to determine whether the predominant form of mercury which accumulates is methyl or inorganic mercury. From our data it is clear that methyl mercury accumulates in cord erythrocytes: A total of 30% more methyl mercury was found in fetal erythrocytes than in maternal erythrocytes. Also correlation analysis of the methyl mercury levels in maternal and fetal erythrocytes showed a strong correlation (r = 0.87). In regard to inorganic mercury, the highest concentration was found in the placenta, suggesting a barrier role, but a significant correlation (r = 0.62) was also found between the maternal and fetal plasma levels of inorganic mercury. Moreover, the inorganic mercury concentration per gram of plasma was higher in fetal cord plasma than in maternal plasma. Overall, the relative levels of methyl and inorganic mercury reported here varied considerably in materrnal and fetal erythrocytes, plasma, and in the placenta, but all of the levels were low (<6 ng Hg/gm of tissue) and in agreement with Øtotal¿ mercury levels reported by others.
Article
The clinical picture of poisonings with gray mercury ointment in 56 patients after its cutaneous applications is described. The patients developed gastrointestinal disorders, nephro- and hepatopathies, fever, and dermatitis. The concentration of mercury in the blood was as high as 800 micrograms/liter. The principal agent in conservative therapy is unithiol as an antidote. In grave and medium-severe poisonings hemoperfusion is the most effective modality; early administration of this measure helps appreciably alleviate the course of the disease and prevent the complications most hazardous for life (acute renal failure, etc.).
Article
Female SJL/N mice were exposed to mercury vapour 5 days/week for 10 weeks, at a mercury concentration of approximately 0.5 mg/m3, 19 h/day; 1 mg/m3, 3 h/day; 0.3 mg/m3, 6 h/day or 1 mg/m3, 1.5 h/day. The total mercury concentrations in the brain were 6.4, 6.3, 1.6 and 0.64 micrograms/g tissue, respectively. The mercury distribution in the brains was examined. Mercury was found in almost the whole brain in the two groups with the highest exposure. In the third group, mercury was primarily found in the neocortical layer V, the white matter, thalamus, and the brain-stem. In the fourth group, the white matter and the brain-stem were the targets for mercury accumulation. Similarities and differences between rats and mice in the distribution pattern are discussed.
Article
The present study was designed to evaluate, in rats, the effect of progressive losses of renal mass, from a state where renal function is not compromised significantly to a state where the early stages of renal failure are detectable, on the disposition of administered inorganic mercury. As part of this evaluation, the intrarenal, hepatic, and hematological disposition of mercury and the urinary and fecal excretion of mercury were studied and characterized in control, uninephrectomized (NPX), and 75% nephrectomized (75% NPX) rats 1, 2, and 7 days after the intravenous injection of a nontoxic 0.5 mumol/kg dose of mercuric chloride. Clearance data showed that concentration of creatinine in the plasma was increased, whole animal glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was decreased, and the fractional excretion of sodium and potassium was increased in 75% NPX rats but not in NPX rats by the 12th day after surgery. These findings confirm that 75% nephrectomy in the rat causes changes that begin to compromise renal function significantly. Renal accumulation of mercury and the intrarenal distribution of mercury were significantly different between 75% NPX rats and NPX rats, presumably because of the differences in GFR and the renal clearance of mercury between the two groups of rats. Interestingly, the contents of mercury in the blood and liver were significantly greater in 75% NPX rats than in NPX or control rats. In addition, 75% NPX rats excreted significantly more mercury in the feces over the 7 days of study than did the other two groups of rats, indicating the hepato-biliary clearance of mercury was significantly greater in 75% NPX rats. Urinary excretion of mercury was also significantly greater in 75% NPX rats than in control rats or NPX rats. This enhanced urinary excretion of mercury may be related to polyuria that occurs in 75% NPX rats. In summary, the findings from the present study clearly indicate that the renal and hepatic handling of administered inorganic mercury in rats changes significantly when renal mass is reduced from about 50% to only about 25% of the original, total renal mass. Further studies are needed to better characterize the effects of 75% nephrectomy on both the disposition and the toxicity of inorganic mercury in renal and hepatic tissues and to determine the mechanisms responsible for the effects seen in this study.
Article
In Mali, the cosmetic use of bleaching agents by black people has become a social phenomenon. How wide is this practice is not precisely known. We report the results of a survey conducted in Bamako among women aged from 15 to 45 years in order to evaluate the prevalence of this practice and its socio-economic factors. Two-hundred and ten women were questioned during the cluster survey. Among these, 53 (25 p. 100) used bleaching agents which were topical cortico-steroids (37), hydroquinone-containing products (21), mercury derivatives (11) and products of unknown composition (16). Dermatological side-effects were observed, but they did not hinder the use of these agents. Bleaching was particularly frequent in unmarried women (39 p. 100), literate women (34 p. 100) and female students (45 p. 100).
Article
For 3 months in 1969 a family in the United States that included a pregnant mother consumed pork containing methylmercury. Children, aged 20, 13, and 8 years and a neonate, developed severe neurological signs. Twenty-two years later, the 2 oldest had cortical blindness or constricted visual fields, diminished hand proprioception, choreoathetosis, and attentional deficits. Magnetic resonance images showed tissue loss in the calcarine and parietal cortices and cerebellar folia. The youngest had quadriplegia, blindness, and severe mental retardation until their deaths. The brain of the 8-year-old who died at age 30 showed cortical atrophy, neuronal loss, and gliosis, most pronounced in the paracentral and parietooccipital regions. The total mercury level in formalin-fixed, left occipital cortex was 1,974 ng/gm as measured by atomic absorption. Regional brain mercury levels correlated with extent of brain damage. A control patient had 38.5 ng of mercury/gm in the occipital cortex. Systemic organs in the patient and a control subject had comparable mercury levels. In mercury-intoxicated rats, we found that only 5 to 10% of total brain mercury was lost by formalin fixation. Brain inorganic mercury in the patient ranged from 82 to 100%. Since inorganic mercury crosses the blood-brain barrier poorly, biotransformation of methyl to inorganic mercury may have occurred after methylmercury crossed the blood-brain barrier, accounting for its persistence in brain and causing part of the brain damage.
Article
To analyze the permeation of Hg2+ in the epidermis as contact dermatitis allergen, the carrier substances from the HgCl2-treated epidermis were isolated. The peak amount of Hg2+ in the epidermis of mouse tail skin was observed at 12 h after the painting. Thereafter, it remained almost stationary. In the analysis of subcellular fractions, the nuclei fraction showed the highest Hg2+ incorporation, while the soluble protein fraction showed the lowest.
Article
The toxic effects of cadmium, mercury, and copper were compared over the over range 0.01, 0.03, and 0.1 mM using the isolated perfused rat liver preparation. All metals caused similar changes in various parameters used to describe general toxicity. Thus reductions in oxygen consumption, perfusion flow, and biliary secretion were found, while lactate dehydrogenase release into the perfusate, as well as liver weight, increased also in a dose-dependent fashion. Each metal caused similar magnitudes of changes and exerted similar potency. Measurement of other parameters indicating more specific injury revealed a number of differences. Although all metals reduced hepatic ATP concentration, mercury and cadmium were more potent than copper in this respect. Cadmium was the most potent at decreasing reduced glutathione levels. Mercury was most effective at increasing tissue calcium content, while copper was less so, and cadmium ineffective. Only copper significantly increased tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) content, while all metals increased its release into perfusate. Furthermore, whereas cadmium seemed the most potent metal in increasing MDA release, it was least efficacious, while copper was the most. Antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and Trolox C only reduced cadmium's influence on MDA in perfusate; however, they did not affect cadmium's ability to alter most other parameters of vitality. Albumin reversed the toxic effects of copper and mercury, but not cadmium. While metal-induced reductions in perfusion flow accounted for some of the toxic effects of the metals investigated, the results as a whole supported the suggestion that all metals exerted toxicity at the mitochondria, since ATP levels were reduced in a manner that could not be reproduced by perfusion flow reduction alone. Lipid peroxidation appears to play little role in determining toxicity induced by any of these metals. Furthermore, albumin may play an important physiological role in preventing hepatic injury that might otherwise be induced through acute metal intoxication.