Benefits of human milk and donor milk for premature infants

Department of Pediatrics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, New York, United States
Early Human Development (Impact Factor: 1.79). 01/2007; 82(12):781-7. DOI: 10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2006.09.009
Source: PubMed


Nutrition support of the premature infant must be designed to compensate for metabolic and gastrointestinal immaturity, immunologic insufficiency, and the demands of associated medical conditions. The beneficial effects of human milk extend to the feeding of premature infants. While human milk enhances immunity, nutritional concerns arise because the milk may not meet the expanded nutrient requirements of the very low birth weight (VLBW, less than 1500 g) premature infant. Human milk fortifiers are available to provide optimum nutrition. This review summarizes the benefits and limitations of human milk for the premature infant.

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Available from: Howard Heiman, May 22, 2014
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    • "The lipids are also susceptible to various types of chemical reactions , enzymatic or non-enzymatic. Oxidation is one of the main reactions; can occur in the presence or absence of oxygen and is catalyzed by light, heat, heavy metals, free radicals or irradiation, leading to the formation of toxic compounds (peroxides) (Heiman and Schandler, 2006; Hamosh, 1998; Bretillon et al., 1998). "
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    • "Following preterm birth, the " fetal enteral diet " , amniotic fluid, is replaced with variable combinations of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) and advancing volumes of enteral milk diet. It is well recognized that early intake of a minimal amount of human breast milk ( " colostrum " ) protects against NEC while infant formula is a suboptimal diet (Grave et al., 2007; Heiman and Schanler, 2006; Sisk et al., 2007). In support of these findings, recent studies have shown that maternal milk has the capacity to influence neonatal microbial recognition by beneficial modulation of TLR-mediated responses, while infant formula fails to have this effect (LeBouder et al., 2006). "
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