Childhood maltreatment in adult female psychiatric outpatients with eating disorders
Department of Neuroscience, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Lade, Trondheim, Norway. Eating Behaviors
(Impact Factor: 1.58).
12/2006; 7(4):404-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.eatbeh.2005.12.006
To explore possible relations between maltreatment in childhood and subsequent eating disorders in adult life, 107 consecutive adult psychiatric female outpatients were screened for eating disorders. They also completed questionnaires about harassment by adults and bullying by peers in childhood. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire measured childhood abuse by parents or other adults, and the Parental Bonding Instrument captured parental coldness and overprotection. Bullying by peers was measured by an inventory used in schools. Outpatients who met the criteria for bulimia nervosa reported far more bullying by peers, more coldness and overprotection from fathers, and more childhood emotional, physical and sexual abuse. The findings suggest associations between childhood maltreatment, especially bullying by peers, and bulimia nervosa.
Available from: Patricia Pelufo Silveira
- "In obese women, paternal and maternal overprotection decrease emotional awareness and increase emotional eating (Rommel et al., 2012). The " low care/high control " pattern of parental bonding is also associated with eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia (Canetti, Kanyas, Lerer, Latzer, & Bachar, 2008; Fosse & Holen, 2006; Fujimori et al., 2011; Lobera, Rios, & Casals, 2011; Swanson et al., 2010; Turner, Rose, & Cooper, 2005). Poor mother–infant interactions, characterized by maternal intrusiveness and negative infant engagement have been described for children born small for gestational age (SGA) (Feldman & Eidelman, 2006). "
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While most "fetal programming" area focused on metabolic disease, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is also associated with a preference for less healthy food. Post-natal factors such as strained maternal-child interactions are equally related to obesogenic eating behaviors. We investigated if IUGR and the quality of the mother/child relationship affect emotional overeating in children.
Participants were 196 children from a prospective birth cohort (the MAVAN project). As part of the protocol at 4 years of age, mothers completed the Children Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ) and mother-child interactions were scored during a structured task. A GLM adjusted for BMI examined the interaction between the "Atmosphere" score (ATM) task, sex and IUGR on the emotional over-eating domain of the CEBQ.
There was a significant interaction of BWR vs. sex vs. ATM (P = .02), with no effects of IUGR, sex or ATM. The model was significant for girls with low ATM scores (B = -2.035, P = .014), but not for girls with high (P = 0.94) or boys with high (P = .27) or low (P = .19) ATM scores. Only in IUGR girls, 48 months emotional over-eating correlated with BMI at that age (r = 0.560, P = 0.013) and predicted BMI in the subsequent years (r = 0.654, P = 0.006 at 60 months and r = 0.750, P = 0.005 at 72 months).
IUGR and exposure to a negative emotional atmosphere during maternal-child interactions predicted emotional overeating in girls but not in boys. The quality of mother-infant interaction may be an important target for interventions to prevent emotional overeating and overweight in early development, particularly in girls with a history of IUGR.
Available from: Gia Barboza
- "In comparison to non-victimized youth, cyberbullied youth report more sadness, anxiety and fear (Beran & Li, 2008); have difficulty with social interactions (Ybarra, Mitchell, Wolak, & Finkelhor, 2006; Blais, 2008); are more likely to be engaged in risky behavior such as drug and alcohol use (Mishna, Cook, Gadalla, Daciuk, & Solomon, 2010) and eating disorders (DeHue, Bolman, & Völlink, 2008; Fosse & Holen, 2006). On this basis, social and emotional functioning is likely to have a mediating impact on the relationship between bullying and educational outcomes. "
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ABSTRACT: This purpose of this paper is to identify risk profiles of youth who are victimized by on- and offline harassment and to explore the consequences of victimization on school outcomes. Latent class analysis is used to explore the overlap and co-occurrence of different clusters of victims and to examine the relationship between class membership and school exclusion and delinquency. Participants were a random sample of youth between the ages of 12 and 18 selected for inclusion to participate in the 2011 National Crime Victimization Survey: School Supplement. The latent class analysis resulted in four categories of victims: approximately 3.1% of students were highly victimized by both bullying and cyberbullying behaviors; 11.6% of youth were classified as being victims of relational bullying, verbal bullying and cyberbullying; a third class of students were victims of relational bullying, verbal bullying and physical bullying but were not cyberbullied (8%); the fourth and final class, characteristic of the majority of students (77.3%), was comprised of non-victims. The inclusion of covariates to the latent class model indicated that gender, grade and race were significant predictors of at least one of the four victim classes. School delinquency measures were included as distal outcomes to test for both overall and pairwise associations between classes. With one exception, the results were indicative of a significant relationship between school delinquency and the victim subtypes. Implications for these findings are discussed.
- "They observed that similar relationship styles between female subjects affected by EDs and fathers, and between the same subjects and their mothers occurs, and that these styles are defined by high control and low emotional care (Calam et al. 1990;Haworth-Hoeppner 2000;Soenens et al. 2008;Hsiu-Lan and Mallinckrodt 2009). This pattern was observed in people suffering from bulimia (Rorty et al. 2000;Fosse and Holen 2006), obesity (Turner et al. 2005), and anorexia (Canetti et al. 2008). Another hypothesis which failed to be confirmed is the one about family enmeshment . "
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ABSTRACT: The study here presented aims to investigate the links between quality of family relationships and some prodromes in eating disorders. A sample of 1,083 subjects took part in the study by filling PBI, FACES and EDI questionnaires. In order to clarify the role played by family relationships in the onset of EDs, two subgroups (high risk–low risk) were individuated by using the EDI cut-offs as discriminator factors and tested separately from the main sample. The results revealed some significant relationships between the analysed dimensions. It was shown that by increasing the values from the parents’ caring style scale and the real family’s cohesiveness scale the probability for subjects to fall into the high risk group decreases. Also, by increasing the family adaptability’s values, an increase of the probability for subjects to fall into the high risk group occurs. These results support the implementation of preventive and therapeutic plans to promote health and quality of life of adolescence.
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