Article

Vision-for-Action: The effects of object property discrimination and action state on affordance compatibility effects

Centre for Clinical and Cognitive Neuroscience, School of Psychology, University of Wales, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2AS, Wales.
Psychonomic Bulletin & Review (Impact Factor: 2.99). 07/2006; 13(3):493-8. DOI: 10.3758/BF03193875
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

When a person views an object, the action the object evokes appears to be activated independently of the person's intention to act. We demonstrate two further properties of this vision-to-action process. First, it is not completely automatic, but is determined by the stimulus properties of the object that are attended. Thus, when a person discriminates the shape of an object, action affordance effects are observed; but when a person discriminates an object's color, no affordance effects are observed. The former, shape property is associated with action, such as how an object might be grasped; the latter, color property is irrelevant to action. Second, we also show that the action state of an object influences evoked action. Thus, active objects, with which current action is implied, produce larger affordance effects than passive objects, with which no action is implied. We suggest that the active object activates action simulation processes similar to those proposed in mirror systems.

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Available from: Steven P Tipper
    • "Our results indicate that an environment with specific (action) associations is able to influence responsiveness to affordances. Although the identity of the presented objects was not relevant for task performance, we still observed effects related to responsiveness to affordances, suggesting that affordances are activated relatively automatic (but see,Tipper, Paul, & Hayes, 2006). On the other hand, our results demonstrate that there is also room for considerable adjustment of or flexibility in the activation of affordances: A stronger activation of the ''go stimulus " , when the stimulus matched the functionality of the Fig. 2.(a) We observed an interaction effect between place and object, indicating that responses differed depending on where what object was presented. "
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, human behavior has been considered the product of continuous interactions between perception, cognition and action in which “affordances” (action possibilities the environment has to offer) play an important role. Converging evidence suggests that multiple action possibilities simultaneously compete for further processing, while external and internal factors (e.g., incoming sensory information, predictions) bias this competition. In the present study we used a stop-task to investigate whether context is able to modulate the strength of the responsiveness to affordances. We therefore placed participants in an actual kitchen and workshop during electroencephalographic recordings. A faster response to context congruent objects demonstrated that the direct surrounding is able to affect responsiveness to affordances. In addition, when responses needed to be withheld, context congruent objects evoked greater response conflict as indicated by an enhanced N2 Event Related Potential (ERP) component.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Consciousness and Cognition
    • "shape decision) but did not affect affordance-irrelevant information (e.g. colour decision, Tipper et al. 2006). Kritikos et al. (2001) showed that action execution kinematics was affected by the volumetric properties of the distracters (e.g. the size of the distracters) but not by their semantic properties (e.g. an apple distracter for a green bean target, Kritikos et al. 2001). "
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    ABSTRACT: Perception is linked to action via two routes: a direct route based on affordance information in the environment and an indirect route based on semantic knowledge about objects. The present study explored the factors modulating the recruitment of the two routes, in particular which factors affecting the selection of paired objects. In Experiment 1, we presented real objects among semantically related or unrelated distracters. Participants had to select two objects that can interact. The presence of distracters affected selection times, but not the semantic relations of the objects with the distracters. Furthermore, participants first selected the active object (e.g. teaspoon) with their right hand, followed by the passive object (e.g. mug), often with their left hand. In Experiment 2, we presented pictures of the same objects with no hand grip, congruent or incongruent hand grip. Participants had to decide whether the two objects can interact. Action decisions were faster when the presentation of the active object preceded the presentation of the passive object, and when the grip was congruent. Interestingly, participants were slower when the objects were semantically but not functionally related; this effect increased with congruently gripped objects. Our data showed that action decisions in the presence of strong affordance cues (real objects, pictures of congruently gripped objects) relied on sensory-motor representation, supporting the direct route from perception-to-action that bypasses semantic knowledge. However, in the case of weak affordance cues (pictures), semantic information interfered with action decisions, indicating that semantic knowledge impacts action decisions. The data support the dual-route account from perception-to-action.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Experimental Brain Research
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    • "There is evidence supporting this hypothesis. A number of studies using a S–R compatibility as a paradigm have shown that the handle affordance of a viewed object automatically influences responseselection processes (e.g., McBride, Sumner, & Husain, 2012; Phillips & Ward, 2002; Tipper, Paul, & Hayes, 2006). Originally, this effect was reported by Tucker and Ellis (1998) whose participants were asked to decide whether a common graspable object, presented in a computer monitor, was upright or inverted and to respond as fast as possible with their left or right hand according to these categories. "
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    ABSTRACT: Behavioural evidence has shown that the perception of an object's handle automatically activates the corresponding action representation. The activation appears to be inhibited if the object is a task-irrelevant prime mug that is presented very briefly prior responding to the target arrow. The present study uses an electrophysiological indicator of automatic response priming, the lateralized readiness potential (LRP), to investigate the mechanisms of this inhibition effect. We presumed that this effect would reflect motor self-inhibition processes. The self-inhibition explanation of the effect would assume that the effect reflects activation-followed-by-inhibition observed rapidly after the offset of the prime at the primary motor cortex. However, the results showed that the effect is not associated with modulation of the early LRP deflections. In contrast, the inhibition manifested itself in the later LRP deflections that we assume to be linked to interference in the processing of response-related aspects of the target. We propose that the LRP pattern is similar to what would be predicted from the negative priming explanation of the effect. The study sheds light on understanding inhibition mechanisms associated with automatically activated affordance representations.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · Quarterly journal of experimental psychology (2006)
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