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Social anxiety and romantic relationships: The costs and benefits of negative emotion expression are context-dependent

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Abstract

In general, expressing emotions is beneficial and withholding emotions has personal and social costs. Yet, to serve social functions there are situations when emotions are withheld strategically. We examined whether social anxiety influenced when and how emotion expressiveness influences interpersonal closeness in existing romantic relationships. For people with greater social anxiety, withholding the expression of negative emotions was proposed to preserve romantic relationships and their benefits. We examined whether social anxiety and emotion expressiveness interacted to predict prospective changes in romantic relationship closeness over a 12-week period. For people with less social anxiety, relationship closeness was enhanced over time when negative emotions were openly expressed whereas relationship deterioration was found for those more likely to withhold emotions. The reverse pattern was found for people with greater social anxiety such that relationship closeness was enhanced over time for those more likely to withhold negative emotions. Related social anxiety findings were found for discrepancies between desired and actual feelings of closeness over time. Findings were not attributable to depressive symptoms. These results suggest that the costs and benefits of emotion expression are influenced by a person's degree of social anxiety.

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... Much literature on social anxiety focuses on how the fear of negative evaluation impacts the way people with greater social anxiety relate to people they are relatively unfamiliar with, but recent research suggests that social anxiety has detrimental effects on intimate relationships as well, particularly romantic relationships. People with greater social anxiety self-disclose less in their romantic relationships (Cuming & Rapee, 2010;Sparrevohn & Rapee, 2009;Wenzel, 2002), are more likely to be critical of partners during negative interactions (Wenzel, Graff-Dolezal, Macho, & Brendel, 2005), and experience diminished closeness to partners during the mutual expression of pain/distress (Kashdan, Volkmann, Breen, & Han, 2007). ...
... We chose to focus on the risk regulatory process of partner devaluation for both theoretical and practical reasons. From a theoretical perspective, we wanted to see if partner devaluation may be a link to why people with greater social anxiety are more critical of their partners during negative interactions (Wenzel et al., 2005) and experience diminished closeness to partners during the mutual expression of pain/distress (Kashdan et al., 2007). If a person with greater social anxiety is apt to perceive negative evaluation during negative interactions with their romantic partner and devalue them, it would make sense that they would then become more critical of their negatively-perceived partners and that any negative emotions disclosed to romantic partners during these interactions would be likely to cause resentment in the romantic partner and diminish closeness in the relationship. ...
... Our findings on rejection concern and partner devaluation may help illuminate earlier findings in the literature on social anxiety and romantic relationships. Current research suggest people with greater social anxiety self-disclose less in romantic relationships (Cuming & Rapee, 2010;Sparrevohn & Rapee, 2009;Wenzel, 2002), are more likely to be critical of their partners during negative interaction (Wenzel et al., 2005), and experience diminished closeness to partners during the mutual expression of pain/distress (Kashdan et al., 2007). Our finding that people with greater social anxiety are more concerned about potential rejection from romantic partners could explain why they self-disclose less, since self-disclosure opens them up to the possibility of scrutiny and rejection. ...
Article
Social anxiety tends to be examined from an intrapersonal perspective. Only recently have researchers started to explore social anxiety in the context of close relationships. In the current study, we investigated whether people with greater social anxiety respond defensively when the threat of being rejected by one's romantic partner becomes salient. Confronted with possible rejection, we hypothesized that people with greater social anxiety would devalue their partners to minimize the impact of the rejection. Fifty one couples participated in a laboratory interaction with one member assigned to a rejection condition —led to believe that their partner was listing excessive negative characteristics about them; the other member was assigned to a neutral condition in which they received an innocuous filler task. Results revealed a positive association between social anxiety and rejection concerns that could not be attributed to depressive symptoms, rejection sensitivity, attachment styles, or trust. People with greater social anxiety coped with these concerns by devaluing romantic partners following the rejection condition; in the neutral condition, they adopted an overly positive/enhanced perception of partners. Our findings illustrate the defensive, risk management strategies used by people with greater social anxiety in aversive relational contexts.
... For example, socially anxious people rate their relationships as lower in emotional intimacy than non-anxious controls, indicating feelings of being neglected, lonely, and as though their partner does not listen or understand (Wenzel, 2002). Individuals with social anxiety are also more likely to be critical of partners during negative interactions (Wenzel, Graff-Dolezal, Macho, & Brendle, 2005), experience reduced closeness to partners when mutual pain/distress is expressed (Kashdan, Volkmann, Breen, & Han, 2007), and experience greater rejection concern following a rejection induction with their partner (Afram & Kashdan, 2015). Further, individuals with social anxiety report lower relationship satisfaction in their intimate relationships (Schneier et al., 1994;Sparrevohn & Rapee, 2009). ...
... Thus, further research is needed to clarify how perceived social support relates to relationship satisfaction for individuals with higher social anxiety. In relation to conflict initiation, individuals with high social anxiety tend to avoid conflict (Davila & Beck, 2002), and conflict avoidance has been associated with higher relationship satisfaction for those high in social anxiety (Kashdan et al., 2007). Further, scant research has been conducted examining trust, particularly dyadic trust, in populations experiencing social anxiety symptoms. ...
... These findings are contrary to expectations and previous research. For example, Kashdan et al. (2007) found that conflict avoidance was related to higher relationship satisfaction in highly anxious women. Similarly, Davila and Beck (2002) had found that individuals with higher social anxiety tended to avoid conflict. ...
Article
Full-text available
Research investigating social anxiety and the impacts on romantic relationships remains scarce. An online questionnaire examining romantic relationship status, social anxiety and depression symptomology, relationship satisfaction, and several relationship processes was completed by 444 adults. Individuals with higher social anxiety were less likely to be in romantic relationships. For the 188 adults in our sample in current relationships, relationship satisfaction was not influenced by social anxiety when controlling for depression. Although it was proposed that self-disclosure, social support, trust, and conflict initiation might influence romantic relationship satisfaction, none of these mechanisms interacted with social anxiety to explain additional variance in relationship satisfaction. These findings indicate that depression symptomology may be a treatment target for socially anxious individuals wishing to improve romantic relationship satisfaction.
... Individuals with high social anxiety might fear and feel compelled to limit the development of intimacy in their relationships for a number of self-protective and relationship-protective reasons. Individuals with high social anxiety and SAD avoid self-disclosure (e.g., Meleshko & Alden [37]; Sparrevohn & Rapee [38]) and have difficulty in expressing personal beliefs, intentions and preferences to their intimate partners for fear of being rejected or abandoned [39][40][41]. This pattern of interpersonal difficulties is spread in Western societies and appears as an important risk factor for UM because highly socially anxious individuals tend to fear rejection [42]. ...
... Previous research (e.g., Sparrevohn & Rape [38]; Bodinger et al. [43]) has demonstrated that socially anxious individuals report lower satisfaction with various aspects of their relationships, including lower sexual satisfaction, in comparison to non-anxious individuals. Moreover a good communication about sexuality within the couple is related to a better intimacy and sexual satisfaction [39,44]. ...
Article
Objective: In the middle eastern (MES) and western (WS) societies, sexuality follows different patterns in terms of meaning and rules. Moreover the evolution of societies all around the world created new contexts and kinds of relationship. This could hamper a correct taxonomy of such sexual dysfunctions where social variables are crucial. The aim of the present work is to collect and review data on Unconsummated Marriage (UCM) all around the world, to understand if in different societies it refers to the same situation. Design and Method: A review of published literature on UCM from different areas of the world was conducted. Results: Substantial difference emerged from MES to WS. In MES, sexuality is allowed only in marriage, while in WS sexuality and relationship are not strongly linked. This could suggest that the term “marriage” is unable to cover the phenomenon in such different countries. Moreover, the mean time before the consultation, causal attribution and prevalence are very different in such societies. Conclusions: We found that the term “Honeymoon impotence” could better describe male, female or both difficulties related to ignorance about sexuality or state/performance anxiety, typical in MES. On the other hand in WS over the individual category of sexual dysfunctions, we suggest a new term as “Unconsummated relationship”, where individual difficulties are involved creating a couple’s dysfunction.
... Along with fewer positive behaviors, socially anxious individuals also appear to engage in more negative behaviors in their romantic relationships. Kashdan, Volkmann, Breen, and Han (2007) found that for individuals low in social anxiety, the ability to express negative emotions in an open and uninhibited way fostered a good-quality romantic relationship; however, for individuals high in social anxiety, the expression of negative emotions in the context of a romantic relationship was associated with deteriorating relationship quality. Socially anxious young adults also have been found to demonstrate more negative and fewer positive interactions with their romantic partner during an observed communication task (Wenzel et al., 2005). ...
... At present, many of the relationship variables studied are disorder specific. Thus, for example, romantic relationship variables-such as selfdisclosure, emotional expression, and levels of intimacy (Sparrevohn & Rapee, 2009), as well as negative emotional expression (Kashdan et al,, 2007)-have been examined among socially anxious individuals; negative interactions, aggression, and antisocial talk have been examined among youth at risk for conduct problems (e.g., Shortt et al., 2003); and excessive reassurance seeking (Starr & Davila, 2008) and self-silencing (Harper & Welsh, 2007) have been examined among depressed adolescents and young adults. Given the high co-morbidity across psychological disorders, efforts to measure romantic relationship variables comprehensively, and to capture both positive and negative aspects of such interactions, would be important and desirable. ...
Chapter
Navigating romantic relationships in adolescence/young adulthood is a normative developmental task that can be both pleasurable and challenging for youth. The success with which one does so is both predicted by and subsequently affects psychological well-being. This chapter reviews the literature on the associations between psychopathology and youth romantic relationships and experiences. We focus particularly on internalizing and externalizing disorders, for which the bulk of the literature exists. We also cover eating disorders and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as well as other disorders and issues of comorbidity. Following the reviews of specific disorders and symptoms, we review the emerging literature on psychopathology and same-sex relationships among youth. We then address key peer and family contexts in which psychopathology and skills for romantic relationships are developing, and we discuss the intergenerational transmission of psychopathology and romantic dysfunction. The chapter closes with discussions of methodological issues and implications for prevention and intervention, emphasizing the need for ongoing basic research that can translate into novel approaches that can treat or prevent youth romantic dysfunction and psychopathology.
... Responsive interaction sequences commence when one party expresses, explicitly or implicitly, needs or desires. These expressions, like all forms of self-disclosure, inherently involve the risk of rejection (e.g., Kashdan et al., 2007;Moscovich, Rodebaugh, & Hesch, 2012;Murray, Holmes, & Collins, 2006). SA individuals are particularly sensitive to such rejection, have a self-protective communication style (Davila & Beck, 2002), and consequently, limit self-disclosure and tend to be inhibited in interpersonal encounters (Leary & Atherton, 1986). ...
... This general pattern of interpersonal behavior appears to also occur specifically within the committed romantic relationships of these individuals (e.g., in sub-clinical SA: Cuming & Rapee, 2010;in clinical SA: Sparrevohn & Rapee, 2009). Moreover, rather than relying on emotional expression to increase closeness, SA individuals (or at least women) seem to rely more on emotional and behavioral inhibition attempts to create interpersonal closeness (Kashdan, Volkmann, Breen, & Han, 2007). Unfortunately, their inhibition in eliciting responsiveness inevitably limits their partners' opportunities to detect their needs or desires, and results in lower actual responsiveness. ...
Article
Full-text available
Despite the inherent interpersonal nature of social anxiety (SA), a surprisingly sparse literature addresses the interpersonal processes occurring within the committed romantic relationships of SA individuals. the current study tested the hypothesis that the relational phenomenon of perceived partner (un)responsiveness (PPr; reis, Clark, & holmes, 2004), mediates the association between SA and poor relationship satisfaction. We used recently-developed actor-partner-interdependence mediational models with data from a 35-day dyadic diary study of 80 committed couples. Social anxiety was found to be tied to poor relationship satisfaction in the daily lives of both persons with SA (actors) and their partners. For the actors, this negative association was fully mediated by the actor's perception of poor partner responsiveness. in contrast, for the partners, this negative association was not attributable to PPr. the results remained essentially unchanged even when controlling for comorbid depressive symptoms and for prior relationship satisfaction.
... Responsive interaction sequences commence when one party expresses, explicitly or implicitly, needs or desires. These expressions, like all forms of self-disclosure, inherently involve the risk of rejection (e.g., Kashdan et al., 2007;Moscovich, Rodebaugh, & Hesch, 2012;Murray, Holmes, & Collins, 2006). SA individuals are particularly sensitive to such rejection, have a self-protective communication style (Davila & Beck, 2002), and consequently, limit self-disclosure and tend to be inhibited in interpersonal encounters (Leary & Atherton, 1986). ...
... This general pattern of interpersonal behavior appears to also occur specifically within the committed romantic relationships of these individuals (e.g., in sub-clinical SA: Cuming & Rapee, 2010;in clinical SA: Sparrevohn & Rapee, 2009). Moreover, rather than relying on emotional expression to increase closeness, SA individuals (or at least women) seem to rely more on emotional and behavioral inhibition attempts to create interpersonal closeness (Kashdan, Volkmann, Breen, & Han, 2007). Unfortunately, their inhibition in eliciting responsiveness inevitably limits their partners' opportunities to detect their needs or desires, and results in lower actual responsiveness. ...
Article
Full-text available
Despite the inherent interpersonal nature of social anxiety (SA), a surprisingly sparse literature addresses the interpersonal processes occurring within the committed romantic relationships of SA individuals. the current study tested the hypothesis that the relational phenomenon of perceived partner (un)responsiveness (PPR; Reis, Clark, & Holmes, 2004), mediates the association between SA and poor relationship satisfaction. We used recently-developed actor-partner-interdependence mediational models with data from a 35-day dyadic diary study of 80 committed couples. Social anxiety was found to be tied to poor relationship satisfaction in the daily lives of both persons with SA (actors) and their partners. For the actors, this negative association was fully mediated by the actor's perception of poor partner responsiveness. in contrast, for the partners, this negative association was not attributable to PPR. the results remained essentially unchanged even when controlling for comorbid depressive symptoms and for prior relationship satisfaction.
... Individuals with high social anxiety might fear and feel compelled to limit the development of intimacy in their relationships for a number of self-protective and relationship-protective reasons. Individuals with high social anxiety and SAD avoid self-disclosure (e.g., Meleshko & Alden [37]; Sparrevohn & Rapee [38]) and have difficulty in expressing personal beliefs, intentions and preferences to their intimate partners for fear of being rejected or abandoned [39][40][41]. This pattern of interpersonal difficulties is spread in Western societies and appears as an important risk factor for UM because highly socially anxious individuals tend to fear rejection [42]. ...
... Previous research (e.g., Sparrevohn & Rape [38]; Bodinger et al. [43]) has demonstrated that socially anxious individuals report lower satisfaction with various aspects of their relationships, including lower sexual satisfaction, in comparison to non-anxious individuals. Moreover a good communication about sexuality within the couple is related to a better intimacy and sexual satisfaction [39,44]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The most shared definition of Unconsummated Marriage (UM) refers to "the failure to perform successful sexual intercourse at the beginning of the marriage. UM usually occurs in the first few nights of marriage and so it is frequently referred to as "honeymoon impotence" or "wedding night impotence". In the Middle-Eastern (MES) and Western (WS) societies, sexuality follows different patterns in terms of meaning and rules. Moreover the evolution of societies all around the world created new contexts and kinds of relationship. This could hamper a correct taxonomy of such sexual dysfunction where a social variable seems crucial. Aim: To analyze and review data on UM all around the world, to understand if in different societies it refers to the same situation. Method: A review of published literature on UM from 1970 to date, was conducted. Results: Substantial difference emerged from MES to WS. In MES, sexuality is allowable only in marriage, while in WS sexuality and relationship are not strongly linked. This could suggest that the term "marriage" is unable to cover the phenomenon in such different countries. Moreover, the average time before the consultation, causal attribution and prevalence are very different in Western and Middle Eastern countries. Conclusion: We found that the term "first attempts dysfunction" could be better used to describe male, female or both difficulties related to ignorance about sexuality or state/performance anxiety. On the other hand over the individual category of sexual dysfunctions, we suggest a new term as "Unconsummated relationship", where individual difficulties toward sexuality are involved creating a couple's dysfunction.
... Gli individui con alta ansia sociale potrebbero avere una tale paura del rifiuto, da sentirsi costretti a limitare il possibile instaurarsi di una situazione di intimità, nel tentativo di proteggere se stessi o la loro relazione. Gli individui con alta ansia sociale tendono ad evitare tutti questi movimenti di autorivelazione (e.g., Meleshko, Alden, 1993;Sparrevohn, Rapee, 2009) ed hanno quindi delle difficoltà ad esprimere le loro personali convinzioni, intenzioni e preferenze ai loro partner intimi, per paura di essere respinti o abbandonati (Kashdan et al., 2007;Keltner, Haidt, 1999;Keltner, Kring, 1998). Questo modello di difficoltà interpersonale, è osservato in misura molto superiore nelle società occidentali e appare come un importante fattore di rischio per il MB (Davila, Beck, 2002). ...
... Diverse ricerche (e.g., Bodinger et al., 2002;Sparrevohn, Rapee, 2009) hanno dimostrato che gli individui socialmente ansiosi riportano alta soddisfazione per vari aspetti delle loro relazioni, ma una soddisfazione sessuale più bassa rispetto agli individui non ansiosi. La mancanza di una comunicazione esplicita circa i propri desideri e necessità potrebbe in parte spiegare il minore benessere sessuale, visto che, è piuttosto condiviso il concetto che una buona comunicazione sulla sessualità all'interno della coppia, sia correlata ad un'intimità migliore e ad una maggiore soddisfazione sessuale (Descutner, Thelen, 1991;Kashdan et al., 2007). Nelle società occidentali e mediorientali o orientali, seppur in diverso modo, le persone sentono la pressione sociale sulla loro sessualità, con rischio di sviluppare diverse forme di ansia sociale. ...
... On the other hand, negative expressivity generally imposes critical disruptions to interpersonal relatedness by eroding social support and relationship functioning (Halberstadt et al., 1995;Kashdan et al., 2007;Rauer & Volling, 2005). Accordingly, several findings focusing on specific types of emotion suppression provide indirect evidence that the suppression of negative emotions may be better tolerated within the Eastern cultural context, where interdependent values are prominent. ...
Article
Despite a general consensus on the negative consequences of emotion suppression in Western cultures, cross-cultural explorations to date have yielded many inconsistencies on whether such phenomena can be generalized to Eastern cultures. A set of two studies were conducted to examine the role of emotional valence in resolving such inconsistencies on both relationship satisfaction and subjective well-being. In accordance with our hypotheses, our results consistently revealed that the habitual suppression of emotions was associated with lower relationship satisfaction and subjective well-being, regardless of valence, for American participants. However, the effects of emotion suppression significantly varied by valence for Korean participants, such that suppressing negative emotions was less detrimental than suppressing positive emotions. Overall, the present study highlights the importance of considering the nature of different emotions and cultural contexts when examining the adaptiveness of emotion regulation strategies on individuals’ interpersonal and intrapersonal well-being.
... Research on SAD demonstrated reduction of perceived closeness in socially anxious individuals when confronted with a partner's anticipated negative critique. Contrariwise, the opposite was found for nonsocially anxious individuals [36,37]. It also appears that people with high SAD symptoms use fewer positive interaction skills (e.g., compliments, empathy, nonverbal behavior) and display more negative communication (e.g., blaming) compared to people with low SAD symptoms. ...
... A person who expresses his negative feelings openly in the workplace would not be able to align his true emotions with the expected emotions thus finding it difficult to indulge in deep acting. A teacher who is in a habit of expressing his negative feelings in the class will not be able to produce the required results because displaying adverse feelings may lead to attract negative response from the students and teachers are subject to embarrassment, blunders and rejection (Kashdan, T.B., Volkmann, J.R., Breen, W.E & Han, S., 2006). In this situation the teacher will be emotionally exhausted and his job performance will be declined. ...
Article
Full-text available
The study was intended to find out the impact of expressivity and impulse strength on burnout and turnover intention with a mediating role of deep acting. A total of 161 responses was used for the analysis of the study. Correlation, regression and sobel statistics were used for analysis purposes. Results indicated significant influences of expressivity and impulse strength towards burnout and turnover intentions. Deep acting also found playing mediating role.
... This risk is managed primarily through hypervigilance to signs of negative evaluation and avoidance of distressing emotions and thoughts (Aframn & Kashdan, 2015). According to Kashdan, Volkmann, Breen, & Han (2007), people with social anxiety tend to suppress their feelings in order to prevent the possible expression of unfavorable emotions to others which may invite social blunders, shame, and rejection. Social anxious people can be expected to fear the negative outcomes of expression of negative feelings such as anxiety and anger toward others. ...
... The inability to predict how other people will react to self-expression can lead to a hesitancy to disclose emotions to others, as well as a tendency to regret self-disclosure that was perceived to be too revealing. Past research has negatively linked self-disclosure with closeness for people with high social anxiety (Kashdan, Volkmann, Breen, & Han, 2007), which may function in a similar way to AEE in regards to close relationships. Along with the poorer interpersonal functioning (King, 1993) and fear of intimacy (Emmons & Colby, 1995) mentioned previously as negative outcomes for those who are high in AEE, it was also found that self-authenticity moderated the negative association between relationship satisfaction and emotion suppression. ...
Article
This study evaluated pet affinity as a buffer between ambivalence over emotional expression (AEE) and social support. AEE occurs when one desires to express emotions but is reluctant to do so and is related to negative psychological outcomes. Individuals high in AEE may have difficulty receiving social support and thus may not gain accompanying benefits. Social support has been associated with positive health outcomes, and pet support is positively associated with human social support. The present study explores the potential protective effect of pet affinity. One hundred ninety-eight undergraduate dog owners completed measures assessing perceived social support, pet affinity, and AEE. AEE was expected to be negatively associated with social support, and pet affinity was expected to buffer the negative effects of AEE on social support. We found that AEE was negatively associated with perceived social support. An interaction between pet affinity and AEE emerged such that the negative association between AEE and social support was weaker among those higher in pet affinity. Thus, at high levels of AEE, those who felt a close connection with their pets reported more perceived social support than those less connected with their pets. Overall, these findings emphasize the potential benefits of pet affinity.
... The effect of closeness discrepancies on the quality of relationships and individuals' mental health has been the subject of recent research (Frost & Forrester, 2013;Kashdan, Volkmann, Breen, & Han, 2007). A longitudinal study of the general adult population (Frost & Forrester, 2013) highlighted how higher levels of closeness is not always beneficial for relationships. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the impact of sexual closeness on sexual well-being. We developed a nuanced and multifaceted conceptualization of sexual closeness in the form of a constellation of ideal sexual closeness with a partner, actual sexual closeness, and the discrepancy between the two. Data were obtained from a diverse sample of N?=?619 participants who took part in the Lives and Relationships Study: A longitudinal survey of men and women in relationships living in the U.S. and Canada. Increases in sexual closeness discrepancies over a period of 1?year predicted concomitant decreases in two indicators of sexual well-being: sexual satisfaction and orgasm frequency evaluations. Decreases in sexual closeness discrepancies resulted in improvement in sexual well-being. Individuals who reported no sexual closeness discrepancies and experienced no changes in sexual closeness discrepancies tended to have the highest levels of sexual well-being. Importantly, sexual closeness discrepancies were robust predictors of sexual well-being, above and beyond individuals' actual sexual closeness, general relationship closeness, and other demographic and relationship characteristics known to be associated with sexual well-being. The present findings demonstrate that how close people feel sexually to their relationship partners is part of a general constellation of factors related to relationship closeness that, only when considered together, sufficiently explain the ways in which experiences of closeness impact sexual well-being in romantic relationships.
... Socijalno anksiozne osobe koriste se strategijom skrivanja vlastitog ja i svega povezanog s njime (primjerice riječi, ideja, emocija) kako bi smanjile potencijalno odbijanje ili pad socijalnog statusa (Kashdan i Steger, 2006). Ta strategija, nerijetko, uključuje potiskivanje vlastite emocionalne reakcije i emocionalnih iskustava, posebice onih vrlo intenzivnih (Alden, Taylor, Mellings i Laposa, 2008;Eisner, Johnson, Carver, 2009;Kashdan, 2007b;Kashdan i Steger, 2006;Spokas, Luterek i Heimberg, 2009) zbog osnovnog cilja kojem teže socijalno anksiozne osobe: izbjegavanje odbijanja i održavanje nekog stupanja povezanosti s drugima pod svaku cijenu (Kashdan, Volkmann, Breen i Han, 2007). ...
Article
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Social anxiety often leads to various interpersonal problems. The purpose of this study was to examine the contribution of the need to hide the true self from others and of experiencing positive emotions in explaining the friendship quality of socially anxious students. The study was conducted with 630 students from three Croatian universities. The participants filled out the following questionnaires: General data questionnaire, Social Interaction Anxiety Scale, Social Phobia Scale, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, The Core Extrusion Schema Measure and Friendship Quality Questionnaire. The results of hierarchical regression analysis, after controlling for gender and both types of social fears, indicate that the specific significant predictors of students' friendship quality are the need to hide the true self and the frequency of experiencing positive emotions. Gender is the consistent significant predictor, but does not moderate the relationship between social anxiety and friendship quality. The obtained results are useful in theoretical understanding of self-disclosure and the development of close relationships, and have practical implications that can be useful in therapy for socially anxious people who tend to use the strategy of hiding the true self.
... Mental health concerns may lead one to feel less sure of their ability to maintain a relationship. Anxiety and other issues with social relations are associated with poorer relationship functioning (Kashdan, Volkmann, Breen, & Han, 2007), and poor emotional well-being or distress might indicate depressive symptomology or other conditions, which are associated with poorer relationship functioning and less success in maintaining long-term relationships (Sandberg-Thoma & Kamp Dush, 2014). General well-being is closely associated with intimate relationships and might also be associated with expectations of divorce (Kamp Dush & Amato, 2005;Kim & McKenry, 2002). ...
Article
Expectations that one may eventually divorce may predict behavior in young adulthood and beyond, but studies that have looked at individuals’ assessments of their divorce likelihood have been limited. Guided by the expectancy-value theory of achievement motivation, we tested five categories of potential predictors of divorce expectations in a sample of 1,610 unmarried young adults from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics Transition to Adulthood Study. Predictors were tested separately by gender and partnership status. Results suggested that some predictors mattered more for some groups than others, such as employment for single men or certainty of marriage for partnered women. Consistent with prior research, caregiver divorce was significantly associated with expectations to divorce but was only one of many factors found to predict these expectations. Socioeconomic factors and experiences and expectations of other relationships consistently predicted expectations. Expectations to divorce are multifaceted and complex.
... Some adolescents report that intense fear and anxiety is associated with interactions with potential romantic partners, and this is termed dating anxiety [24]. In addition, socially anxious individuals show impairments in their romantic relationships, such as by controlling or even avoiding the disclosure of intimate emotions, needs, or desires in order to avoid rejection [25,26]. ...
Article
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We examined longitudinal associations between social phobia (SP) and educational and interper-sonal impairments among Finnish adolescents. Participants were 3278 adolescents (9th grade; M age = 15.5 years) who completed measures of SP and depressive symptoms; 2070 participated in follow-up two years later. Indicators for educational and interpersonal functioning were assessed for each sex separately. Multivariate analyses, controlling for depression and relevant socioeconomic covariates, indicated that for boys, age 15 SP predicted slow academic progression, being without a close friend or not having a romantic relationship, and poor support from friends and significant others at age 17. However, for girls, age 15 SP only predicted not having been involved in a romantic relationship by age 17. In conclusion, we found striking sex differences for adolescent SP as a predictor for subsequent educational and interpersonal impairments in late adolescence. SP may have a more devastating effect on boys' social and academic functioning relative to that of girls.
... Se puede entender desde un punto de vista básico (nivel de activación), hasta planteamientos más elaborados relativos a sentimientos que se construyen a partir del funcionamiento de estructuras neuronales y procesos cognitivos (angustia, ansiedad, estrés, fobia) y con una clara connotación social que, a final de cuentas, es el medio a través del cual la conducta humana refleja la actividad cerebral. Por lo tanto, esta emoción se puede estudiar en términos de actividad cerebral (Dunsmoor y LaBar, 2012), procesos cognitivos (Olatunji, Moretz y Zlomke, 2010) y contextos sociales (Kashdan, Volkmann, Breen y Han, 2010). ...
... Furthermore, Nightingale and Williams (2000) found a positive correlation between the repression and deregulation of emotion and physical ill health. Withholding emotions will have negative effects on psychological wellness and decrease cognitive ability in the process of comprehending and utilising emotion goals; this can also be viewed as a constant stressor that weakens physiological and psychological health (Ullrich and Lutgendorf 2002;Kashdan et al. 2007). ...
Article
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The South African Police Service (SAPS) is an organisation where employees are exposed to numerous stressful and traumatic episodes which affects the employee’s emotion functioning. Although several pro-active psychological programs exist within the organisation, they do not effectively assist the employee with coping with stressors on an emotion level. The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate an emotion competence intervention for the SAPS. From the literature study, several emotion competencies were found that will illustrate emotion intelligent behaviour. The criteria, methodology and content to include in an emotion competence intervention for the SAPS was established and included in the development of the intervention. The intervention was evaluated by a panel of experts (N=13), suggesting only a few minor adaptations. These suggestions were incorporated in the final emotion competence intervention. Limitations included the small amount of experts that evaluated the intervention, as well as the absence of functional SAPS members as part of the panel of experts. Recommendations for future studies were made.
... Neste sentido uma imagem menos investida de si pode traduzir menos disponibilidade pessoal para a relação com o exterior, nomeadamente no que concerne à qualidade das relações amorosas. Estudos longitudinais têm vindo a corroborar esta ideia, na medida em que jovens mais internalizantes, com uma postura ruminativa e pautada por maiores níveis de sintomatologia depressiva (e.g., Starr & Davila, 2009) e ansiosa (e.g., Kashdan, Volkmann, Breen, & Han, 2007), parecem condicionar o desenvolvimento das relações amorosas. ...
Article
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According to Bartholomew model individuals develop their identity and build the perception of self and others, according representations submitted by the significant figures of affection. Romantic attachment prototypes have relation to mental health and psychological well-being in young. In a sample of 334 young between 13 and 25 years, this study aims to examine the extent of linkage prototypes differ according to age, gender, family configuration, psychological well-being and psychopathology. Significant differences were found on gender and psychopathology, but no differences were observed with regard to prototypes on age, family configuration and psychological well-being. The results will be discussed in the light of attachment theory taking account the particularities of Bartholomew prototypes, in order to realize their contribution to psychological wellbeing and development of psychopathology in young. © 2014, Instituto Superior de Psicologia Aplicada. All rights reserved.
... The regression analysis carried out in this study supports this qualitative account, as having both autism and high anxiety accounted for a significant reduction in relationship closeness on the URCS. While the impact of anxiety on relationships has usually been studied through the lens of attachment style, there is evidence to suggest that high social anxiety makes people less likely to express their emotions to their partner, and that this can have a negative effect on relationship closeness (Kashdan, Volkmann, Breen, & Han, 2007). Those with higher levels of anxiety are also likely to perceive more conflict in their romantic relationships, and these conflicts are more likely to escalate rather than be easily resolved, both of which result in lower levels of relationship closeness and more relationship distress (Campbell, Simpson, Boldry, & Kashy, 2005). ...
Thesis
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Despite a wealth of interest in, and research on, gender differences in the friendships and social relationships of neurotypical children and adults, there is a paucity of research on such differences in individuals on the autism spectrum. Only three published papers focus specifically on the friendships of autistic individuals in the same age range as the work of this PhD, and these have included predominantly male participants, who do not represent the range of female experiences. This PhD therefore sought to redress this imbalance by focussing on the peer relationship, friendships, and conflict experiences of adolescent girls, as well as women on the autism spectrum, in comparison to their autistic male and neurotypical female peers. Parental views on the relationships of autistic girls were also sought. In Chapter One, I review the literature investigating peer relationships amongst autistic adolescents, neurotypical adolescents, and autistic adults, focussing on their experiences of conflict within those relationships and their potential impact. Chapters Two and Three focus on data from adolescents. In Chapter Two, I present data from a mixed-methods study showing that autistic adolescents rate their best-friendships as like those of neurotypical adolescents, but that autistic adolescents experience far more peer conflict, and these experiences are qualitatively different for autistic girls compared to all other groups. In Chapter Three, I examine the factors that potentially underpin friendship strength and victimisation for male and female adolescents, following the results of Chapter Two and using data from the same participants. In Chapter Four, which focuses specifically on adult women, I report data from autistic and neurotypical adult women, examining similar constructs and questions to the adolescent study (Chapter Two). In Chapter Five, I directly compare the qualitative data from autistic girls, autistic women, and the girls’ parents. I take a developmental perspective, examining which factors might lead to the potential vulnerability described in Chapter Four, to understand which preventative measures might be used to support autistic girls as they grow up. In Chapter Six, I discuss the significance of these findings in the context of the extant literature on both autism in girls and women, and of the peer relationships of autistic adolescents. I conclude by suggesting that the relationships and social experiences of autistic girls and women are qualitatively different to those of both autistic boys and neurotypical girls and women. These findings suggest that autistic girls and women require specialised and targeted support to enable them to successfully and safely engage with their peers in adolescence and beyond.
... Research has only recently begun to explore social anxiety in the context of close relationships. For example, people with higher levels of social anxiety show lower levels of self-disclosure with their romantic partners (Cuming & Rapee, 2010;Sparrevohn & Rapee, 2009;Wenzel, 2002), along with decreased closeness to their romantic partners during mutual expressions of pain or distress (Kashdan, Volkmann, Breen, & Han, 2007). However, it is not clear why people with elevated social anxiety might be less close. ...
Article
Socially anxious people report less closeness to others, but very little research has examined how social anxiety is related to closeness in real-time social interactions. The present study investigated social anxiety, closeness, and cortisol reactivity in zero-acquaintance interactions between 84 same-sex dyads (168 participants). Dyads engaged in either a high or low self-disclosure discussion task and completed self-report measures of closeness and desired closeness post-task. Salivary cortisol was collected before, during, and after the self-disclosure task. Multilevel models indicated that in the high self-disclosure condition, individuals higher in social anxiety displayed flatter declines in cortisol than those lower in social anxiety; cortisol declines were not significantly related to social anxiety in the low self-disclosure condition. Further, across both conditions, individual’s social anxiety was associated with decreased levels of closeness and desired closeness, particularly when individuals were paired with partners higher in social anxiety. These findings are discussed in relation to previous work on hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal function, social anxiety, and interpersonal closeness.
... As a result of the research, it has been seen that the increase of social anxiety will decrease the emotional attachment that includes the participation, communication, sharing and performance of the individual. Kashdan et al. (2007) are similar to the result obtained. As the level of social anxiety increased, the qualities of expressing the emotions of the persons were found to decrease significantly in terms of individual attractiveness perceptions and interpersonal intimacy. ...
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Çalışmanın amacı, havacılık sektöründe istihdam edilen kabin personelinin sosyal kaygı düzeylerinin örgütsel bağlılık üzerindeki etkisini incelemektir. Çalışmada, havacılık sektörünün önde gelen şirketinde görev yapan 130 kabin personeline yönelik uygulamalı bir araştırma yapılmış ve anket formu ile toplanan veriler analiz edilmiştir. Araştırma grubunda yer alan kabin personelinin demografik faktörleri incelenmiştir. Cinsiyette ve öğrenim durumunda, sosyal kaygı üzerinde istatistiksel olarak anlamlı bir fark olmadığı görülürken; medeni durum, çalışma süresi, yaş ve görevde fark olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Araştırmanın sonucunda, kabin personelinin sosyal kaygı düzeylerinin düşük olduğu ve örgütsel bağlılıklarının da yüksek olduğu belirlenmiştir. Sosyal kaygının örgütsel bağlılığın alt boyutları olan duygusal ve devamlılık bağlılığı üzerinde negatif yönlü bir etkisi olduğu görülmektedir. The aim of the study is to determine whether the levels of social anxiety of cabin personnel employed in the aviation sector on organizational commitment. In the study, an applied research was carried out on the 130 cabin personnel working in the leading enterprises of the aviation sector and the collected data were analyzed by the questionnaire form. The demographic factors of the cabin staff in the research group were observed. While there was no statistically significant difference in social anxiety in terms of gender and education, there was statistically significant difference in social anxiety in terms of marital status, duration of study, age and duty. As a result of the study, it was detected that the level of social anxiety of cabin personnel is low and organizational commitment of cabin personnel is high. It has been found that the social anxiety has a negative effect on the subordinate dimensions of emotional and organizational commitment.
... Although the majority of research on closeness in romantic relationships is based on the assumption that closer relationships are better relationships, emerging research shows that individuals vary in the amount of closeness they want within their relationships (Aron et al., 2004;Fletcher et al., 1999;Goodboy & Booth-Butterfield, 2009;Kashdan et al., 2007;Mashek & Sherman, 2004). Recent research indicates that the role of closeness in determining the quality of romantic relationships is most accurately understood in the form of closeness discrepancies (e.g., Frost & Forrester, 2013;Frost et al., 2017). ...
Article
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Closeness is often considered synonymous with better quality romantic relationships. However, individual differences exist in the degree of closeness people desire in their relationships. This study examined the implications that discrepancies between actual and ideal closeness have for relationship quality in romantic couples. A questionnaire was administered to a sample of 103 cohabiting couples ( N = 206) in the United States, who were randomly selected from a nationally representative survey panel. Dyadic analysis using actor–partner interdependence models with latent outcomes revealed that internal discrepancies between actual and idealized closeness were associated with poorer relationship quality for both individuals and their partners. These associations persisted above and beyond the effects of actual closeness and dyad-level differences in actual and ideal closeness. The association between closeness and relationship quality may be more individual than dyadic in nature, warranting renewed attention to the idiographic experience of closeness and its association with relational well-being.
... This enabled the calculation of closeness discrepancy scores by subtracting the current level of IOS from the desired level for each participant. Closeness discrepancies have been incorporated into research before (e.g., Frost & Forrester, 2013;Kashdan, Volkmann, Breen, & Han, 2007), but Frost et al. (2017) were the first to incorporate sexual closeness discrepancies. In summary, the IOS scale proved very flexible, easy to administer and highly adaptable to a variety of research objectives. ...
Article
To better understand the effect relationship closeness has on couple’s sexuality a scoping review was conducted, that focused on the inclusion of other in the self scale (IOS). Authors reviewed quantitative journal articles published between 2000 and 2020 by searching PsychInfo, Medline, and PubMed, resulting in 24 studies. Results suggest positive associations between IOS and sexual well-being, functioning, desire, frequency and satisfaction, and negatively related to sexual distress. Also, the benefits of positive sexual experiences expand well beyond the sexual domain onto different personal and relational factors of health and well-being. Sampling designs considerably limit the generalizability of results.
... In comparison with hard emotions, soft emotions have a negative impact when they are chronic or extreme. Kashdan (2006) indicates that partners which listen everyday soft emotions which require responsiveness, provision of reassurance and comfort will feel fatigue, burnout and negative mood contagion. Moreover, McNulty (2010) suggests in his review that the majority of interventions for treating marital distress are tending to use thoughts and behaviours associated with positive emotions, but these positive processes tend to have results in the case of relatively healthy couple, while for couples with severe problems, the more-negative processes tend to be more efficiently. ...
Article
The universal human tendency to form close relationships, the basic needs satisfied by social relationships and the centrality of them to human existence were ones of the most important reasons why people started to research the concept of close relationships and its impact on the daily life. In the last 4 decades, the studies of the interpersonal relationships have been one of the favorite areas in the social psychology. The several strong theories and highly generative research paradigms on interpersonal relationships are the result of researchers' interest in this concept. A central role was played by the romantic relationships concept. At the beginning of the 1980s, the publication of studies on relationship types began, and later on, articles on theories about factors of formation, development, maintenance and dissolution of one romantic relationship were published. Across time, they discover that social relationships represent the context in which people experience their most intense emotions, both positive and negative. Especially, the experience and expression of emotions are influencing the formation, maintenance and dissolution of close relationships. Thus, based on these assumptions, this paper is an overview of synthetizing (a) how the concept of romantic relationships is view by different theories; (b) what are the benefits of them; and (c) which type of negative emotions are experienced within a romantic relationship. Keywords:emotion, romantic relationships, soft, hard, fear-based, flat emotions.
... What do the social networks of highly psychologically flexible people look like and how do they differ from the average person? We are beginning to learn more about the interpersonal consequences of psychological phenomena that explicitly involve other people, such as social anxiety (e.g., Kashdan, Volkmann, Breen, & Han, 2007;Stevens & Morris, 2007;Van Zalk, Van Zalk, Kerr, & Stattin, 2011), but more work must be done to understand the social implications of psychological flexibility. Psychological flexibility can build off and extend new models in affective science that detail how and why emotion regulation is an interpersonal process that must be studied accordingly (Zaki & Williams, 2013). ...
Article
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Psychological flexibility is the tendency to respond to situations in ways that facilitate valued goal pursuit. Psychological flexibility is particularly useful when challenges arise during goal pursuit that produce distress. In acceptance and commitment therapy, psychological flexibility is considered the pinnacle of emotional health and well-being. A growing body of research demonstrates that psychological flexibility leads to psychological benefits and adaptive behavior change. Yet, much of what we know, or think we know, about psychological flexibility hinges on a single measurement approach using the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (AAQ and AAQ-II). Research suggests the AAQ-II is highly correlated with distress itself rather than flexible responses to distress. Existing approaches that assess psychological flexibility ignore the context in which flexibility matters most: the pursuit of valued goals. Below, we review theory and research on psychological flexibility, including its associations with healthy functioning, its measurement, and its overlap with related constructs. We discuss how gaps between theory and measurement impede our understanding and review promising evidence for a new measure of psychological flexibility. We provide new research directions in an effort to create a more generalizable foundation of knowledge. Soc Personal Psychol Compass. 2020;e12566. wileyonlinelibrary.com/journal/spc3
... Este proceso sería equivalente al concepto de "fusión cognitiva", ampliamente descrito en la literatura (p.ej., Wilson & Luciano, 2002). Por ejemplo, se ha observado que la dificultad para expresarse y realizar autorrevelaciones en personas con elevada ansiedad social podría deberse a la presencia de fusión cognitiva (lo contrario de aceptación psicológica) con sus propias emociones y pensamientos en el contexto de la interacción (Kashdan, Volkmann, Breen & Han, 2007). ...
Article
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Intimate relationships matter for both human's physical and psychological health. Although many theories have been developed to study this topic, there is no consensus about the underlying processes in human relationships. The Interpersonal Process Model, which has well-established empirical support, aims to address the development of intimate relationships describing them as observed behaviors. This has important implications in psychotherapy, especially for those approaches that understand the interpersonal patient-therapist relationship as a tool for change. That is the case of Functional Analytic Psychotherapy. In this paper we articulate a model of intimate relationships based on Interpersonal Process Model and the principles of Functional Behavioral Analysis, connecting it with previous results on the field of intimate relationships. Likewise, a discussion about its implications in psychotherapy and its utility to solve some Functional Analytic Psychotherapy's limitations is presented.
... Indeed, there is direct evidence showing that feelings of inauthenticity mediated the link between one's daily use of suppression and both one's own and partner's report of relationship quality (Impett et al., 2012). However, the use of suppression might also have some positive effects on romantic relationships, at least for individuals with certain personality characteristics (Kashdan et al., 2007). Therefore, it might be possible that some positive effects of suppression often undo its detrimental consequences, which might partly explain the absence of its partner effects in our study. ...
Article
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Studies investigating the effects of emotion regulation on romantic partners’ relationship satisfaction (RS) found that proneness to use cognitive reappraisal exerts positive, whereas expressive suppression negative effects on both one’s own and partner’s satisfaction. However, no studies explored the effects of partner reported use of the two emotion regulation strategies on RS, which might allow the exclusion of method-related explanations of the previous findings and offer new insights into the mechanisms involved. We tested the hypotheses about the effects of reappraisal and suppression on RS on a sample of 205 romantic couples by using round-robin design and actor-partner interdependence modelling (APIM). Although the effects were relatively small, they were still in line with the assumptions that cognitive reappraisal has positive intra- and interpersonal effects on RS, that they can be generalized across self- and partner reports to a certain extent, and that they are somewhat stronger in women. Considering expressive suppression, only women’s self-reported suppression exerted significant negative intrapersonal effect on RS. Implications of self- and partner reports of emotion regulation for the understanding of the mechanisms mediating its effects on RS are discussed.
... An important consideration concerns the extent to which this behavior is adaptive for socially anxious individuals, as Kashdan, Volkmann, Breen, and Han (2007) demonstrated that, for individuals with higher levels of social anxiety, relationship closeness improved over a 12-week period for those participants who actively withheld the expression of negative emotions. Given the frequency of perceived intimate partner rejection among socially anxious individuals, reacting by expressing negative affect may create further discord. ...
Article
Individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD) demonstrate impaired functioning in intimate relationships, yet little is known about how socially anxious individuals respond to perceived intimate partner rejection. In the present study, individuals with SAD (n = 30) and healthy controls (HCs; n = 33) who were involved in current intimate relationships completed daily diaries each evening for 14 days. Daily diaries assessed the extent to which participants experienced feelings of rejection in their intimate relationships, as well as the extent to which they responded to feelings of rejection by using behaviors characterized by withdrawal (“withdrawal” processes) versus efforts to reaffiliate with their partners (“approach” processes). Results revealed that overall, individuals with SAD exhibited greater use of withdrawal-focused processes, whereas HC participants exhibited greater use of approach-focused processes. However, on days following intimate partner rejection, only individuals with SAD restricted their use of withdrawal-focused processes. These findings provide insight into the nature of rejection concerns and responses to rejection among individuals with SAD as compared with HC participants.
... Sosyal anksiyete bozukluğuyla ilgili alan yazında sosyal anksiyetenin başa çıkma becerileri, akademik başarı, benlik saygısı, depresyon, ebeveyn tutumları, akran ilişkileri, romantik ilişkiler, beden imajı, mükemmeliyetçilik gibi birçok farklı değişkenle ilişkisinin incelendiği araştırmalar mevcuttur. 8,[25][26][27][28][29][30] Bu araştırmada ise; sosyal anksiyete bozukluğunun benlik saygısı, anne-baba tutumları ve mükemmeliyetçilik özelliği ile ilişkisi birlikte incelenerek sosyal anksiyete bozukluğunun kaynağını anlamaya yönelik araştırmalara katkı sağlaması beklenmektedir. Bu kapsamda araştırmanın amacı sosyal anksiyete bozukluğu ile benlik saygısı, anne-baba tutumları ve mükemmeliyetçilik arasındaki ilişkiyi ve bu bağımsız değişkenlerin sosyal anksiyeteyi nasıl açıkladığını tespit etmektir. ...
Article
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Objectives:The present study was conducted to examine the relationship between social anxiety levels and self-esteem, perceived parental attitudes and perfectionism traits in secondary school students.Materials and Methods:In this study, 970 students (503 females and 467 males) were recruited from secondary schools in Trabzon in the 2016-2017 academic year. The Social Anxiety scale for Children Updated Form, Two Dimensional Self- Esteem scale (Self-Liking/Self Competence scale, Parental Attitude scale, Adaptive-Maladaptive Perfectionism scale were administered to the participants.Results:It was found that there was a significant negative correlation between social anxiety levels and self-esteem of the students. Social anxiety had a significant negative correlation with over-involvement and authoritative parental attitudes; however, there was not a significant relationship between democratic parental attitude and social anxiety. While the findings indicated that there was a significant positive correlation between the students’ social anxiety levels and negative perfectionist traits, there was not a significant correlation between positive perfectionism and social anxiety. It was confirmed that self-liking and self-competence, which are two dimensions of self-esteem, authoritative and over-involvement parental attitudes, and negative perfectionism significantly predicted social anxiety.Conclusion:Social anxiety which individuals have during adolescence period can be described as a psychological term associated with their self-assessment manner, some of their parents’ parental attitudes, and their perception about making everything the best.
... The scale barely needs any explanation and is almost free of language, providing no cultural bias and few cognitive requirements (Gächter et al., 2015). Besides, because the scale is sensitive to change (Aron et al., 2003;Kashdan et al., 2007;J. A. Simpson et al., 2003) is not too surprising, as studies have indicated that female gender might be a risk factor for developing PGD (Lobb et al., 2010). ...
Article
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Pathological grief has received increasing attention in recent years, as about 10% of the bereaved suffer from one kind of it. Pathological grief in the form of Prolonged grief disorder (PGD) is a relatively new diagnostic category which will be included into the up-coming ICD-11. To date, various risk and protective factors, as well as treatment options for pathological grief, have been proposed. Nevertheless, empirical evidence in that area is still scarce. Our aim was to identify the association of interpersonal closeness with the deceased and bereavement outcome. Interpersonal closeness with the deceased in 54 participants (27 patients suffering from PGD and 27 bereaved healthy controls) was assessed as the overlap of pictured identities via the Inclusion of the Other in the Self Scale (IOS-scale). In addition to that, data on PGD symptomatology, general mental distress, and depression were collected. Patients suffering from PGD reported higher inclusion of the deceased in the self. By contrast, they reported feeling less close towards another living close person. Results of the IOS-scale were associated with PGD-severity, general mental distress, and depression. Inclusion of the deceased in the self is a significant statistical predictor for PGD-caseness.
... In fact, people high in social anxiety tend to evade their emotions in order to avoid the potential to be rejected or ridiculed by others, and oft en recall failed social interactions more strongly, mainly because they are hyperaware of past hurtful interactions (Clark, 2005). That is, highly anxious people are often worried about and aim to avoid rejection even while wanting to have closeness with others (Kashdan, Volkmann, Breen, & Han, 2007). Given that avoidance goals are associated with anxiety, we explored whether people's feelings of anxiety on Tinder accounted for the association between avoidance goals while using Tinder and dating success on Tinder. ...
Article
Tinder, the mobile dating app, is widely used for meeting potential dating partners, but little research has investigated the dating experiences of users. In two studies, we applied the approach-avoidance theory of social motivation to understand the association between people’s goals for Tinder use and their perceived and actual dating success. In Study 1 we found that higher approach goals for using Tinder, such as to develop intimate relationships, were associated with more positive beliefs about people on Tinder, and in turn, associated with reporting greater perceived dating success, initiating more conversations on Tinder, and going on more second dates with people from Tinder. In contrast, people who had higher avoidance goals when using Tinder, such as aiming to avoid embarrassment, reported feeling more anxious when using Tinder and in turn, perceived less dating success and reported fewer second dates. In Study 2—a preregistered replication of Study 1—we largely replicated the effects from Study 1. Additional analyses in both studies revealed that the results were not accounted for by attractiveness of the user and were consistent between men and women, but differed based on the age of the user. The associations between approach goals and dating success were stronger for younger, compared to older users and the association between avoidance goals and dating success were stronger for older, compared to younger, users. The findings have implications for understanding the role of motivation in dating success on Tinder and reveal novel mechanisms for the associations between dating goals and dating success.
... "Anne-Baba Eğitim Düzeyinin İlköğretim 1.Sınıf Öğrencilerinin Duyguları İfade Etme Becerilerine Etkisinin İncelenmesi", Eğitim Orhan Akova, Gürel Çetin, Fazıl Kaya; Lisans ve Önlisans Turizm Öğrencileri Üzerine Bir Araştırma73Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi 2(1) 2014ve Öğretim Araştırmaları Dergisi, 2(2), pp. 254-262.Kashdan, T.B., Volkmann, J.R.,Breen, W. and Han, S., (2007). "Social anxiety andRomantic Relationships: The Costs and Benefits of Negative Emotion Expression are Context-Dependent", Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 21, pp. ...
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The tourism sector is affected directly or indirectly by the presence of museums. As a center of attraction, the museums play an important role to attract people to the destination. The visits of museums in the tourism sector are affected by a wide range of factor and the most important factor is the using of museum card. Since 2008 when museum cards started being used, according to statistics, museum visits have been affected positively. The purpose of this study is to reveal importance of using museum card. For this purpose, the statistics of visits to museum and using of museum card is given in this study. According to this study, it has been seen that visits with museumcard increased by 49% between the years of 2011-2012. Key Words: Museum, museums of Çanakkale, museum card.
... Although results of Study 1 suggest that the hypothesized context-sensitive emotional responses are shown most clearly by individuals in the midrange of S-NA inertia, our studies do not offer direct evidence that stronger emotional reactivity to interpersonal situations of adaptive importance contribute to perceptions of responsiveness from one's partner. Prior research has reported a link between expression of negative emotions and relationship closeness (Kashdan, Volkmann, Breen, & Han, 2007), and between negative affective reactions in conflict situations and stable levels of relationship satisfaction, but those findings were based upon couples facing severe relationship problems (McNulty & Russell, 2010). Clear negative affective reactions can be understood as alert signals in situations involving threat to the self or the relationship (Fischer & Manstead, 2016) and may be adaptive to the extent that they communicate and raise awareness of the threat to couples and encourage relationship partners to deal with the issues at stake. ...
Article
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Responding appropriately to an intimate partner’s emotional signals and needs requires that one’s emotional responses be reactive to significant interpersonal experiences. The adaptive function of emotions is likely compromised if an individual’s emotional states are insufficiently attuned to interpersonal events. The present studies examine how individual differences in moment-to-moment emotion dynamics affect interpersonal responsiveness and relationship satisfaction. Study 1 examines associations between emotion dynamics and emotional reactivity to positive and negative relationship events. Emotion dynamics were operationalized using assessments of emotional inertia, which is defined as the degree to which emotions are resistant to change over time. Momentary assessments from 44 participants were collected four times per day over 4 weeks. Emotional inertia showed a curvilinear association with context-sensitive emotional responses to conflict, with individuals high or low in emotional inertia experiencing blunted emotional reactions to conflict. Study 2 assessed emotion dynamics based on four emotion reports per day over 10 days of both partners in a total of 103 couples. Associations of emotion dynamics with perceptions of partners’ responsiveness and relationship satisfaction over 12 months were examined. Partners of individuals with high (inert) or low (erratic) emotional inertia perceived them to be less responsive, which then predicted steeper declines in their relationship satisfaction across 12 months. The results suggest that individuals with inert or erratic emotion dynamics exhibit less context-sensitive emotional responding to conflicts and are perceived by their partners to be less responsive which subsequently undermines the quality of their intimate relationships.
... There is increasing recognition that intimate relationship quality influences the onset and maintenance of many forms of psychopathology [87,88]. Research suggests individuals who exhibit high social anxiety symptoms report less satisfying intimate relationships [6], experience diminished closeness to partners during times of distress [89] experience lower levels of intimacy [90], and are more likely to assign blame and responsibility for conflicts in their intimate relationships on stable traits of their partners when compared to non-socially anxious individuals [91]. Such difficulties may be seen to result from, and/or be exacerbated by, the behaviours associated with each attachment dimension. ...
Article
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Despite extensive evidence relating attachment dimensions to maladaptive interpersonal behaviours and dysfunctional emotion regulation strategies, few studies have explored social anxiety in the context of adult attachment dimensions. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether attachment-related anxiety and avoidance are associated with symptoms of social anxiety and whether cognitive emotion regulation strategies (reappraisal and suppression) play a role in the relationship between adult attachment and social anxiety. A sample of 253 adults (male n = 47, 18.6%; female n = 202, 79.8%; gender not disclosed n = 4, 1.6%) ranging in age from 18 to 74 years (M = 33.12, SD = 11.56) completed an online questionnaire that consisted of the Experience in Close Relationships–Revised Questionnaire (ECR-R); The Inventory of Interpersonal Situations Discomfort scale (IIS-D); and The Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ). Results indicated that both attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance have a direct effect on indices of social anxiety symptomology. Reappraisal partially mediated the relationship between attachment anxiety and social anxiety. However, the relationship between attachment avoidance and social anxiety was not mediated by the use of reappraisal and suppression. Findings of the study have implications for the development of clinical interventions targeting mediators of psychological distress associated with social anxiety.
... Although most of the pictures classified as momentarily unhappy depict some negative emotion, negative affect does not always impair a relationship and can even promote intimacy [42]. Soft emotions, the tendency to express vulnerability, including pro-social emotions such as sadness or anxiety, are more likely to elicit caring behavior and support from the partner, in contrast to anger for instance [20]. ...
Article
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Detecting momentary relationship state and quality in romantic couples is an important endeavor for relationship research, couple therapy, and of course couples themselves. Yet current methods to achieve this are intrusive, asynchronous, plagued by ceiling effects, and only assess subjective responses to questionnaires while trying to capture the objective state of a relationship. According to social appraisal theory, human beings rely on emotional responses to assess interpersonal situations, a key element for relationship functioning in couples. Using couples is particularly advantageous as strong emotional reactions are triggered in romantic relationships. Here, we employ deep learning methods to assess the momentary relationship state of romantic couples from predominantly stock images via facial and bodily emotion expression and other features. Our new model, DeepConnection, comprises pre-trained residual neural networks, spatial pyramid pooling layers, and power mean transformations to extract relevant features from images for binary classification. With this, we achieved an average accuracy of nearly 97% on a separate validation dataset. We also engaged in model interpretation using Gradient-weighted Class Activation Mapping (Grad-CAM) to identify which features allow DeepConnection to detect binarized momentary relationship state. To demonstrate generalizability and robustness, we used DeepConnection to analyze videos of couples exhibiting a range of different postures and facial expressions. Here, we achieved an average accuracy of about 85% with a trained DeepConnection model. The work presented here could inform couples, advance relationship research, and find application in couple therapy to assist the therapist.
Article
This study explores whether the internalization of emotional regulation affects well-being and examines further whether authoritarian leadership can moderate the relationship between such internalization of emotional regulation and employee well-being. A total of 271 working adults who were employed by Chinese enterprises in Taiwan participated in this study. All hypotheses were tested using hierarchical regression analyses. The study showed that controlled emotional regulation through external regulation is significantly negatively associated with such indicators of well-being as mental and physical health, whereas autonomous emotional regulation through integrated regulation is significantly positively associated with such indicators of well-being as mental and physical health. The study also found that authoritarian leadership may moderate the relationship between autonomous emotional regulation through identified or integrated regulation and the well-being indicators.
Article
Objectives: Our main hypothesis in this study was that patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD) and comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) had lower empathy levels than those without ADHD. Also, after controlling for the severity of SAD and depression, we hypothesized that ADHD symptoms contributed to lower levels of empathy in SAD patients. Methods: 72 patients (46 females, 32 males) with SAD between the ages of 18–65 years were divided into two groups as those with (n = 32) and those without ADHD (n = 40). Participants were evaluated using the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS), Turgay’s Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Empathy Quotient. In this study, Mann Whitney-U test, Spearman correlation test, logistic and multiple regression analysis were used. Results: Education level (U = 371.5, p = .002) and empathy scores (U = 259.5, p < .0001) of SAD patients with ADHD were significantly lower than those without ADHD. BDI (U = 206.5, p < .0001), LSAS total (U = 454.5, p = .036), fear (U = 457.0, p = .038), and avoidance scores (U = 453.0, p = .034) were higher in SAD patients with ADHD than those without ADHD. Low levels of empathy (B = - 0.119, Exp(B) = 0.895, p = .014) and high severity of current depression (B = 0.119, Exp(B) = 1.127, p = .001) were significantly associated with comorbidity between SAD and ADHD. ADHD-inattention (β = −0.369, Exp(B) = −0.541, p = .004), and depression (β = −0.262, Exp(B) = −0.212, p = .036) negatively predicted empathy levels. Conclusions: Our findings may provide some evidence for the contribution of ADHD-inattention and depression to poor empathy in SAD patients. Therefore, it is recommended that symptoms of ADHD-inattention and depression should be carefully evaluated in SAD patients with low empathy.
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The detrimental effect of ambivalence over emotional expression (AEE) on social support has been well-documented. However, the underlying mechanism of this effect remains unclear. Research has demonstrated that when general needs are not met, negative psychological outcomes occur. Thus, the current study investigated general needs satisfaction (GNS) as a potential mediator of the association between AEE and social support among 352 undergraduates. Results revealed that AEE was negatively associated with autonomy, relatedness, competence, and social support; whereas social support was positively associated with autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Further, GNS and each of its three subscales were all found to significantly mediate the association between AEE and social support. Thus, findings from the present study contribute to our understanding of AEE by illustrating a potential mechanism through which AEE may lead to a lack of perceived social support, namely GNS.
Article
Introduction: Social anxiety contributes to a variety of interpersonal difficulties and dysfunctions. Socially anxious adults are less likely to marry and more likely to divorce than are non-anxious adults. The present pre-registered study investigated incremental variance accounted for by social anxiety in relationship satisfaction, commitment, trust, and social support. Methods: Three independent samples of adults (N = 888; 53.7% female; M age = 35.09 years) involved in a romantic relationship completed online self-report questionnaires. Both social anxiety and depression were significantly correlated with relationship satisfaction, commitment, dyadic trust, and social support. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted with each sample to investigate the incremental variance accounted for by each of social anxiety and depression in relationship satisfaction, commitment, dyadic trust, and social support. Subsequent meta-analyses were run to determine the strength and replicability of the hierarchical models. Results: Results suggest that social anxiety is a robust predictor of unique variance in both perceived social support and commitment. Depression was a robust predictor of unique variance in relationship satisfaction, dyadic trust, social support, and commitment. Discussion: These results help to further understanding of social anxiety in romantic relationships and provide direction for future research and clinical intervention.
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Intimate relationships matter to health and happiness. However, the vast scope of relationship research and the abundance of precise micro-theories has presented obstacles to the development of integrative theories with contextual-behavioral foundations that are oriented towards application of findings in domains of public health significance. Derived from the well-validated Interpersonal Process Model, which described intimacy as a dyadic exchange in which Person A engages in a vulnerable self-disclosure, Person B enacts a response, and Person A perceives the response as responsive, we present an integrative, analytic-abstractive, contextual-behavioral model of intimate relations. The model describes the intimacy process as a set of functional relations describing behaviors and responses of Persons A and B in context, languaged as middle-level terms to facilitate cross-disciplinary applications. Three primary relations of the model are non-verbal emotional expression (Person A) and safety (Person B), verbal self-disclosure (Person A) and validation (Person B), and asking (Person A) and giving (Person B). The model also emphasizes the importance of self- and other-awareness, expressions of closeness, and reciprocity as additional terms. Future research directions and potential applications are discussed.
Chapter
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is one of the most common and impairing psychological disorders. To advance our understanding of SAD, several researchers have put forth explanatory models over the years, including one which we originally published almost two decades ago (Rapee & Heimberg, 1997), which delineated the processes by which socially anxious individuals are affected by their fear of evaluation in social situations. Our model, as revised in the 2010 edition of this text, is summarized and further updated based on recent research on the multiple processes involved in the maintenance of SAD.
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Adolescent romantic involvement is statistically normative and makes important contributions to relational development. Social anxiety is a prevalent problem in adolescents and is likely to interfere with the development of healthy romantic functioning. In the current chapter, we first review the nature of adolescent romantic relationships and their implications for social development. We then discuss associations between romantic processes in adolescence and social anxiety. We note that social anxiety impairs peer processes that are likely to impact romantic functioning and review research drawn from the adolescent and adult literatures, showing that social anxiety predicts low engagement in romantic relationships and dysfunction in existing relationships. Finally, we discuss possibilities for future research and implications for treatment and prevention programs.
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Compared to people who have never engaged in nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI), people with a history of NSSI report multiple interpersonal problems. Theories propose that these interpersonal difficulties play a role in prompting and maintaining NSSI. However, the cross-sectional nature of most studies in this area limits our understanding of how day-to-day interpersonal experiences relate to the global interpersonal impairments observed among individuals with NSSI, and vice versa. This study compared young adults with (n = 60) and without (n = 56) recent, repeated NSSI on baseline and daily measures of interpersonal functioning during a 14-day daily diary study. Groups differed in baseline social anxiety, excessive reassurance seeking, and support seeking relative to other coping strategies, but did not differ in self-perceived interpersonal competence. In terms of day-to-day functioning, participants with (vs. without) NSSI had significantly less contact with their families and friends, perceived less support following interactions with friends, and were less likely to seek support to cope, regardless of level of negative affect. With the exception of contact with family members, these group differences in daily interpersonal functioning were accounted for by baseline levels of social anxiety and use of support seeking. Contrary to expectations, participants with NSSI had more frequent contact with their romantic partners, did not differ in perceptions of support in romantic relationships, and did not report more intense negative affect following negative interpersonal interactions. This study provides a novel test of recent interpersonal theories of NSSI using daily reports.
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Emotion expression is critical for the communication of important social information, such as emotional states and behavioral intentions. However, people tend to vary in their level of emotional expression. This meta-analysis investigated the relationships between levels of emotion expression and suppression, and social and interpersonal outcomes. PsycINFO databases, as well as reference lists were searched. Forty-three papers from a total of 3,200 papers met inclusion criteria, allowing for 105 effect sizes to be calculated. Meta-analyses revealed that greater suppression of emotion was significantly associated with poorer social wellbeing, including more negative first impressions, lower social support, lower social satisfaction and quality, and poorer romantic relationship quality. Furthermore, the expression of positive and general/nonspecific emotion was related to better social outcomes, while the expression of anger was associated with poorer social wellbeing. Expression of negative emotion generally was also associated with poorer social outcomes, although this effect size was very small and consisted of mixed results. These findings highlight the importance of considering the role that regulation of emotional expression can play in the development of social dysfunction and interpersonal problems. (PsycINFO Database Record
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People with social anxiety disorder (SAD) frequently report interpersonal problems across various domains; however, it is unclear whether these problems are observable by others or represent negatively biased self-report. We assessed the interpersonal problems of people with and without SAD using self-report, friend, and romantic partner report. We hypothesized that SAD diagnosis would predict self-reported problems across multiple interpersonal domains, but restricted domains of informant report. Additionally, we hypothesized that diagnosis would predict discrepancy between self and informant report either in the form of a bias toward reporting more problems or in the form of lack of concordance between self and informant reporters. Using structural equation and multilevel models, we found evidence for differences between people with and without SAD in terms of domains of impairment observed by self and informants as well as differences in correspondence across relationship types. Results highlight the utility of multi-informant assessment of SAD.
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Social anxiety is correlated with diminished global positive affect (PA). However, it is not clear from the data whether this relationship is due to global PA, or to specific emotions such as joy or pride. We hypothesized that pride will account for most of the relationship between social anxiety and PA after controlling for depression. Results of Study 1 (N=352) supported the hypothesis that when pride and PA were in the same model, only pride was significantly related to social anxiety. The same pattern was found when pride and joy were in the same model. When multiple facets of positive emotions (pride, love, joy, contentment, amusement, awe and compassion) were in the same model, only pride and love were significantly related to social anxiety. Results of Study 2 (N=288) replicated the findings that only pride was significantly related to social anxiety, but counter to our hypothesis, revealed that pride experience was significantly related to social anxiety more than reported expressions of pride. Study 3 extended these findings to a clinical, treatment seeking sample of 23 patients diagnosed with generalized social anxiety disorder and 35 low-anxious controls. When predicting group (patients vs. non-patient) by pride and PA, only pride was a significant predictor. Pride continued to be a predictor when controlling for either fear of positive or negative evaluation. Thus, all three studies demonstrated the importance of the specific experience of pride in its relationship to social anxiety.
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Background Social anxiety is highly prevalent and has increased in young adults during the COVID-19 pandemic. Since social anxiety negatively impacts interpersonal functioning, identifying aspects of social cognition that may be impaired can increase our understanding of the development and maintenance of social anxiety disorder. However, to date, studies examining associations between social anxiety and social cognition have resulted in mixed findings. Methods The aim of this systematic review was to summarize the literature on the association between social anxiety and social cognition, while also considering several potential moderators and covariates that may influence findings. Results A systematic search identified 48 studies. Results showed mixed evidence for the association between social anxiety and lower-level social cognitive processes (emotion recognition and affect sharing) and a trend for a negative association with higher-level social cognitive processes (theory of mind and empathic accuracy). Most studies examining valence-specific effects found a significant negative association for positive and neutral stimuli. Limitations. Not all aspects of social cognition were included (e.g., attributional bias) and we focused on adults and not children, limiting the scope of the review. Conclusions Future studies would benefit from the inclusion of relevant moderators and covariates, multiple well-validated measures within the same domain of social cognition, and assessments of interpersonal functioning outside of the laboratory. Additional research examining the moderating role of attention or interpretation biases on social cognitive performance, and the potential benefit of social cognitive skills training for social anxiety could inform and improve existing cognitive behavioral interventions.
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Our model outlines the cognitive operations, response strategies, and dynamics of the attachment system in adulthood. It also describes the goals of each attachment strategy and their psychological manifestations and consequences. Whereas the goals of security-based strategies are to form intimate relationships, to build a person's psychological resources, and to broaden his or her perspectives and capacities, the goal of secondary attachment strategies is to manage attachment-system activation and reduce or eliminate the pain caused by frustrated proximity-seeking attempts. Hyperactivating strategies keep the person focused on the search for love and security, and constantly on the alert for threats, separations, and betrayals. Deactivating strategies keep the attachment system in check, with serious consequences for cognitive and emotional openness. This framework serves as our "working model" for understanding the activation and functioning of the attachment system in adulthood. It also provides a framework for reviewing our research findings, which is the mission of the next section.
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The present study was designed to test the assumption that gender differences in emotion expression are based on differences in the motives held by men and women in social interactions. Three hundred and fourteen students participated in this study by completing a questionnaire. Each questionnaire contained two vignettes that varied with respect to type of emotion (anger, disappointment, fear or sadness), sex of target, and object-target relationship. Dependent variables included measures of emotion expression and of motives for regulating one's emotions. The results support the general hypothesis that women are more concerned with relationships and less reluctant to express powerless emotions, whereas men are more motivated to stay in control and tend to express emotions that reflect their power.
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We propose that to some extent, people treat the resources, perspectives, and identities of close others as their own. This proposal is supported by allocation, attribution, response time, and memory experiments. Recently, we have applied this idea to deepening understanding of feeling “too close” (including too much of the other in the self leading to feeling controlled or a loss of identity), the effects of relationship loss (it is distressing to the extent that the former partner was included in the self, liberating to the extent that the former partner was preventing self-expansion), ingroup identification (including ingroup in the self), and the effect of outgroup friendships on outgroup attitudes (including outgroup member in the self entails including outgroup member's identity in the self).
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We conducted two studies to examine how a potential helper is affected by having a communal orientation toward a relationship with a potential recipient and by the potential recipient's sadness. We hypothesized that (a) having a communal orientation would increase helping and that (b) people high in communal orientation, but not others, would respond to a potential recipient's sadness by increasing helping. These hypotheses were tested in two studies. In Study 1, individual differences in communal orientation toward relationships were measured by using a new communal orientation scale reported for the first time in this article. In Study 2, manipulations were used to lead subjects to desire either a communal or an exchange relationship with another person. In both studies, subjects were exposed to a sad person or to a person in a neutral mood whom they were given a chance to help. As hypothesized, in both studies communally oriented subjects helped the other significantly more than did others. Also as hypothesized, in both studies communally oriented subjects but not others, increased helping in response to the other person's sadness although this effect reached statistical significance only in the second study. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Syndromal classification is a well-developed diagnostic system but has failed to deliver on its promise of the identification of functional pathological processes. Functional analysis is tightly connected to treatment but has failed to develop testable, replicable classification systems. Functional diagnostic dimensions are suggested as a way to develop the functional classification approach, and experiential avoidance is described as 1 such dimension. A wide range of research is reviewed showing that many forms of psychopathology can be conceptualized as unhealthy efforts to escape and avoid emotions, thoughts, memories, and other private experiences. It is argued that experiential avoidance, as a functional diagnostic dimension, has the potential to integrate the efforts and findings of researchers from a wide variety of theoretical paradigms, research interests, and clinical domains and to lead to testable new approaches to the analysis and treatment of behavioral disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The paradox of distress expression is that expression of negative feelings is both a sign of distress and a possible means of coping with that distress. This article describes research illustrating the paradox of distress expression. It reviews evidence concerning 3 possible mechanisms by which expression might alleviate distress, focusing on the role of expression in (a) reducing distress about distress, (b) facilitating insight, and (c) affecting interpersonal relationships in a desired way. The authors conclude by highlighting the circumstances under which expression is most likely to be adaptive. Overall, the authors argue that expression of negative feelings is adaptive to the extent that it leads to some kind of resolution involving the source or significance of distress. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The psychometric adequacy of the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS; R. P. Mattick & J. C. Clark, 1989), a measure of social interaction anxiety, and the Social Phobia Scale (SPS; R. P. Mattick & J. C. Clark, 1989), a measure of anxiety while being observed by others, was evaluated in anxious patients and normal controls. Social phobia patients scored higher on both scales and were more likely to be identified as having social phobia than other anxious patients (except for agoraphobic patients on the SPS) or controls. Clinician-rated severity of social phobia was moderately related to SIAS and SPS scores. Additional diagnoses of mood or panic disorder did not affect SIAS or SPS scores among social phobia patients, but an additional diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder was associated with SIAS scores. Number of reported feared social interaction situations was more highly correlated with scores on the SIAS, whereas number of reported feared performance situations was more highly correlated with scores on the SPS. These scales appear to be useful in screening, designing individualized treatments, and evaluating the outcomes of treatments for social phobia. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The studies of emotion function and emotional disorders complement one another. In this article, the authors outline relations between the social functions of emotion and four psychological disorders. The authors first present a social-functional account of emotion and argue that emotions help coordinate social interactions through their informative, evocative, and incentive functions. They then review evidence concerning the emotional and social problems related to depression, schizophrenia, social anxiety, and borderline personality disorder and consider how the emotional disturbances related to these disorders disrupt interactions and relationships, thus contributing further to the maintenance of the disorder. They conclude by discussing research strategies relevant to the study of emotion, social interaction, and psychopathology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Three studies evaluated the reliability and validity of the Investment Model Scale, an instrument designed to measure four constructs, including commitment level and three bases of dependence–satisfaction level, quality of alternatives, and investment size. In all three studies, reliability analyses revealed good internal consistency among items designed to measure each construct. Also, principal components analyses performed on scale items revealed evidence of four factors, with items designed to measure each construct loading on independent factors. Studies 2 and 3 examined associations of model variables with instruments measuring diverse qualities of relationships and assorted personal dispositions. As anticipated, Investment Model variables were moderately associated with other measures reflecting superior couple functioning (e.g., dyadic adjustment, trust level, inclusion of other in the self), and were essentially unrelated to measures assessing personal dispositions (e.g., need for cognition, self-esteem). In addition, Study 3 demonstrated that earlier measures of Investment Model variables predicted later levels of dyadic adjustment and later relationship status (persisted vs. ended). It is hoped that the existence of a reliable and valid Investment Model Scale will promote further research regarding commitment and interdependence in ongoing close relationships.
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Using a randomized wait-list controlled design, this study evaluated the effects of a novel intervention, mindfulness-based relationship enhancement, designed to enrich the relationships of relatively happy, nondistressed couples. Results suggested the intervention was efficacious in (a) favorably impacting couples' levels of relationship satisfaction, autonomy, relatedness, closeness, acceptance of one another, and relationship distress; (b) beneficially affecting individuals' optimism, spirituality, relaxation, and psychological distress; and (c) maintaining benefits at 3-month follow-up. Those who practiced mindfulness more had better outcomes, and within-person analyses of diary measures showed greater mindfulness practice on a given day was associated on several consecutive days with improved levels of relationship happiness, relationship stress, stress coping efficacy, and overall stress.
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On the basis of an interdependence analysis, it is proposed that commitment to a close relationship is associated with cognitive interdependence—a mental state characterized by a pluralistic, collective representation of the self-in-relationship. A cross-sectional survey study and a 2-wave longitudinal study revealed that strong commitment to a romantic relationship is associated with greater spontaneous plural pronoun usage, greater perceived unity of self and partner, and greater reported relationship centrality. Commitment and cognitive interdependence operate in a cycle of mutual influence, such that earlier commitment predicts change over time in cognitive interdependence, and earlier cognitive interdependence predicts change over time in commitment. Links between commitment and cognitive interdependence were weak or nonsignificant for relationships among best friends, suggesting that this phenomenon may be unique to romantic relationships. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved). (from the journal abstract)
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Cross-sectional analyses of data collected from a large sample of incoming college freshmen were used to determine whether the perceived availability of social support protects persons from stress-induced depressive affect; whether social competence, social anxiety, and self-disclosure are responsible for the stress-protective effect of perceived social support; and whether these social skill measures discriminate among persons for whom support will help, hinder, or be ineffective in the face of stress. Prospective analyses based on the original testing (beginning of school year) and 11- and 22-week follow-ups of a randomly selected subsample were used to determine how the same social skill factors influence the development and maintenance of support perceptions and of friendships. Evidence is provided for a stress-buffering role of the perceived availability of social support. The stress-buffering effect is unaffected by controls for the possible stress-protective influences of social anxiety, social competence, and self-disclosure. Although these social skill factors do not discriminate among persons for whom support will help, hinder, or be ineffective, they are prospectively predictive of the development of both social support and friendship formation. These prospective relations between social skills and the development of perceived availability of social support are only partly mediated by number of friends.
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This article presents a theory of how different types of discrepancies between self-state representa- tions are related to different kinds of emotional vulnerabilities. One domain of the self (actual; ideal; ought) and one standpoint on the self (own; significant other) constitute each type of self-state representation. It is proposed that different types of self-discrepancies represent different types of negative psychological situations that are associated with different kinds of discomfort. Discrepan- cies between the actual/own self-state (i.e., the self-concept) and ideal self-stales (i.e., representations of an individual's beliefs about his or her own or a significant other's hopes, wishes, or aspirations for the individual) signify the absence of positive outcomes, which is associated with dejection-related emotions (e.g., disappointment, dissatisfaction, sadness). In contrast, discrepancies between the ac- tual/own self-state and ought self-states (i.e., representations of an individual's beliefs about his or her own or a significant other's beliefs about the individual's duties, responsibilities, or obligations) signify the presence of negative outcomes, which is associated with agitation-related emotions (e.g., fear, threat, restlessness). Differences in both the relative magnitude and the accessibility of individu- als' available types of self-discrepancies are predicted to be related to differences in the kinds of discomfort people are likely to experience. Correlational and experimental evidence supports the predictions of the model. Differences between serf-discrepancy theory and (a) other theories of in- compatible self-beliefs and (b) actual self negativity (e.g., low self-esteem) are discussed.
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People high in rejection sensitivity (RS) anxiously expect rejection and are at risk for interpersonal and personal distress. Two studies examined the role of self-regulation through strategic attention deployment in moderating the link between RS and maladaptive outcomes. Self-regulation was assessed by the delay of gratification (DG) paradigm in childhood. In Study 1, preschoolers from the Stanford University community who participated in the DG paradigm were assessed 20 years later. Study 2 assessed low-income, minority middle school children on comparable measures. DG ability buffered high-RS people from interpersonal difficulties (aggression, peer rejection) and diminished well-being (e.g., low self-worth, higher drug use). The protective effect of DG ability on high-RS children's self-worth is explained by reduced interpersonal problems. Attentional mechanisms underlying the interaction between RS and strategic self-regulation are discussed.
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Social exclusion was manipulated by telling people that they would end up alone later in life or that other participants had rejected them. These manipulations caused participants to behave more aggressively. Excluded people issued a more negative job evaluation against someone who insulted them (Experiments 1 and 2). Excluded people also blasted a target with higher levels of aversive noise both when the target had insulted them (Experiment 4) and when the target was a neutral person and no interaction had occurred (Experiment 5). However, excluded people were not more aggressive toward someone who issued praise (Experiment 3). These responseswere specific to social exclusion (as opposed to other misfortunes) and were not mediated by emotion
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Social exclusion was manipulated by telling people that they would end up alone later in life or that other participants had rejected them. These manipulations caused participants to behave more aggressively. Excluded people issued a more negative job evaluation against someone who insulted them (Experiments 1 and 2). Excluded people also blasted a target with higher levels of aversive noise both when the target had insulted them (Experiment 4) and when the target was a neutral person and no interaction had occurred (Experiment 5). However, excluded people were not more aggressive toward someone who issued praise (Experiment 3). These responses were specific to social exclusion (as opposed to other misfortunes) and were not mediated by emotion.
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We conducted two studies to examine how a potential helper is affected by having a communal orientation toward a relationship with a potential recipient and by the potential recipient's sadness. We hypothesized that (a) having a communal orientation would increase helping and that (b) people high in communal orientation, but not others, would respond to a potential recipient's sadness by increasing helping. These hypotheses were tested in two studies. In Study 1, individual differences in communal orientation toward relationships were measured by using a new communal orientation scale reported for the first time in this article. In Study 2, manipulations were used to lead subjects to desire either a communal or an exchange relationship with another person. In both studies, subjects were exposed to a sad person or to a person in a neutral mood whom they were given a chance to help. As hypothesized, in both studies communally oriented subjects helped the other significantly more than did others. Also as hypothesized, in both studies communally oriented subjects but not others, increased helping in response to the other person's sadness although this effect reached statistical significance only in the second study. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Social phobia is increasingly recognized as a prevalent and socially impairing mental disorder. However, little data is available regarding the general and disease-specific impairments and disabilities associated with social phobia. Furthermore, most studies have not controlled for the confounding effects of comorbid conditions. This study investigates: (a) the generic quality of life; (b) work productivity; and, (c) various other disorder-specific social impairments in current cases with pure (n = 65), comorbid (n = 51) and subthreshold (n = 34) DSM-IV social phobia as compared to controls with no social phobia (subjects with a history of herpes infections). Social phobia cases reported a mean illness duration of 22.9 years with onset in childhood or adolescence. Current quality of life, as assessed by the SF-36, was significantly reduced in all social phobia groups, particularly in the scales measuring vitality, general health, mental health, role limitations due to emotional health, and social functioning. Comorbid cases revealed more severe reductions than pure and subthreshold social phobics. Findings from the Liebowitz self-rated disability scale indicated that: (a) social phobia affects most areas of life, but in particular education, career, and romantic relationship; (b) the presence of past and current comorbid conditions increases the frequency of disease-specific impairments; and, (c) subthreshold social phobia revealed slightly lower overall impairments than comorbid social phobics. Past week work productivity of social phobics was significantly diminished as indicated by: (a) a three-fold higher rate of unemployed cases; (b) elevated rates of work hours missed due to social phobia problems; and, (c) a reduced work performance. Overall, these findings underline that social phobia in our sample of adults, whether comorbid, subthreshold, or pure was a persisting and impairing condition, resulting in considerable subjective suffering and negative impact on work performance and social relationships. The current disabilities and impairments were usually less pronounced than in the past, presumably due to adaptive behaviors in life style of the respondents. Data also confirmed that social phobia is poorly recognized and rarely treated by the mental health system.
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When women express hostility, the target is typically a significant other. Our efforts to account for this observation center on the role of rejection sensitivity - the disposition to anxiously expect, readily perceive, and overreact to rejection - in women's hostility. We have previously shown that dispositional anxious expectations about rejection by a significant other prompt women to readily perceive rejection and to react with hostility in situations that activate rejection expectations. These findings led us to propose that the hostility of women in such situations is a specific reaction to perceived rejection. Results from three studies support this proposition. Using a priming-pronunciation task paradigm, Study 1 revealed that rejection thoughts facilitated hostile thoughts to a greater extent in women high in rejection expectations (HRS) than in those low in rejection expectations (LRS). Chronic accessibility of hostile thoughts was unrelated to rejection expectations. Study 2 found that, following rejection by a potential dating partner, HRS women evaluated their prospective partners less positively than LRS women. Partner evaluations were unrelated to rejection expectations in a nonrejection control condition. Using a daily diary methodology, Study 3 showed that HRS women were more likely than LRS women to report a conflict with their romantic partners only when they had felt rejected on the previous day.
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Taking a “Gestalt” perspective, we propose that a particular pattern of self-beliefs, as a whole, has a distinct psychological significance that depends on the interrelations among the self-beliefs and not just the self-beliefs as independent elements. Patterns of self-beliefs were identified that contained a particular type of self-discrepancy in common but differed in how a third self-belief related to that self-discrepancy. First, four patterns were compared that each involved an actual:ideal discrepancy: A F], A F] pattern as a whole signifies “doing less well than wished for but not less than expected” whereas the A < I[= F] pattern as a whole signifies “chronically unfulfilled hopes.” The A = C [< I] pattern as a whole signifies “fulfillment of one's limited potential” whereas the A < C[= I] pattern as a whole signifies “chronic failure to me...
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This article outlines some basic ideas of an evolutionary approach to psychopathology. It focuses on human competition to be seen as attractive in order to elicit the investment of resources from others (e.g., approval, support, and care). It is argued that social anxiety may be a form of competitive anxiety, triggered in contexts where individuals see themselves as relatively low in the status hierarchy of desirable attributes and/or at risk of losing status (and control over social resources such as approval, help, and support) by being seen as having undesirable attributes. To improve (or defend) their position and garner the investments of others (e.g., win approval, support, friendships or status, or defend their status) requires a competitive venture; however, in attempting to compete, social phobics automatically recruit various evolved modules and mentalities for behaving in competitive arenas when one is low in the hierarchy (e.g., social comparison, placating dominant others and various submissive defenses such as concealment, high self-monitoring, and eye-gaze avoidance). These previously adaptive subordinate defenses interfere with status acquisition based on demonstrating attractive attributes to others.
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This article presents a construct validation of a love scale based upon a triangular theory of love. The article opens with a review of some of the major theories of love, and with a discussion of some of the major issues in love research. Next it briefly reviews selected elements of the triangular theory of love, according to which love can be understood as comprising three components—intimacy, passion, and decision/ commitment. Then the article presents two studies constituting the construct validation of the love scale. The construct validation comprises aspects of internal validation—determination of whether the internal structure of the data is consistent with the theory—and external validation—determination of whether the scale based on the theory shows sensible patterns of correlations with external measures. The data are generally, but not completely supportive of the utility of the triangular love scale.
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A practical methodology is presented for creating closeness in an experimental context. Whether or not an individual is in a relationship, particular pairings of individuals in the relationship, and circumstances of relationship development become manipulated variables. Over a 45-min period subject pairs carry out self-disclosure and relationship-building tasks that gradually escalate in intensity. Study 1 found greater postinteraction closeness with these tasks versus comparable small-talk tasks. Studies 2 and 3 found no significant closeness effects, inspite of adequate power, for (a) whether pairs were matched for nondisagreement on important attitudes, (b) whether pairs were led to expect mutual liking, or (c) whether getting close was made an explicit goal. These studies also illustrated applications for addressing theoretical issues, yielding provocative tentative findings relating to attachment style and introversion/extraversion.
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Social phobia has become a focus of increased research since its inclusion in DSM-III. However, assessment of social phobia has remained an underdeveloped area, especially self-report assessment. Clinical researchers have relied on measures that were developed on college populations, and these measures may not provide sufficient coverage of the range of situations feared by social phobic individuals. There is a need for additional instruments that consider differences in the types of situations (social interaction vs. situations involving observation by others) that may be feared by social phobics and between subgroups of social phobic patients. This study provides validational data on two instruments developed by Mattick and Clarke (1989): the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS), a measure of anxiety in social interactional situations, and the Social Phobia Scale (SPS), a measure of anxiety in situations involving observation by others. These data support the use of the SIAS and SPS in the assessment of individuals with social phobia.
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The development and validation of the Social Phobia Scale (SPS) and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) two companion measures for assessing social phobia fears is described. The SPS assesses fears of being scrutinised during routine activities (eating, drinking, writing, etc.), while the SIAS assesses fears of more general social interaction, the scales corresponding to the DSM-III-R descriptions of Social Phobia—Circumscribed and Generalised types, respectively. Both scales were shown to possess high levels of internal consistency and test–retest reliability. They discriminated between social phobia, agoraphobia and simple phobia samples, and between social phobia and normal samples. The scales correlated well with established measures of social anxiety, but were found to have low or non-significant (partial) correlations with established measures of depression, state and trait anxiety, locus of control, and social desirability. The scales were found to change with treatment and to remain stable in the face of no-treatment. It appears that these scales are valid, useful, and easily scored measures for clinical and research applications, and that they represent an improvement over existing measures of social phobia.
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This study investigated 3 broad classes of individual-differences variables (job-search motives, competencies, and constraints) as predictors of job-search intensity among 292 unemployed job seekers. Also assessed was the relationship between job-search intensity and reemployment success in a longitudinal context. Results show significant relationships between the predictors employment commitment, financial hardship, job-search self-efficacy, and motivation control and the outcome job-search intensity. Support was not found for a relationship between perceived job-search constraints and job-search intensity. Motivation control was highlighted as the only lagged predictor of job-search intensity over time for those who were continuously unemployed. Job-search intensity predicted Time 2 reemployment status for the sample as a whole, but not reemployment quality for those who found jobs over the study's duration. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Anyone who has ever entrusted a troubling secret to a journal, or mourned a broken heart with a friend, knows the feeling of relief that expressing painful emotions can bring. This book presents evidence that personal self-disclosure is not only good for our emotional health, but boosts our physical health as well. The author has conducted controlled clinical research that sheds light on the mind–body connection. This book interweaves his findings with case studies on secret-keeping, confession, and the hidden price of silence. "Opening Up" explains: How writing about your problems can improve your health; How long-buried trauma affects the immune system; Why it's never too late to heal old emotional wounds; and When self-disclosure may be risky—and how to know whom to trust. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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In 2 studies, the Inclusion of Other in the Self (IOS) Scale, a single-item, pictorial measure of closeness, demonstrated alternate-form and test–retest reliability; convergent validity with the Relationship Closeness Inventory (E. Berscheid et al, 1989), the R. J. Sternberg (1988) Intimacy Scale, and other measures; discriminant validity; minimal social desirability correlations; and predictive validity for whether romantic relationships were intact 3 mo later. Also identified and cross-validated were (1) a 2-factor closeness model (Feeling Close and Behaving Close) and (2) longevity–closeness correlations that were small for women vs moderately positive for men. Five supplementary studies showed convergent and construct validity with marital satisfaction and commitment and with a reaction-time (RT)-based cognitive measure of closeness in married couples; and with intimacy and attraction measures in stranger dyads following laboratory closeness-generating tasks. In 3 final studies most Ss interpreted IOS Scale diagrams as depicting interconnectedness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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In this chapter, the authors present a social functional account of emotions that attempts to integrate the relevant insights of evolutionary and social constructivist theorists. The authors' account is summarized in 3 statements: (1) social living presents social animals with problems whose solutions are critical for individual survival; (2) emotions have been designed in the course of evolution to solve these problems; and (3) in humans, culture loosens the linkages between emotions and problems so that cultures find new ways of using emotions. In the first half of the chapter the authors synthesize the positions of diverse theorists in a taxonomy of problems of social living and then consider how evolution-based primordial emotions solve those problems by coordinating social interactions. In the second half of the chapter the authors discuss the specific processes according to which culture transforms primordial emotions and how culturally shaped elaborated emotions help solve the problems of social living. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The emerging field of emotion regulation studies how individuals influence which emotions they have, when they have them, and how they experience and express them. This review takes an evolutionary perspective and characterizes emotion in terms of response tendencies. Emotion regulation is defined and distinguished from coping, mood regulation, defense, and affect regulation. In the increasingly specialized discipline of psychology, the field of emotion regulation cuts across traditional boundaries and provides common ground. According to a process model of emotion regulation, emotion may be regulated at five points in the emotion generative process: (a) selection of the situation, (b) modification of the situation, (c) deployment of attention, (d) change of cognitions, and (e) modulation of responses. The field of emotion regulation promises new insights into age-old questions about how people manage their emotions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Depression is remarkably persistent and recurrent. Why? Although several predictors of depression chronicity have been identified, a conceptual framework regarding mechanisms whereby depression chronicity occurs is lacking. The goal of this article is to explain depression chronicity, at least in part, with reference to processes, mostly interpersonal in nature, that serve to extend and reestablish depression. Several such processes are described, and available empirical evidence regarding each is reviewed. Clinical and research implications of the present conceptualization are elucidated. To the degree that these processes receive continued empirical support as mechanisms whereby depression persists, they represent leverage points to combat the vexing problem of depression chronicity.