Association of cigarette smoking and depressive symptoms in a forensic population
Academic Clinical Psychiatry, University of Sheffield School of Medicine, The Longley Centre, Sheffield, United Kingdom.Depression and Anxiety (Impact Factor: 4.41). 01/2007; 24(5):325-30. DOI: 10.1002/da.20235
The link between mental health issues and smoking has been an important area of investigation. However, little is known about this association in a general adult, male forensic population. The aim of this study was to identify demographic and clinical (depression and anxiety) variables that predict smoking in a forensic population. A large cohort of 353 inmates in a high-security prison underwent a psychiatric interview, including administration of the Montgomery-Asberg Rating Scale for Depression (MADRS) and Hamilton's Rating Scale for Anxiety (HAM-A). Multiple regression analysis suggested that younger age and higher depression scores might predict the amount of daily smoking in this population. In contrast, anxiety symptoms were not an independent predictor for smoking in our study. These findings support the need for additional research to focus on those factors associated with smoking in forensic populations. Psychiatric screening for younger male individuals in forensic settings and targeted cognitive-behavioral interventions to treat depressed smokers may ameliorate the smoking abstinence rate in prisons.
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ABSTRACT: The association between psychosocial factors and periodontal disease has been widely reported and might be modified by smoking status. This study investigated the association of periodontal status with psychosocial factors and smoking in a community population. A structured questionnaire was administered to a total of 1,764 civilian noninstitutional (general population excluding from nursing homes, sanitariums and hospitals) Taiwanese individuals to assess the presence and severity of psychosocial factors [using the 12-item Chinese health questionnaire (CHQ-12)], smoking habits and other related factors. Periodontal status was established using the community periodontal index and by measuring clinical loss of attachment. Psychological factors and smoking were significantly associated with loss of attachment (odds ratio = 1.69, 95% confidence interval = 1.01-2.77, comparing the CHQ-12 score of >or= 6 with the CHQ-12 score of 0-2 and p = 0.032 for linear trend; odds ratio = 2.21, 95% confidence interval = 1.45-3.37, comparing smokers with nonsmokers) but not with community periodontal index. The association was found to be stronger among smokers than among nonsmokers. Smokers with a CHQ-12 score of >or= 6 had a higher odds ratio of loss of attachment (odds ratio = 2.49, 95% confidence interval = 0.91-6.49) than nonsmokers (odds ratio = 1.43, 95% confidence interval = 0.76-2.58). For periodontal health measured using the community periodontal index, married and divorced/widowed subjects tended to have poorer periodontal health (odds ratio = 3.38, 95% confidence interval = 1.26-10.81 and odds ratio = 3.83, 95% confidence interval = 1.21-13.83, respectively) than single subjects among nonsmokers but not among smokers. Poor mental health had a stronger association with periodontal disease among smokers than among nonsmokers, especially in accumulative attachment loss. Our findings suggest that mental health and smoking might have a synergistic effect on the risk of developing periodontal disease.
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