Article

The Costs and Benefits of Undoing Egocentric Responsibility Assessments in Groups

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Abstract

Individuals working in groups often egocentrically believe they have contributed more of the total work than is logically possible. Actively considering others' contributions effectively reduces these egocentric assessments, but this research suggests that undoing egocentric biases in groups may have some unexpected costs. Four experiments demonstrate that members who contributed much to the group outcome are actually less satisfied and less interested in future collaborations after considering others' contributions compared with those who contributed little. This was especially true in cooperative groups. Egocentric biases in responsibility allocation can create conflict, but this research suggests that undoing these biases can have some unfortunate consequences. Some members who look beyond their own perspective may not like what they see.

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... Lack of fit (lack_of_fit) and the coefficient of determination (R 2 ) are used as the evaluation criteria as in Hagen (2010;2013). Caruso et al. (2006) completed a study on the contribution evaluation of the members in collaborative groups at Harvard University and the University of Chicago. The original intention of this research was to investigate the phenomenon of over claiming contribution when the group members identified their individual achievements, as well as the conflict between their self-evaluations and the evaluations made by others. ...
... Because of added difficulties for collecting data from papers with five or more authors, Caruso et al. (2006) carried out a random survey based on papers with five authors. This survey received answers from 197 respondents, of which only 1 was from a fifth author and was removed from the study due to its relative sample size. ...
... where n is the total number of empirical observations, and O and E are the values of empirical observation (Caruso et al., 2006) and model prediction, respectively. Table 6 details the lack_of_fits on the contribution indexes for coauthors (Table 5) based on the Harvard survey data (Table 4). ...
Article
Credit-assignment schemas are widely applied by providing fixed or flexible credit distribution formulas to evaluate the contributions of coauthors of a scientific publication. In this paper, we propose an approach named First and Others (F&O) counting. By introducing a tuning parameter α and a weight β, two new properties are obtained: (1) flexible assignment of credits by modifying the formula (with the change of α) and applying preference to the individual author by adjusting the weights (with the change of β), and (2) calculation of the credits by separating the formula for the first author from others. With formula separation, the credit of the second author shows an inflection point according to the change of α. The developed theorems and proofs concerning the modification of α and β reveal new properties and complement the base theory for informetrics. The F&O schema is also adapted when considering the policy of ‘first-corresponding-author-emphasis’. Through a comparative analysis using a set of empirical data from the fields of chemistry, medicine, psychology, and the Harvard survey data, the performance of the F&O approach is compared with those of other methods to demonstrate its benefits by the criteria of lack of fit and coefficient of determination.
... Second, experimental manipulations that draw attention to people's own versus others' contributions can change how they allocate responsibility. Increasing a person's focus on their own contributions exacerbates their tendency to over-claim for themselves (Burger & Rodman, 1983;Ross & Sicoly, 1979), whereas increasing focus on others' contributions diminishes over-claiming (Caruso, Epley, & Bazerman, 2006;Savitsky, Van Boven, Epley, & Wight, 2005). Because these interventions directly manipulate the accessibility of others' contributions, their effects are clearly consistent with a reduced egocentric bias. ...
... This mechanism not only predicts what will increase over-claiming, but also what should decrease overclaiming in groups. Specifically, if focusing on one's own contributions and failing to consider others' contributions creates overclaiming, then focusing on others' contributions should reduce it (Caruso et al., 2006;Savitsky et al., 2005). Therefore, we expect the most over-claiming among large groups that allocate responsibility without being led to consider others' contributions. ...
... Large author groups claimed more responsibility for their published article than small author groups in Caruso et al. (2006). Experiment 1 used a different field context to test our hypotheses: MBA study groups. ...
Article
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Logically, group members cannot be responsible for more than 100% of the group’s output, yet claims of responsibility routinely sum to more than 100%. This “over-claiming” occurs partly because of egocentrism: People focus on their own contributions, as focal members of the group, more than on others’ contributions. Therefore, we predicted that over-claiming would increase with group size because larger groups leave more contributions from others to overlook. In 2 field studies, participants claimed more responsibility as the number of academic authors per article and the number of MBA students per study group increased. As predicted by our theoretical account, this over-claiming bias was reduced when group members considered others’ contributions explicitly. Two experiments that directly manipulated group size replicated these results. Members of larger groups may be particularly well advised to consider other members’ contributions before considering their own.
... Prior work has shown that drawing attention to the contributions of other group members reduces overclaiming (Caruso, Epley, & Bazerman, 2006;M. Ross & Sicoly, 1979, Experiment 5;Savitsky et al., 2005). ...
... The results of Experiment 2 were clear: rating an individual territory led to higher estimates of each territory's contributions compared to rating all of the territories at once. This finding replicates prior research in that requiring subjects to explicitly unpack the contributions of non-focal entities reduces overclaiming (Caruso et al., 2006;Savitsky et al., 2005). The current results, however, show that this effect occurs without ego-protection mechanisms and in a collective overclaiming context. ...
Article
Prior research has demonstrated that Americans massively overestimate how much their home state has contributed to US history. Why does such collective overclaiming occur? We argue that although self-serving biases undoubtedly influence overclaiming, non-motivated factors, such as a failure to consider the contributions of other states, also play a large role in overclaiming effects. In the current studies, subjects read descriptions of territories within a fictitious country and evaluated how much a territory within that country contributed to its history. Experiment 1 showed that overclaiming of responsibility increased as more territories were added to the country. Experiments 2 and 3 showed that requiring subjects to explicitly consider all territories reduced estimations of responsibility. Experiment 4 showed that people provided higher ratings of responsibility when more details were provided about the territory. Finally, Experiment 5 showed that retrieval fluency did not affect overclaiming. We conclude that support theory – based on the availability of content – provides a strong explanation for why the collective overclaiming of responsibility occurs, with both theoretical and practical implications.
... A multitude of psychological studies have shown that adopting others' perspectives decreases stereotyping, increases positive attitudes, improves empathy, increases intergroup understanding, increases desire to engage in intergroup contact, and increases general social affiliation [3][4][5][6]. Additionally, research has demonstrated that perspective-takers rely less on egocentric judgments [7] and spontaneously seek out more information that is inconsistent with their expectations about others relative to control groups. This suggests that perspectivetaking may undercut the default processing modes that lead to negative stereotyping [7]. ...
... Additionally, research has demonstrated that perspective-takers rely less on egocentric judgments [7] and spontaneously seek out more information that is inconsistent with their expectations about others relative to control groups. This suggests that perspectivetaking may undercut the default processing modes that lead to negative stereotyping [7]. Although the mechanisms by which perspective-taking does this aren't completely clear, researchers propose that cognitive representations of the self and other merge during perspective-taking, whereby individuals see more of themselves in others, and more of others in themselves [8][9][10]. ...
Article
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Given the problematic depictions of Native Americans and the pervasive cultural biases that exist, we sought to understand how contemporary educational practices in museums might encourage viewers to consider the context of their preconceptions rather than passively absorb conventional representations. In this two-part study, we tested whether and how viewers (mis)perceptions and interpretations of Native peoples might be influenced by encouraging empathy—specifically by taking the perspective of a Native individual depicted in a photograph they are visually analyzing. We randomly assigned participants in a lab setting (N = 120) and in a museum setting (N = 75) to one of three conditions (perspective-taking, stereotype-suppression, or control), and examined eye movements, self-reports, and verbal and written responses while participants viewed portrait photographs of American Indians. Notably, perspective-taking led viewers to interpret American Indians in a more emotional, empathetic, and human-centered manner than in control and suppression conditions. This was reflected in eye movements such that control and suppression participants attended to decorative features (e.g. jewelry) more than to the eyes of the depicted individual, whereas perspective-takers’ attention was more balanced. Similarly, perspective-takers used more empathetic and emotion-related language, whereas participants in control and suppression groups used more “objective” visually-descriptive language. Crucially, regardless of condition, cultural biases were stubbornly resistant to change and, in some cases, appeared even more frequently for participants adopting others’ perspectives. We argue that despite the positive outcomes associated with perspective-taking, the continued presence of cultural biases across conditions demonstrates that cultural competency-based interventions must be more complex and culturally-specific.
... This experience of shared agency during these cooperative joint tasks is an essential aspect of human cooperativeness. Indeed, the development of an agentive experience during a joint task can influence both the objective outcome quality (Babcock & Loewenstein, 1997) and the subjective perception of the outcome quality thereby influencing whether people continue to engage in the joint task (Caruso et al., 2006). Nevertheless, due to the increasing place of automated artificial systems in our daily lives, an important issue remains the emergence of this sense of shared agency during interactions that involve artificial partners. ...
... Importantly, it must be said that the experience of agency is highly flexible and other factors could also influence how individuals develop a sense of shared agency with a robot, such as the duration of collaboration, the participants' intentional stance towards the robots (Barlas, 2019;Ciardo et al., 2020), and the robot behaviour predictability (Bolt & Loehr, 2017). Considering both the impact of the individuals' sense of agency on their capacity to engage in cooperative joint tasks (Babcock & Loewenstein, 1997;Caruso et al., 2006),) and the inexorable drive towards more automation, such findings must be taken into consideration for the successful design of new automated systems. ...
Article
Although previous investigations reported a reduced sense of agency when individuals act with traditional machines, little is known about the mechanisms underpinning interactions with human-like automata. The aim of this study was twofold: (1) to investigate the effect of the machine’s physical appearance on the individuals’ sense of agency, and (2) to explore the cognitive mechanisms underlying the individuals’ sense of agency when they are engaged in a joint task. Twenty-eight participants performed a joint Simon task together with another human or an automated artificial system as a co-agent. The physical appearance of the automated artificial system was manipulated so that participants could cooperate either with a servomotor or a full humanoid robot during the joint task. Both participants’ response times and temporal estimations of action-output delays (i.e., an implicit measure of agency) were collected. Results showed that participants’ sense of agency for self- and other-generated actions sharply declined during interactions with the servomotor compared to the human-human interactions. Interestingly, participants’ sense of agency for self- and other-generated actions was reinforced when participants interacted with the humanoid robot compared to the servomotor. These results are discussed further.
... Therefore, such a prime could rather lead consumers to feel threatened in their decision freedom (Wicklund 1970), possibly leading to reactance (Clee and 22 Wicklund 1980). Thus, we propose other-focus as a similar, but more subtle and perhaps applicable induction of a corrective prime (Epley, Caruso and Bazerman 2006). ...
... ). This focus on the self rather than on others leads individuals to exhibit self-promoting behavior, such as claiming credit for others' efforts(Caruso, Epley and Bazerman 2006), planning a dream vacation instead of engaging in charitable behavior(Levontin, Ein-Gar and Lee 2015), or showing less willingness to compromise in negotiations(Neale and Bazerman 1983). ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper examines the impact of pre-existing brand attitudes on consumer processing of electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM). This topic is particularly important for brands that simultaneously possess strongly pronounced proponents as well as opponents. Two experimental studies using univalent (study 1, N = 538) and mixed (study 2, N = 262) sets of online reviews find indications for biased assimilation effects of eWOM processing. Consumers perceive positive (negative) arguments in online reviews as more (less) persuasive when having a positive (negative) attitude towards the brand. Perceived persuasiveness in turn influences behavioral intentions and acts as a mediator on the relationship between attitude and behavioral intentions. We examine two moderators of this effect. When priming individuals to focus on other consumers (vs. a self-focus prime), the biased assimilation effect is weaker (study 3a, N = 131). In contrast, we show that biased assimilation becomes stronger under conditions of high (vs. low) cognitive impairment (study 3b, N = 124). Our findings contribute to the literature on the relationship between eWOM and brands and advance our understanding of potential outcomes of brand polarization.
... What we are proposing is an availability bias in everyday judgment analogous to the bias documented in landmark research by Ross and Sicoly (1979). They found that people tend to overestimate how much they have contributed to joint efforts because their own contributions are more salient to them than the contributions of their spouses and coworkers (see also Caruso, Epley, & Bazerman, 2006;Kruger & Savitsky, 2009;Schroeder, Caruso, & Epley, 2016). The superiority of one's own contributions can seem like a concrete fact rather than a subjective opinion because the work one did comes to mind so much more readily than the work of others (Gilovich & Ross, 2015;Pronin, Gilovich, & Ross, 2004). ...
Article
Seven studies provide evidence of an availability bias in people’s assessments of the benefits they’ve enjoyed and the barriers they’ve faced. Barriers and hindrances command attention because they have to be overcome; benefits and resources can often be simply enjoyed and largely ignored. As a result of this “headwind/tailwind” asymmetry, Democrats and Republicans both claim that the electoral map works against them (Study 1), football fans take disproportionate note of the challenging games on their team’s schedules (Study 2), people tend to believe that their parents have been harder on them than their siblings are willing to grant (Study 3), and academics think that they have a harder time with journal reviewers, grant panels, and tenure committees than members of other subdisciplines (Study 7). We show that these effects are the result of the enhanced availability of people’s challenges and difficulties (Studies 4 and 5) and are not simply the result of self-serving attribution management (Studies 6 and 7). We also show that the greater salience of a person’s headwinds can lead people to believe they have been treated unfairly and, as a consequence, more inclined to endorse morally questionable behavior (Study 7). Our discussion focuses on the implications of the headwind/tailwind asymmetry for a variety of ill-conceived policy decisions.
... These include slippery slopes-the psychological numbing that comes from repetition-and the prevalent use of euphemisms (Tenbrunsel and Messick 2004;Bazerman and Tenbrunsel 2011, 91-4, 123-4). Indeed, self-serving biases have been found among professionals, such as experienced negotiators (Babcock and Lowenstein 1997) and academic co-authors (Caruso, Epley, and Bazerman 2006). Moreover, it has been demonstrated that professionalism-or more specifically, seeing oneself as a professional, i.e. as one who is technically or morally superior in some way-may actually increase unethical behavior, because it licenses one to act unethically (Kouchaki 2012). ...
Working Paper
Full-text available
Public choice theory (PCT) has had a powerful influence on political science and public administration. Based on the premise that public officials are rational maximizers of their own utility, PCT has a quite successful record of correctly predicting governmental decisions and policies. This success is puzzling, given behavioral findings that show that officials do not necessarily seek to maximize their own utility. Drawing on recent advances in behavioral ethics (BE), this article offers a new behavioral foundation for PCT’s predictions, by delineating the psychological processes that lead well-intentioned people to violate moral and social norms. We review the relevant findings of BE, analyzes their theoretical and policy implications for officials’ decision-making, and sets an agenda for future research.
... Parker, Atkins, and Axtell (2008) argue that perspective taking is motivated by both self-and other-focused intentions, which may include a desire to evoke empathetic concern (Batson, Eklund, Chermok, Hoyt, & Ortiz, 2007). One may be motivated to reduce stereotyping and prejudice (Batson, Chang, Orr, & Rowland, 2002) or to genuinely understand the other (Caruso, Epley, & Bazerman, 2005). Perspective taking can reduce relationship intensity and conflict (Steins & Wicklund, 1996). ...
Thesis
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Problem: A range of developmental models have been applied in research on leader development. Such applications often advocate “whole” person approaches to leader growth. They seek to expand social, cognitive, and behavioral capacities, and often reference perspective taking. Many of these approaches define developmental levels in terms of specific content, ideas, and domain-specific capacities. In some models, people are said to be at a given level because they demonstrate a certain kind of perspective taking, and they are also expected to demonstrate that kind of perspective taking because they are at a given level. This circularity largely prevents the investigation of how different capacities change together (or not) over time. Purpose: Using an approach that avoids this kind of circularity it was possible to examine perspectival skills and developmental level independently. I tested three hypotheses about the relationship between change in developmental level and change in perspective taking, seeking, and coordination. It was predicted that these constructs would exhibit patterns of synchronous and asynchronous change, with the former being most prominent. Method: The sample consisted of 598 civil leaders who completed a developmental assessment called the LecticalTM Decision Making Assessment (LMDA) up to 4 times over a 9-month leadership development program. The LDMAs yielded separate scores for Lectical level—a domain-general index of hierarchical complexity—and perspective taking, seeking, and coordination. Perspective taking and seeking scores were disaggregated into component scores for salience, accessibility, and sophistication. Ten scores were analyzed with Latent growth modeling techniques. Four types of models were fit to these data: (a) Univariate latent growth curve models, (b) multivariate parallel process models, (c) univariate latent difference scores models, and (d) bivariate latent difference scores models. Results: All hypotheses were partially confirmed. Change trajectories for most scores were non linear, characterized by dips and spurts. The rate of change in perspective scores was not related to rate of change for Lectical score or initial Lectical score. Initial Lectical score was positively related to initial perspective scores. Lectical score was a leading indicator of subsequent change in seeking and seeking salience. Lectical change positively impacted seeking change, whereas Lectical score positively impacted seeking salience change. Conclusions: The relationship between change in these constructs is more complex than typically portrayed. Evidence suggests that these variables change more independently of each other than claimed in earlier research. Patterns of asynchronous change were three times more common than synchronous change, and Lectical score predicted change in only some aspects of perspectival capacity.Implications for theory, method, and pedagogy, along with study limitations and avenues for future research are discussed.
... Although this metric does not directly measure the amount of information shared or discussed, it does demonstrate that people routinely overestimate their contribution to group work, which would include sharing and discussing information. An egocentric bias is evident whereby people overestimate their contributions because they may wish to view themselves positively (Caruso, Epley, & Bazerman, 2006). This outcome can be used to debrief students (see below). ...
Article
Decision making is a crucial skill for sport management students to develop. However, we are all subject to cognitive biases that may influence our decision making. Groups are often offered as a remedy to address individual cognitive biases, the maxim being that two, or more, heads are better than one. Nevertheless, group dynamics may also accentuate cognitive biases resulting in suboptimal decision making. In this teaching simulation, students are tasked with selecting the best candidate to hire for a fictional sport organization. The simulation was designed using the hidden profile condition, such that students rarely identify the optimal candidate, when the task is performed either individually or in a group. Even when the full candidate profiles are revealed, a sizeable minority is still unable to identify the best candidate. This study explains the theoretical reasoning for these occurrences and provides a detailed account of the construction of the simulation, along with details on how to implement and debrief the exercise with students.
... However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying the linkage between self-construal and creativity. As suggested by motivated information processing theory that to be creative in generating ideas, individuals need to have a desire to do so (Kunda, 1990; see also Caruso et al., 2006), in the present research, we propose a motivational and cognitive mechanism in explaining the influence of self-construal on creativity by integrating approach-avoidance motivation theory (Elliot and Thrash, 2002;Carver, 2006;Elliot, 2006) and the dual pathway to creativity model Nijstad et al., 2010). ...
Article
Full-text available
While some evidence has linked the way individuals define themselves in relation to others (independent versus interdependent self-construal) to creativity, little is known about the underlying mechanism in explaining why and how self-construal influences creativity. Integrating approach-avoidance motivation theory and the dual pathway to creativity model, this research focuses on the motivational and cognitive mechanisms that transfer the effects of self-construal on creativity. Specifically, we expect that independent self-construal is a driver of creativity because it facilitates individuals’ approach motivation, which in turn increases flexible information processing. To test the three-stage mediation model, one experiment and one survey study were conducted. In Study 1, in a sample of 231 Dutch students, self-construal was manipulated by a story-writing task; approach-avoidance motivation, cognitive flexibility, and creativity were measured. In Study 2, self-construal, approach (and avoidance) motivation, cognitive flexibility, and creativity were all measured in a second sample of Dutch students (N = 146). The results of two studies supported the three-stage mediation model, showing that approach motivation and cognitive flexibility together mediated the effects of self-construal on creativity. Limitations and implications for future research are discussed.
... "Bounded ethicality" refers to situations in which individuals make unethical decisions that might well be inconsistent with their own ethical standards, but do so in the absence of conscious awareness that this is occurring (Chugh, Bazerman, & Banaji, 2005). In relation to academic dishonesty, this can occur through common egocentric biases that can lead individuals to overestimate their contributions to group projects by overclaiming the proportion of total work they completed (Caruso, Epley, & Bazerman, 2006). In addition, if individuals are experiencing conditions of high cognitive burden on their working memory when ideas first appear, plagiarism that occurs below the level of conscious awareness is more likely, as high cognitive burden disrupts ability to focus on the source of ideas (Marsh, Landau, & Hicks, 1997). ...
Article
Despite the plethora of research on factors associated with academic dishonesty and ways of averting it, such dishonesty remains a significant concern. There is a need to identify overarching frameworks through which academic dishonesty might be understood, which might also suggest novel yet research-supported practical insights aimed at prevention. Hence, this article draws upon the burgeoning field of behavioral ethics to highlight a dual processing framework on academic dishonesty and to provide additional and sometimes counterintuitive practical insights into preventing this predicament. Six themes from within behavioral ethics are elaborated. These indicate the roles of reflective, conscious deliberation in academic (dis)honesty, as well as reflexive, nonconscious judgment; the roles of rationality and emotionality; and the ways in which conscious and nonconscious situational cues can cause individual moral identity or moral standards to become more or less salient to, and therefore influential in, decision-making. Practical insights and directions for future research are provided.
... It is a dynamic process that would bring a more interdependent relation in team members each other. The more similar the value concept of members in a team is, the easier it is to reach common understanding between members, which is conducive to the cooperation of individual with other members, and also can further strengthen the cohesion in a team (Caruso, Epley & Bazerman, 2006; Nibler & Harris, 2003). So the inside group conflict in a team or organization is regarded by scholars or the practice circle as one of the most SHENG Chieh-wen, associate professor, Commerce Automation & Management, Chihlee Institute of Technology; research fields: organizational behavior, business ethics, human resource management. ...
... These include slippery slopes-the psychological numbing that comes from repetition-and the prevalent use of euphemisms (Tenbrunsel and Messick 2004;Bazerman and Tenbrunsel 2011, 91-4, 123-4). Indeed, self-serving biases have been found among professionals, such as experienced negotiators (Babcock and Lowenstein 1997) and academic co-authors (Caruso, Epley, and Bazerman 2006). Moreover, it has been demonstrated that professionalism-or more specifically, seeing oneself as a professional, i.e. as one who is technically or morally superior in some way-may actually increase unethical behavior, because it licenses one to act unethically (Kouchaki 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
Public choice theory (PCT) has had a powerful influence on political science and, to a lesser extent, on public administration. Based on the premise that public officials are rational maximizers of their own utility, PCT has a quite successful record of correctly predicting governmental decisions and policies. This success is puzzling, given behavioral findings that show that officials do not necessarily seek to maximize their own utility. Drawing on recent advances in behavioral ethics (BE), this article offers a new behavioral foundation for PCT’s predictions, by delineating the psychological processes that lead well-intentioned people to violate moral and social norms. We review the relevant findings of BE, analyzes their theoretical and policy implications for officials’ decision-making, and sets an agenda for future research.
... Perspective taking is often defined as the capacity to infer another's thoughts, feelings, or internal states or knowledge (Borke, 1971;Chandler & Greenspan 1972), and an individual's awareness of informational states in oneself and others (Baron-Cohen, 1995;Premack & Woodruff, 1978). These definitions converge on perspective taking as a cognitive process that entails trying to understand or considering another's viewpoint (Caruso, Epley, & Bazerman, 2006;Parker, Atkins, & Axtell, 2008;Sessa, 1996) by "deliberately adopting their perspective" (Caruso et al., 2006, p. 203). The processes involved are subject to conscious control and can be modified by training and awareness (Parker et al., 2008;Sessa, 1996). ...
Article
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Perhaps universities have gone too far in their attempts to provide the best learning experience for our students? We have heard of helicopter parents who hover over their sons and daughters, removing all obstacles their student might face and solve problems for them. Have colleges and universities adopted this same kind of behavior in their attempt to be “student oriented,” provide better customer service, and reduce student attrition rates? This paper examines the pervasiveness of “helicoptering” and the detrimental effects when parents and universities seek to control students instead of allowing them to learn responsibility.
... Over-claiming is also a driver of conflict in negotiations, and can adversely affect learning, hiring and other decisions, and responses to crises. 6 Employees who issue ultimatums because they think they are irreplaceable sometimes get fired. ...
Article
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People often believe that they do more than their fair share of work. This tendency plays out across daily life, from married couples to workplace collaborations. While the inclination to “over-claim” credit is pervasive and has potentially serious consequences, little is known about the factors that make it more or less likely to occur. This article considers two predictors—group size and the role of indirect participants, such as supervisors, teachers, coaches, and office assistants—on the phenomenon known as over-claiming. It offers practical steps for individuals, managers, and organizations to take to moderate the damaging effects of over-claiming.
... To be clear, we do not expect interactions between episodic simulation and theory of mind to enhance prosocial decision-making in all circumstances. Indeed, there are examples of when engagement of theory of mind can reduce prosocial responses (Epley, Caruso, & Bazerman, 2006;Pierce, Kilduff, Galinsky, & Sivanathan, 2013), and there may be situations when episodic simulation has the same effect (Gaesser, 2013). Here, we make the more tempered claim that episodic simulation and theory of mind can interact to facilitate prosocial responses. ...
Article
How we imagine and subjectively experience the future can inform how we make decisions in the present. Here, we examined a prosocial effect of imagining future episodes in motivating moral decisions about helping others in need, as well as the underlying cognitive mechanisms. Across three experiments we found that people are more willing to help others in specific situations after imagining helping them in those situations. Manipulating the spatial representation of imagined future episodes in particular was effective at increasing intentions to help others, suggesting that scene imagery plays an important role in the prosocial effect of episodic simulation. Path modeling analyses revealed that episodic simulation interacts with theory of mind in facilitating prosocial responses but can also operate independently. Moreover, we found that our manipulations of the imagined helping episode increased actual prosocial behavior, which also correlated with changes in reported willingness to help. Based on these findings, we propose a new model that begins to capture the multifaceted mechanisms by which episodic simulation contributes to prosocial decision-making, highlighting boundaries and promising future directions to explore. Implications for research in moral cognition, imagination, and patients with impairments in episodic simulation are discussed.
... Nonetheless, we must be careful in our conclusions, because more work is needed to confirm or support any conclusions. Regarding this aspect, we found an insufficient empirical and experimental treatment of these issues, with some exceptions (e.g., Caruso et al., 2006;Hagen, 2013;Maciejovsky et al., 2009;Vinkler, 2000;Wren et al., 2007). We call for a research agenda in the application of empirical and experimental methods to aid in the determination of the most adequate counting method. ...
Article
The problem on how to distribute the publication credits among ordered coauthors has been extensively discussed in the literature. However, there is no consensus about what is the most adequate procedure. This paper studies the properties of the existing counting methods and shows an impossibility result regarding the existence of a general counting method able to satisfy no advantageous merging and no advantageous splitting simultaneously—two properties that we consider fundamental. Our results suggest that the generalized variations of the geometric and the harmonic counting methods are the most flexible and robust in theoretical terms.
... However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying the linkage between self-construal and creativity. As suggested by motivated information processing theory that to be creative in generating ideas, individuals need to have a desire to do so (Kunda, 1990; see also Caruso et al., 2006), in the present research, we propose a motivational and cognitive mechanism in explaining the influence of self-construal on creativity by integrating approach-avoidance motivation theory (Elliot and Thrash, 2002;Carver, 2006;Elliot, 2006) and the dual pathway to creativity model Nijstad et al., 2010). ...
... Making self-serving (intragroup) attributions can create intragroup conflict (Fielding et al., 2006) but undoing such attributions can have negative consequences such as decreased enjoyment and loss of interest (Caruso et al., 2006). Similarly, making selfserving and team-serving attributions can favor selfesteem in the short-term (Smurda et al., 2006), but future performance might suffer as performance correction strategies are less likely to be implemented (Försterling & Morgenstern, 2002). ...
Article
This meta-analysis explored the magnitude of self-serving attribution biases for real-world athletic outcomes. A comprehensive literature search identified 69 studies (160 effect sizes; 10,515 athletes) that were eligible for inclusion. Inverse-variance weighted random-effects meta-analysis showed that sport performers have a tendency to attribute personal success to internal factors and personal failure to external factors ( k = 40, standardized mean difference [SMD] = 0.62), a tendency to attribute team success to factors within the team and team failure to factors outside the team ( k = 23, SMD = 0.63), and a tendency to claim more personal responsibility for team success and less personal responsibility for team failure ( k = 4, SMD = 0.28). There was some publication bias and heterogeneity in computed averages. Random effects meta-regression identified sample sex, performance level, and world-region as important moderators of pooled mean effects. These findings provide a foundation for theoretical development of self-serving tendencies in real-world settings.
... Prior work in this area provides mixed results regarding its effect on intergroup bias. For example, some studies find that perspective taking can decrease egocentric tendencies (Caruso, Epley, & Bazerman, 2006), as well as reduce stereotyping and prejudice (Galinsky & Moskowitz, 2000;Vescio, Sechrist, & Paolucci, 2003). These benefits are theorized to be the result of a heightened sense of similarity between the perspective taker and the target (Davis, Conklin, Smith, & Luce, 1996;Laurent & Myers, 2011;Myers & Hodges, 2012). ...
... Alternatively, the overestimation of the tax rates can be explained by the phenomenon known as "over-claiming" -when individuals tend to overestimate their relative contribution to their collective work. Over-claiming has been observed in several studies and in various contexts like married couples sharing household chores (Kruger & Savitsky, 2009;Ross & Sicoly, 1979), academics collaborating on research projects (Caruso, Epley, & Bazerman, 2006), and students working on joint assignments (Savitsky, Van Boven, Epley, & Wight, 2005;Schroeder, Caruso, & Epley, 2016). In all these studies, the participants were asked to estimate the share that they personally contributed to their group's work. ...
Conference Paper
Allingham and Sandmo (A-S) model is perhaps the most popular and influential model of tax evasion in the economics literature. This model presumes that by maximizing their expected utility function, taxpayers decide if and by how much they should evade taxes (Allingham & Sandmo, 1972). This function depends on exogenous parameters like the probability of detection, tax rates and penalties, and it is assumed that taxpayers are well-informed about them. The current paper provides novel empirical evidence that there are sizable gaps between taxpayers’ perceptions and the actual values of the audit, tax and penalty rates in the US. Some plausible explanations for these perception gaps are considered and discussed in the paper. The paper also provides profiles of people who are susceptible to these misperceptions and biases. These profiles can help policy makers develop targeted tax compliance policies. This paper uses data from the RAND Corporation’s American Life Panel (ALP) Tax Evasion Survey, a survey of a nationally representative sample of 1029 US adults. The survey dataset contains self-report variables for perceived audit rates, penalty rates, and effective tax rates, as well as demographic, social network and attitudinal data. For comparison, actual values for the audit, penalty and tax rates are taken from publicly accessible IRS publications.
... UEB-SI) (Pittarello et al., 2015). Racial discrimination and other biases can support an organisational culture that promotes implicit unethicality (Bertrand et al., 2005;Caruso et al., 2006;Chugh, 2004;Epley & Dunning, 2000;Sezer et al., 2016). Framing a decision as only a business problem to be overcome by the organisation without analysing its moral characteristics also leads to ethical failure (i.e. ...
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Over the past few decades, substantial work has been carried out by researchers in the field of unethical employee behaviour. While self-interest is a more focused area of research, recent studies have investigated pro-organisational unethical behaviour. Furthermore, it is known that unethical behaviour often occurs beyond the realm of conscious awareness. At present, a comprehensive review of unethical employee behaviour that explicates the various types of unethicality is still lacking. In this study, we perform a literature review and integrate the studies under the dimensions of self-interestedness and intentionality. Consequently, four distinct patterns of unethical employee behaviour emerge, which we classify into a typology comprised of four types: (1) unethical pro-self behaviour-explicit, (2) unethical pro-self behaviour-implicit, (3) unethical pro-other behaviour-explicit and (4) unethical pro-other behaviour-implicit. We contend that each of these behaviours consists of different psychological processes, discuss the individual and situational determinants of each typology and tabulate key findings. Overall, we find that the field will significantly benefit from additional impetus being placed on the under-investigated areas of unethical employee behaviours, which, according to our defined typology, includes the implicit and the pro-other types
... This indicates that members are systematically overestimating their own contributions (Messick and Sentis 1979). Thus, when people claim, what they genuinely perceive to be, their fair share of credit, they will make demands that are out of line with what they in fact deserve (Caruso et al. 2006). ...
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This paper responds to the Radical Behavioral Challenge (RBC) to normative business ethics. According to RBC, recent research on bounded ethicality shows that it is psychologically impossible for people to follow the prescriptions of normative business ethics. Thus, said prescriptions run afoul of the principle that nobody has an obligation to do something that they cannot do. I show that the only explicit response to this challenge in the business ethics literature (due to Kim et al.) is flawed because it limits normative business ethics to condemning practitioners’ behavior without providing usable suggestions for how to do better. I argue that a more satisfying response is to, first, recognize that most obligations in business are wide-scope which, second, implies that there are multiple ways of fulfilling them. This provides a solid theoretical grounding for the increasingly popular view that we have obligations to erect institutional safeguards when bounded ethicality is likely to interfere with our ability to do what is right. I conclude with examples of such safeguards and some advice on how to use the research findings on bounded ethicality in designing ethical business organizations.
... In general, perspective-taking is difficult (Caruso, Epley, & Bazerman, 2006;Ross, Greene, & House, 1977), and perspective-taking errors in conversations may contribute to forecasting errors conversational partners make. This may be particularly true for sensitive topics that might cause a question asker to feel uncomfortable or embarrassed. ...
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Within a conversation, individuals balance competing objectives, such as the motive to gather information and the motive to create a favorable impression. Across five experimental studies (N = 1427), we show that individuals avoid asking sensitive questions because they believe that asking sensitive questions will make their conversational partners uncomfortable and cause them to form negative perceptions. We introduce the Communication Motives and Expectations Model and we demonstrate that the aversion to asking sensitive questions is often misguided. Question askers systematically overestimate the impression management and interpersonal costs of asking sensitive questions. In conversations with friends and with strangers and in both face-to-face and computer-mediated conversations, respondents formed similarly favorable impressions of conversational partners who asked sensitive questions (e.g., “How much is your salary?”) as they did of conversational partners who asked non-sensitive questions (e.g., “How do you get to work?”). We assert that individuals make a potentially costly mistake when they avoid asking sensitive questions, as they overestimate the interpersonal costs of asking sensitive questions.
... Alternatively, the overestimation of the tax rates can be explained by the phenomenon known as "over-claiming" -when individuals tend to overestimate their relative contribution to their collective work. Over-claiming has been observed in several studies and in various contexts like married couples sharing household chores (Kruger & Savitsky, 2009;Ross & Sicoly, 1979), academics collaborating on research projects (Caruso, Epley, & Bazerman, 2006), and students working on joint assignments (Savitsky, Van Boven, Epley, & Wight, 2005;Schroeder, Caruso, & Epley, 2016). In all these studies, the participants were asked to estimate the share that they personally contributed to their group's work. ...
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Although the role of top teams has been recognized in ambidextrous organizations, it remains unclear which characteristics and how the cognitive processes of top teams are used to address the dual cognitive challenges of ambidexterity. To address this puzzle, I developed a model in which I theorize that a top team with task-related diversity engaging in perspective taking will influence the achievement of an ambidextrous organization. Moreover, I further theorize that transformational leadership of the CEO will help diverse top teams master ambidexterity by influencing the team's cognitive processes. The results show that diverse teams can address the differentiating-integrating challenges of ambidexterity when they engage in perspective taking. The results also confirm that transformational leadership strengthens the relationship between a diverse top team's perspective taking and ambidextrous orientation.
Article
We introduce a new model of bounded ethicality which helps explain three persistent puzzles of ethical behavior: when moral awareness is or is not present, when ethical behavior is more or less consistent with past behavior, and when blind spots obscure our ethical failures. The original conception of bounded ethicality (Chugh, Banaji, & Bazerman, 2005) described the systematic psychological constraints on ethical behavior and has contributed to our field's understanding of the phenomena of everyday, "ordinary" unethical behavior. In this more detailed model, we delineate these systematic processes and mechanisms and show how concepts of automaticity, self-view, and self-threat play critical roles in our ethical decision-making. The model describes distinct, asymmetric patterns of (un)ethical behavior and pinpoints the contingency which determines which pattern is more likely to unfold, including when we will trend to more or less automaticity and more or less ethical behavior. Our model integrates and synthesizes many of the key models and findings in recent behavioral ethics research into a single, overarching model of ethical decision-making, offering an anchor for new questions and a new realm of study.
Chapter
Four times in recent years (2006, 2008, 2009, and 2011), Time magazine named JPMorgan Chase CEO Jamie Dimon as one of the world’s 100 most influential people. Institutional Investor included Dimon on its Best CEOs list every year from 2008 through 2011. In 2009, Newsweek declared Jamie Dimon to be “America’s Most Important Banker” and particularly the US government’s banker of choice (Newsweek staff, 2009). By 2011, though, the glowing praise for Dimon had begun to dim, and one story in particular explains why.
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Um die eigenen Stärken und Schwächen zu erkennen, muss jeder ein paar Stolpersteine vermeiden: von der vielleicht schiefen Selbstwahrnehmung bis hin zur schwierigen Interaktion mit anderen. Es geht ebenso um Narzissmus und übermäßiges Selbstvertrauen, wie um eine Unterschätzung der eigenen Fähigkeiten und der eigenen Grenzen. Hält man sich und seine Aussagen für zu eindeutig oder nimmt sich zu wichtig? Werkzeuge werden an die Hand gegeben, um die eigenen Stärken und Schwächen Schritt für Schritt für den derzeitigen wie für einen zukünftigen Job zu analysieren.
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Across six studies, we find that both incidental anger and integral anger reduce perspective-taking. In Study 1, participants who felt incidental anger were less likely to take others’ perspectives than those who felt neutral emotion. In Study 2, we demonstrate that arousal mediates the relationship between anger and diminished perspective-taking. In Studies 3 and 4, we show that anger reduces perspective-taking compared to neutral emotion, sadness, and disgust. In Study 5, we find that integral anger impairs perspective-taking compared to neutral emotion. In Study 6, prompting individuals to correctly attribute their feelings of incidental anger moderates the relationship between anger and perspective-taking. Taken together, across different anger inductions and perspective taking measures, we identify a robust relationship between anger and diminished perspective-taking. Our findings have particularly important implications for conflict, which is often characterized by feelings of anger and exacerbated by poor perspective-taking.
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For persons to apply the contract test adequately they must not only be able to form moral judgments through perspective-taking, which Chap. 3 established, but also do so with sufficient accuracy. This chapter therefore examines how good we are at perspective-taking. Empirical findings show that we often make mistakes regarding the perspectives of others. Our ability for perspective-taking is constrained by three factors: available cognitive resources, available information about differences between oneself and the occupant(s) of the target perspective, and one’s own present perspective regarding the object. It is argued that this means that persons are prone to draw mistaken conclusions about whether principles would be the object of general agreement.
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More than a quarter century ago, organizational scholars began to explore the implications of prosociality in organizations. Three interrelated streams have emerged from this work, which focus on prosocial motives (the desire to benefit others or expend effort out of concern for others), prosocial behaviors (acts that promote/protect the welfare of individuals, groups, or organizations), and prosocial impact (the experience of making a positive difference in the lives of others through one's work). Prior studies have highlighted the importance of prosocial motives, behaviors, and impact, and have enhanced our understanding of each of them. However, there has been little effort to systematically review and integrate these related lines of work in a way that furthers our understanding of prosociality in organizations. In this article, we provide an overview of the current state of the literature, highlight key findings, identify major research themes, and address important controversies and debates. We call for an expanded view of prosocial behavior and a sharper focus on the costs and unintended consequences of prosocial phenomena. We conclude by suggesting a number of avenues for future research that will address unanswered questions and should provide a more complete understanding of prosociality in the workplace.
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Fishing for compliments and self-deception are the main factors restricting the development of ath-letes' sportsmanship. Taking 412 athletes (220 male and 192 female) as the subjects and by the method of questionnaire, the article discusses the relations between fishing for compliments, self-deception and sportsmanship as well as the intermediary role of self-deception in fishing for compliments and sportsmanship. The result shows that significant gender difference exists in athletes' self-deception and sportsmanship. Male athletes usually show higher-level self-deception and lower-level sportsmanship. Self-deception has an intermediary role in fishing for compliments and sportsmanship. The paper holds that in order to promote the development of athletes' sportsmanship, concrete measures should be taken to enhance the cognitive education of ath-letes' sportsmanship and decrease the level of self-deception.
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Despite the global success enjoyed by a few social media platforms such as Wikipedia and Facebook, many platforms that target geographically bounded communities struggle to sustain users' participation over time. Understanding what makes such "hyper-local" communities sustainable can lead to better technologies for encouraging community awareness and civic participation. However, little is known about how the social structure of such online communities impacts their sustainability. In this study, we conceptualize sustainability through the aspects of viability and performance. We measure three system-level factors that affect sustainability, including network size, connectedness and centralization, which capture the communities' social structures. We test our hypotheses on the longitudinal data collected from E-Democracy.org. Our results indicate that network connectedness and centralization are positively associated with performance but not with viability. The findings reveal a system design dilemma for hyper-local forums. We discuss the implications and potential solutions to overcome the sustainability challenge.
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In many of the business scandals of the new millennium, the perpetrators were surrounded by people who could have recognized the misbehavior, yet failed to notice it. To explain such inaction, management scholars have been developing the area of behavioral ethics and the more specific topic of bounded ethicality—the systematic and predictable ways in which even good people engage in unethical conduct without their own awareness. In this paper, we review research on both bounded ethicality and bounded awareness, and connect the two areas to highlight the challenges of encouraging managers and leaders to notice and act to stop unethical conduct. We close with directions for future research and suggest that noticing unethical behavior should be considered a critical leadership skill.
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Since the end of the 1970s, a wide range of psychological, economic, and sociological laboratory and field experiments proved human beings deviating from rational choices. Standard neoclassical profit maximization axioms were outlined to fail to explain how humans actually behave. Human beings were rather found to use heuristics in day-to-day decision-making. These mental shortcuts enable us to cope with information overload in a complex world. Behavioral economists proposed to nudge and wink citizens to make better choices with many different applications in very many different domains. This book will (1) start with a review of the contemporary literature on human decision-making failures in Europe and North America presenting the wide range of nudges and winks developed to curb harmful consequences of humane decision-making fallibility; then (2) propose how to use mental heuristics, biases, and nudges in the finance domain to profit from economic markets providing clear communication strategies; and then (3) finish with clear leadership and followership directives on nudging in the digital age.
Conference Paper
For predicting the contributions of the collaborators of a scientific activity, such as a paper or a project, the First and Others (F&O) approach has been developed with the consideration of both a flexible formula by changing tuning parameters and weight preference to individual collaborator. This paper extends and generalizes the F&O approach to develop a meta flexible schema of “First and Others” credit-assignment mechanism, which is then proposed to modify geometric counting for amplified applications. With this extension, it makes the traditional approach more robust with flexible profiles. Compared to a set of survey data from medicine, the performance of the proposed flexible schemas is improved significantly.
Chapter
People care about the minds of others, attempting to understand others' thoughts, attitudes, beliefs, intentions, and emotions using a highly sophisticated process of social cognition. Others' minds are among the most complicated systems that any person will ever think about, meaning that inferences about them are also made imperfectly. Research on the processes that enable mental state inference has largely developed in isolation from research examining the accuracy of these inferences, leaving the former literature somewhat impractical and the latter somewhat atheoretical. We weave these literatures together by describing how basic mechanisms that govern the activation and application of mental state inferences help to explain systematic patterns of accuracy, error, and confidence in mind perception. Altering any of these basic processes, such as through perspective taking or increasing attention to behavioral cues, is likely to increase accuracy only in very specific circumstances. We suggest the most widely effective method for increasing accuracy is to avoid these inference processes altogether by getting another's perspective directly (what we refer to as perspective getting). Those in the midst of understanding the mind of another, however, seem largely unable to detect when they are using an effective versus ineffective strategy while engaging in mind reading, meaning that the most effective approaches for increasing interpersonal understanding are likely to be highly undervalued. Understanding how mind perception is activated and applied can explain accuracy and error, identifying effective strategies that mind readers may nevertheless fail to appreciate in their everyday lives. Through a looking glass, darkly: Using mechanisms of mind perception to identify accuracy, overconfidence, and underappreciated means for improvement.
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Perspective taking is conceptualized as the ability to consider or adopt the perspective of another individual who is perceived to be in need; it has shown mixed results in stereotype reduction and intergroup attitude change across many social science disciplines. The inconsistent results raise concerns about the robustness of the perspective-taking phenomenon. The present study uses p-curve analysis to examine whether evidential value existed among two sets of published experimental studies where perspective taking was operationalized in two different paradigms. Despite low statistical power, we found that both sets of studies revealed some evidential value of the effects of perspective taking. The theoretical and methodological implications of perspective-taking studies are discussed as well.
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Positive Psychological Interventions are activities that have been demonstrated to cause a positive change in a population by increasing a positive variable (e.g., optimism). Although these activities come in a variety of forms and focus on a wide range of positive variables, researchers tend to concentrate their efforts on seven popular and well-researched categories of PPIs that are as follows: meaning, gratitude, strengths, savoring, optimism, empathy, and kindness. Collectively, the PPIs in these domains have been shown to alleviate depressive symptoms, increase pro-social spending and social connectedness, reduce suicidal ideation, increase subjective well-being or happiness, and many other positive changes across diverse populations. Still, there are many questions that warrant discussion for future research such as sex and cultural differences, long-term effects, and antithetical or unexpected reactions to activities. Along with examining these benefits and critiques of PPIs, we discuss the background and state of replicability for each domain.
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Based on the premise that people are rational maximizers of their own utility, economic analysis has a fairly successful record in correctly predicting human behavior. This success is puzzling, given behavioral findings that show that people do not necessarily seek to maximize their own utility. Drawing on studies of motivated reasoning, self-serving biases, and behavioral ethics, this article offers a new behavioral foundation for the predictions of economic analysis. The behavioral studies reveal how automatic and mostly unconscious processes lead well-intentioned people to make self-serving decisions. Thus, the behavioral studies support many of the predictions of standard economic analysis, without committing to a simplistic portrayal of human motivation. The article reviews the psychological findings, explains how they provide a sounder, complementary foundation for economic analysis, and discusses their implications for legal policymaking.
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We examine two features of control environments expected to affect the honesty of budget submissions by subordinates and their use by managers for planning purposes. First, we predict that subordinates' awareness of incentives available to their managers that they are not eligible to share in, is likely to induce inequity aversion and dishonest budgeting. However, we expect the egocentric bias will make managers insensitive to this increased dishonesty when using budgets for planning purposes. Second, we predict that making subordinates eligible to participate in incentives available to their managers will activate a personal norm of other-regarding behavior resulting in more honest budgeting. Third, we predict that managers whose subordinates are eligible to share in their incentives will recognize factors motivating their subordinates' behavior and, as a result, rely more on their budget submissions for planning purposes. Experimental results confirm all predictions. Implications for practice and research are discussed.
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Taking another person’s perspective is widely presumed to increase interpersonal understanding. Very few experiments, however, have actually tested whether perspective taking increases accuracy when predicting another person’s thoughts, feelings, attitudes, or other mental states. Those that do yield inconsistent results, or they confound accuracy with egocentrism. Here we report 25 experiments testing whether being instructed to adopt another person’s perspective increases interpersonal insight. These experiments include a wide range of accuracy tests that disentangle egocentrism and accuracy, such as predicting another person’s emotions from facial expressions and body postures, predicting fake versus genuine smiles, predicting when a person is lying or telling the truth, and predicting a spouse’s activity preferences and consumer attitudes. Although a large majority of pretest participants believed that perspective taking would systematically increase accuracy on these tasks, we failed to find any consistent evidence that it actually did so. If anything, perspective taking decreased accuracy overall while occasionally increasing confidence in judgment. Perspective taking reduced egocentric biases, but the information used in its place was not systematically more accurate. A final experiment confirmed that getting another person’s perspective directly, through conversation, increased accuracy but that perspective taking did not. Increasing interpersonal accuracy seems to require gaining new information rather than utilizing existing knowledge about another person. Understanding the mind of another person is therefore enabled by getting perspective, not simply taking perspective.
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Research Summary Boards of directors make high‐stake decisions that involve hiring, compensating, and dismissing CEOs. Building on theory about choice‐supportive bias and escalation of commitment, we theorize that “hiring directors” (directors who were present during a CEO's hiring) will display choice‐supportive bias and escalate commitment to poorly performing CEOs. Primary data from 73 directors indicate that directors are indeed biased toward CEOs they help hire. Archival data from S&P 1500 firms reveal that, following poor performance, the number of hiring directors is positively related to the increase in CEO pay and lower likelihood of CEO dismissal. Building on theory about board experience, we also predict and find that more experienced boards reduce the tendency to escalate. Thus, bias among hiring directors can be mitigated via experience. Managerial Summary Making a choice such as casting a vote or selecting a restaurant leads people to view their selection favorably even if evidence emerges suggesting it was a bad choice. We examine whether corporate directors fall prey to this choice‐supportive bias when involved in CEO hiring. We found that directors who are part of the hiring process tend to have an overly rosy view of the person selected. Moreover, if the firm is performing poorly, a board with more directors who helped hire the current CEO will tend to increase the CEO's pay more and are less likely to fire the CEO than a board with fewer such directors. This problem is reduced if the board has highly experienced directors among its ranks.
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The concept of perspective-taking is variously defined and diversely utilized across a wide range of literature. Early developmentalists explored its unfolding in children, articulating a series of structural transformations, while present-day treatments in fields such as organizational psychology have focused on the translative dimensions of adult perspectival action. The integral community, encumbered by certain growth-to-goodness assumptions, uncritically views perspective-taking as both the cause and product of development, driving attention almost exclusively toward transformation and limiting the ability to operationalize research on perspective-taking in adult populations. In this article, I propose an approach to research that accounts for both the transformative and translative aspects of development. First, I argue in favor of investigating perspectival action via a taxonomy that includes eight translative dimensions: awareness, motivation, act, type, subtype, object, information, and accuracy. Then, well-established measures for investigating cognitive development can be recruited to uncover how these translative dimensions operate at different stages and how our efforts at supporting translative growth do or do not support transformative growth.
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To communicate effectively, people must have a reasonably accurate idea about what specific other people know. An obvious starting point for building a model of what another knows is what one oneself knows, or thinks one knows. This article reviews evidence that people impute their own knowledge to others and that, although this serves them well in general, they often do so uncritically, with the result of erroneously assuming that other people have the same knowledge. Overimputation of one's own knowledge can contribute to communication difficulties. Corrective approaches are considered. A conceptualization of where own-knowledge imputation fits in the process of developing models of other people's knowledge is proposed.
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People tend to approach agreeable propositions with a bias toward confirmation and disagreeable propositions with a bias toward disconfirmation. Because the appropriate strategy for solving the four-card Wason selection task is to seek disconfirmation, the authors predicted that people motivated to reject a task rule should be more likely to solve the task than those without such motivation. In two studies, participants who considered a Wason task rule that implied their own early death (Study 1) or the validity of a threatening stereotype (Study 2) vastly outperformed participants who considered nonthreatening or agreeable rules. Discussion focuses on how a skeptical mindset may help people avoid confirmation bias both in the context of the Wason task and in everyday reasoning.
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This study combines two of the major theoretical perspectives in social psychology: social exchange and attribution theory. We propose a theoretical model that depicts the influence of two fundamental social factors-structural power and outcome equity-on causal attributions for exchange outcomes, which in turn mediate behavioral reactions to the exchange outcomes. We manipulate the social factors in a vignette describing an exchange between a female typist and another student (male or female) who needs a paper typed. Female subjects play the role of the typist and respond to a series of questions about their perceptions of the situation. Findings support the hypothesized positive relationships between structural and perceived power, and between outcome equity and perceived fairness. The effects of perceived equity on attributions appear stronger than those of perceived power. Also, there is some support for the role of self attributions in mediating reactions to exchange outcomes in opposite-sex dyads, but such mediating effects are less robust in female dyads.
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Professional psychologists ( N = 57), most of whom were experienced researchers, described incidents ( N = 144) in the supervision of student research that they believed presented ethical problems. Raters identified those incidents that did seem to present ethical problems and sorted them into categories. Although many of the incidents pertained to some aspect of fairness in authorship assignment, 8 additional categories of ethical problems were identified: incompetent supervision, inadequate supervision, supervision abandonment, intrusion of supervisor values, abusive supervision, exploitive supervision, dual relationships, and encouragement to fraud. Each of these ethical problems is discussed, along with several possible remedies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Employing a sample of 214 individuals, this study showed that most individuals felt the input/outcome ratio in their marital relationship was better than that of most same-sex others (referential comparisons) but equal to that of their spouse (relational comparisons). Perceptions of superiority in referential comparisons and of equity in relational comparisons were accompanied by the highest level of marital satisfaction. However, further analyses showed that only for individuals high in exchange orientation was equity related to marital satisfaction and that individuals low in exchange orientation were, overall, more satisfied with their relationship. Women were more deprived and less satisfied, especially when they were high in exchange orientation. The results are related to the controversy surrounding the application of equity theory to close relationships. In addition, the cognitive mechanisms that help individuals maintain a positive view of their marital relationship are considered.
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A field study questionnaire examined the attributional patterns of males and females (N = 153 ages 11 to 58) who previously had won or lost tennis matches. Consistent with laboratory findings of attributional egocentrism, winning as compared to losing Ss attributed their performance more to internal facilitating factors (personal effort and ability) and less to internal debilitating factors (e.g., lack of practice). Sex differences indicated females took greater personal responsibility for a win than a loss, but also denied total responsibility by emphasizing the importance of luck more after a win than loss, suggesting a “fear of success” conflict. Males, on the other hand, employed less direct modes to achieve accountability for success and unaccountability for failure.
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People construct idiosyncratic, self-serving models of excellence or success in social domains, in part, to bolster self-esteem. In 3 studies, participants tended to articulate self-serving theories of success under experimental conditions in which pressures to maintain self-esteem were present, but not under conditions in which such pressures were absent. Participants assigned to role-play being a therapist were more self-serving in their assessments of the characteristics needed to be a "successful therapist" than were participants assigned to observe the role play (Study 1). Participants failing at an intellectual task articulated self-serving theories about the attributes crucial to success in marriage (Study 2) and evaluated targets similar to themselves more favorably than they did dissimilar targets (Study 3), tendencies not observed for participants succeeding at the task. Discussion centers on issues for future research suggested by these findings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Investigated reactions to others' claims of responsibility to determine whether members of a group who attempt to claim extra responsibility for success or deny responsibility for failure are derogated by fellow group members. After receiving success or failure feedback, 104 undergraduates who were members of small groups evaluated the attractiveness of another group member who took more, equal, or less responsibility for the outcome. Results indicate that others who isolate themselves from the group by denying responsibility for group activities are less favorably evaluated than those who allocate responsibility equitably. (7 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Tested 3 hypotheses concerning people's predictions of task completion times: (1) people underestimate their own but not others' completion times, (2) people focus on plan-based scenarios rather than on relevant past experiences while generating their predictions, and (3) people's attributions diminish the relevance of past experiences. Five studies were conducted with a total of 465 undergraduates. Results support each hypothesis. Ss' predictions of their completion times were too optimistic for a variety of academic and nonacademic tasks. Think-aloud procedures revealed that Ss focused primarily on future scenarios when predicting their completion times. The optimistic bias was eliminated for Ss instructed to connect relevant past experiences with their predictions. Ss attributed their past prediction failures to external, transient, and specific factors. Observer Ss overestimated others' completion times and made greater use of relevant past experiences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Explores the process of determining authorship credit and authorship order on collaborative publications with students. The article presents hypothetical cases that describe relevant ethical issues, highlights ethical principles that could provide assistance in addressing these dilemmas, and makes recommendations to faculty who collaborate with students on scholarly projects. It is proposed that authorship credit and order decisions should be based on the relative scholarly abilities and professional contributions of the collaborators. Furthermore, it is recommended that both faculty and students participate in the authorship decision-making process early in the collaborative endeavor. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Conducted 5 experiments to assess biases in availability of information in memory and attributions of responsibility for the actions and decisions that occurred during a previous group interaction. The S populations sampled included naturally occurring discussion groups (of undergraduates), 37 married couples, 74 female and 84 male players on intercollegiate basketball teams, and groups of undergraduates assembled in the laboratory. Data provide consistent evidence for egocentric biases in availability and attribution: The S's own contributions to a joint product were more readily available, i.e., more frequently and easily recalled, and Ss accepted more responsibility for a group product than other participants attributed to them. In addition, statements attributed to the self were recalled more accurately and the availability bias was attenuated, though not eliminated, when the group product was negatively evaluated. When another S's contributions were made more available to the S via a selective retrieval process, this S allocated correspondingly more responsibility for the group decisions to the coparticipant. The determinants and pervasiveness of the egocentric biases are considered. (27 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Presents a new theory of subjective probability according to which different descriptions of the same event can give rise to different judgments. The experimental evidence confirms the major predictions of the theory. First, judged probability increases by unpacking the focal hypothesis and decreases by unpacking the alternative hypothesis. Second, judged probabilities are complementary in the binary case and subadditive in the general case, contrary to both classical and revisionist models of belief. Third, subadditivity is more pronounced for probability judgments than for frequency judgments and is enhanced by compatible evidence. The theory provides a unified treatment of a wide range of empirical findings. It is extended to ordinal judgments and to the assessment of upper and lower probabilities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Three experiments show that information consistent with a preferred conclusion is examined less critically than information inconsistent with a preferred conclusion, and consequently, less information is required to reach the former than the latter. In Study 1, Ss judged which of 2 students was most intelligent, believing they would work closely with the one they chose. Ss required less information to decide that a dislikable student was less intelligent than that he was more intelligent. In Studies 2 and 3, Ss given an unfavorable medical test result took longer to decide their test result was complete, were more likely to retest the validity of their result, cited more life irregularities that might have affected test accuracy, and rated test accuracy as lower than did Ss receiving more favorable diagnoses. Results suggest that a core component of self-serving bias is the differential quantity of cognitive processing given to preference-consistent and preference-inconsistent information. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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causal attributions / cognitive processes involved when people attempt to identify the causes of behaviors and events / intrapsychic processes / interpersonal aspects of attributions / attributional processes in groups / diffusion of responsibility attributions and group outcomes / sources / attributional conflict / attributional bases of negative group processes / attributions and performance / status, reward allocation, and satisfaction (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Evidence from several lab and field studies is presented that indicates that people have cynical intuitions about how others assess responsibility. Married couples (Study 1), video game enthusiasts (Study 2), debaters (Study 3), and darts players (Study 4) divided responsibility for a series of desirable and undesirable joint outcomes and anticipated how others would apportion responsibility. In all studies, participants expected the responsibility allocations of others–but not their own–to be motivationally biased. This was true regardless of whether responsibility assessments actually were biased. In Studies 3 and 4, participants assumed that their teammates would be less biased than their opponents, suggesting that factors known to influence motivation can moderate the strength of this "naive cynicism." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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In each of 3 experiments it was demonstrated that under certain conditions individuals who work on a task in a dyad will tend to attribute greater responsibility for a positive outcome to their partners than to themselves. In Exp I 56 college students, who had qualifying scores on the Beck Depression Inventory, working in dyads on a crossword puzzle attributed more responsibility to their partners than to themselves for an outcome they were led to believe was quite good, thus contradicting the expected "egocentric bias" effect. This was true across depression categories. In Exp II, 100 college students working in dyads on the puzzle attributed more responsibility to their partners than to themselves for a positive outcome when asked immediately after the task to make the attribution. However, Ss attributed greater responsibility to themselves than to their partners when asked to make the attribution 3 days later, thus replicating the egocentric bias effect. Half of the 30 dyads in Exp III believed they were being videotaped while working on the puzzle, whereas the other half did not. "Videotaped" Ss attributed more responsibility for the positive outcome to themselves than to their partners, whereas the nonvideotaped Ss attributed more responsibility to their partners than to themselves when both groups were asked to give their attributions immediately after the task. The relationship between the egocentric bias effect and the actor–observer difference phenomenon is discussed. (24 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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A persistently troubling question in the legal-economic literature is why cases proceed to trial. Litigation is a negative-sum proposition for the litigants-the longer the process continues, the lower their aggregate wealth. Although civil litigation is resolved by settlement in an estimated 95 percent of all disputes, what accounts for the failure of the remaining 5 percent to settle prior to trial?
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Economic theory assumes people strive for efficient agreements that benefit all consenting parties. The frequency of mutually destructive conflicts such as strikes, litigation, and military conflict, therefore, poses an important challenge to the field.
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The authors explore the well-documented tendency for people to predict that they will finish tasks earlier than they actually do. Whereas previous research has tied this optimistic bias to the operation of specific cognitive processes, the present studies examine the interplay between motivation and cognition. Two studies supported the hypothesis that incentives to finish tasks quickly exacerbate the optimistic bias. An initial field study using a naturally occurring incentive manipulation demonstrated that individuals who expected an income tax refund were more (overly) optimistic in predicting when they would complete their income tax forms than those who did not expect a refund. A laboratory experiment using a word generation task replicated this general effect and identified mediating cognitive mechanisms: Monetary incentives for early completion led to optimistic predictions, increased attention to detailed future plans, and reduced attention to relevant past experiences.
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Experienced ease of recall was found to qualify the implications of recalled content. Ss who had to recall 12 examples of assertive (unassertive) behaviors, which was difficult, rated themselves as less assertive (less unassertive) than subjects who had to recall 6 examples, which was easy. In fact, Ss reported higher assertiveness after recalling 12 unassertive rather than 12 assertive behaviors. Thus, self-assessments only reflected the implications of recalled content if recall was easy. The impact of ease of recall was eliminated when its informational value was discredited by a misattribution manipulation. The informative functions of subjective experiences are discussed.
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Professional psychologists (N = 57), most of whom were experienced researchers, described incidents (N = 144) in the supervision of student research that they believed presented ethical problems. Raters identified those incidents that did seem to present ethical problems and sorted them into categories. Although many of the incidents pertained to some aspect of fairness in authorship assignment, 8 additional categories of ethical problems were identified: incompetent supervision, inadequate supervision, supervision abandonment, intrusion of supervisor values, abusive supervision, exploitive supervision, dual relationships, and encouragement to fraud. Each of these ethical problems is discussed, along with several possible remedies.
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Close relationships, particularly between men and women, are in transition. Brehm (1992) argues that one of the major changes in heterosexual relationships over the past two decades is increased egalitarianism. More and more marriages and other intimate relationships aspire to what has been called an equal-partner pattern (Scanzoni & Scanzoni, 1988). In these relationships, the partners are equally committed to work and domestic roles and contribute equally in other areas of the relationship as well. When relationship partners participate equally in important roles, do fairness and justice issues become less relevant? The answer seems to be no. The interchangeability of roles and the freedom to develop unique scripts in the close relationship can make issues of fairness and justice even more salient and problematic.
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A considerable literature now exists dealing with the rules or norms by which people divide resources in their intimate relationships—that is, in their friendships, family relationships, and romantic relationships. Researchers have often suggested or implied that a single rule is likely to the rule governing the giving and receiving of benefits in intimate relationships. They have examined both adherence to various rules in these relationships and satisfaction in the relationship given the apparent use of one particular rule or another.
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Three investigations are reported that examined the relation between self-appraisals and appraisals of others. In Experiment 1, subjects rated a series of valenced trait adjectives according to how well the traits described the self and others. Individuals displayed a pronounced “self-other bias,” such that positive attributes were rated as more descriptive of self than of others, whereas negative attributes were rated as less descriptive of self than of others. Furthermore, in contrast to C. R. Rogers's (1951) assertion that high self-esteem is associated with a comparable regard for others, the tendency for individuals to evaluate the self in more favorable terms than they evaluated people in general was particularly pronounced among those with high self-esteem. These findings were replicated and extended in Experiment 2, where it also was found that self-evaluations were more favorable than were evaluations of a friend and that individuals with high self-esteem were most likely to appraise their friend...
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This paper investigates causal attribution of a "real" achievement event of high importance to the actor-the decision of a refereed professional journal on a paper submitted for publication. We develop a scale of causal attribution on the dimension of general control, and test hypotheses concerning the effect of status and outcome on attributions. The effect of outcome is significant. As predicted, respondents accord more relative importance to controllable causes when outcomes are positive than when they are intermediate or negative. Professional status does not affect authors' causal attributions, but sex does. Females assign relatively more importance to uncontrollable causes than do males, regardless of outcome. We consider the possible implications of these findings for future achievement attempts.
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Reactions to other's claims of resposibility were investigated by assessing group members' evaluations of a fellow group member who took high, moderate, or low personal responsibility for a positive or negative outcome. As predicted, individuals whose attribution were self-serving (blaming others for failure or claiming credit for success) were liked less than (1) group members who allocated responsibility equally, and (2) members whose "other-serving" attributions indicated they took the blame for failure or credited others for success. These results suggest that attributions-when exchanged among group members-significantly influence social perceptions and group relations.
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The attributional egotism of individuals may be particularly important when they serve as members of cooperative groups. Within a group one's fellow members may be granted or denied credit for a group performance in order to manipulate one's own perceived responsibility for the outcome. In this study, group members privately or publicly reported their assessments of their own and others' responsibility for group successes and failures. Subjects privately claimed more responsibility for success than for failure but did not do so (in public) when the other members were expected to see their reports. Moreover, under public conditions, subjects claimed less responsibility for a group success than they gave to the other members, an effect which disappeared in private. Subjects were clearly sensitive to the interpersonal implications of their attributions, displaying less egotism under public conditions.
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An exchange model of status allocation is presented hypothesizing responsibility attribution as an intervening process. An empirical test of this model provides evidence that competence, opportunity, group success, and responsibility attributions are highly related to-and can be used to predict-status allocations. Simultaneous regression analysis, however, brings into questions whether responsibility attributions are causally, or only spuriously, related to status allocations. Implications of these results are discussed in terms of the need to carefully consider and empirically examine hypotheses of intervening congnitive processes in explanations of human behavior.
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This study examined the effects of attribution of responsibility (AR), sanctioning, and number of accuser on the reactions of others to the accused and on the effectiveness of groups in which the accused holds membership. In the first part of the study (phase 1), two teams competed with each other in a game situation. One team was composed of either two or three naive subjects (depending upon the group size), whereas the other team was composed of one naive subject and either one or two confederates. During the course of the game the confederate(s) accused the naive member of their team of being responsible for team losses and, under some conditions, sanctioned him for the losses. In phase 2, the accused and members of the other team (the nonaccused) worked together as members of a problem solving group. The results of phase 1 demonstrated clearly that AR to a person for negative events induces that person to view his accusers less favorably that if AR had not occurred. Relative to the nonaccused, the accused was less satisfied with the performance of his team and saw them as having less ability and as being less cooperative. The nonaccused saw the accused and his team in a similar way. These Effects occurred regardless of number of accusers and whether or not the accused was sanctioned, although the effects were greater when the accused was also sanctioned. Furthermore, the nonaccused preferred to work with someone else more than with the accused. The events of phase 1 had no effect on problem-solving effectiveness in phase 2.
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This longitudinal study was aimed at illuminating some fundamental problems with respect to the application of equity theory in intimate relationships. First the relationship between perceived equity and satisfaction was tested, and next it was ascertained whether inequity produces dissatisfaction or vice versa. A second issue addressed in the present study was whether global assessments of equity represent some type of calculation made by the subject of all the relevant inputs and outcomes. Finally, the elements subjects take into consideration when they respond to a global equity measure was assessed. These issues were examined in a sample of 736 primarily married subjects, including 259 couples who had been married for varying lengths of time. The results provide some evidence that equity has an effect upon satisfaction and not vice versa. The assumption that global assessments are based upon a weighted summing up of a representative set of inputs and outcomes was not supported. Instead, it was found that the global measure particularly reflects exchange elements such as ‘commitment to the relationship’, ‘sociability’ and ‘attentiveness’.
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It has been suggested that equity theory, a social psychological theory concerned with the fairness in casual relationships, should be applicable to inti mate relations as well. As a first step in that direc tion, this report describes the development of the Traupmann-Utne-Walster Equity/Inequity Scales, which measure the level of equity that intimate couples perceive in their relationships. The scales, which include items from four areas of concern for intimates—personal concerns, emotional concerns, day-to-day concerns, and opportunities gained or lost—are described, and data from two empirical studies are reported. The first study demonstrates the internal consistency reliability of the scales. The second study reports data relevant to the construct validity of the scales. Two constructs derived from equity theory—affect and satisfaction—are shown to behave in the predicted way when the Traup mann-Utne-Walster Scales are used as the measure of inequity.
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This study was designed to determine whether or not equity considerations are important in couples' sexual relations. To answer this question, 53 newlywed couples were interviewed about their sexual relationships. Two main hypotheses were tested: (a) Men and women who feel their relationships are equitable will be more content (less distressed) than people who feel either overbenefited or underbenefited. (b) Men and women who feel equitably treated will have more satisfying sexual relations than those who feel either underbenefited or overbenefited. Some support for both hypotheses was obtained. Specifically, couples in equitable relationships were more content with their relationships and with their lives in general than other couples. In addition, equitably treated men and women were more satisfied with their sexual relationships overall than were other couples. They felt most loving and close after sex and assumed their partner felt that way too. While equitable couples did not say they felt more satisfied immediately after a sexual encounter than did other couples, they believed their partners were unusually satisfied. Reasons why these findings, though providing some support for the equity paradigm, must be interpreted with caution are discussed.
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Egotistical perception is the tendency to structure causal units in such a way that one receives credit for positive outcomes and avoids blame for negative outcomes. To ascertain the pattern of egotistical perceptions in cooperative groups, 66 male ROTC cadets participated as either group leaders, followers, or equals in three-man, problem-solving groups. Bogus feedback was provided to foster perceptions of group success or failure. As hypothesized, leaders assumed high personal responsibility for the group’s performance irrespective of success or failure, while followers and equals assumed high personal responsibility following group success but much lower personal responsibility following group failure. Also, as hypothesized, following failure, leaders rated the quality of their own performance lower than did followers or equals, while following success, occupants of all role positions rated their performances highly. Leaders also assumed that the other members of their group were more highly motivated to do well than did followers or equals.
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In Study 1, over 200 college students estimated how much their own chance of experiencing 42 events differed from the chances of their classmates. Overall, Ss rated their own chances to be significantly above average for positive events and below average for negative events. Cognitive and motivational considerations led to predictions that degree of desirability, perceived probability, personal experience, perceived controllability, and stereotype salience would influence the amount of optimistic bias evoked by different events. All predictions were supported, although the pattern of effects differed for positive and negative events. Study 2 with 120 female undergraduates from Study 1 tested the idea that people are unrealistically optimistic because they focus on factors that improve their own chances of achieving desirable outcomes and fail to realize that others may have just as many factors in their favor. Ss listed the factors that they thought influenced their own chances of experiencing 8 future events. When such lists were read by a 2nd group of Ss, the amount of unrealistic optimism shown by this 2nd group for the same 8 events decreased significantly, although it was not eliminated. (22 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
A review of the evidence for and against the proposition that self-serving biases affect attributions of causality indicates that there is little empirical support for the proposition in its most general form. Some support was found for the contention that individuals engage in self-enhancing attributions under conditions of success, but only minimal evidence suggested that individuals engage in self-protective attributions under conditions of failure. Moreover, it was proposed that the self-enhancing effect may not be due to motivational distortion, but rather to the tendency of people to (a) expect their behavior to produce success, (b) discern a closer covariation between behavior and outcomes in the case of increasing success than in the case of constant failure, and (c) misconstrue the meaning of contingency. (60 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Asked 144 male Ss to work in 4-person problem-solving groups. After providing recommendations for group solutions to a series of problems, Ss learned that they had been consistently in either the group's majority or minority—where majority decisions were binding on the entire group—and that either few (low dissent) or many (high dissent) group members had disagreed with the majority. Ss were then informed that their group had done extremely well, average, or very poorly on the problems. Majority Ss verdically rated their personal performance and personal responsibility for the group's performance more highly than did minority Ss except when the group failed. Under failure conditions, majority Ss defensively took as little responsibility as minority Ss and rated their personal performances equal to those of minority Ss. Ss in failing groups also defensively assigned less responsibility for the group's poor performance to themselves than they assigned to the poorest group member. The results support a self-serving bias explanation for egocentrism and fail to support predictions derived from a logical information-processing model. (39 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Three studies, with 233 undergraduates, examined an egocentric bias toward overperceiving the self as the target of an action or event and the relation of this bias to dispositional self-consciousness. The 1st study found that, immediately prior to the return of their test results, Ss were more likely to believe that an especially good or an especially bad exam singled out by the teacher was theirs rather than a classmate's. In the 2nd study, Ss in a group experiment overestimated the likelihood that they, rather than another person in the group, had been chosen to participate in an experimental demonstration, regardless of whether the demonstration was described as enjoyable or unenjoyable. This study also found that the self-as-target bias was enhanced by public self-consciousness, as assessed by the Self-Consciousness Scale. The 3rd study showed that Ss high in public self-consciousness were more likely than those low in public self-consciousness to perceive hypothetical social situations as being relevant to or targeted toward themselves. Discussion focuses on the cognitive and motivational bases of the tendency to perceive the self as a target and the relation between self-consciousness and egocentric attributions. (30 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Conducted 2 studies based on the research of M. Ross and F. Sicoly (see record 1980-23237-001) to investigate biases in the available information used to make attributions and in the attributions of responsibility for actions or events. In Study 1, 24 men (aged 27–58 yrs) in a doubles tennis league responded to questions requiring recall of important events and turning points during tennis matches. In Study 2, 32 coach–athlete pairs (comprised of male coaches aged 27–40 yrs and athletes aged 15–21 yrs) provided examples of joint interaction inputs. Estimates of perceived responsibility for both dyad members were gathered from each S. The data provided evidence for egocentric biases in available information and in responsibility attributions. Ss' own inputs to team efforts or to a 2-person interaction were more easily and frequently remembered. Ss consistently remembered more of their personal contributions than those of others and accepted more responsibility for joint efforts than granted them by others, regardless of event outcomes. Cognitive processes are thought to affect memory to create bias and unintentional disagreement. Implications for attribution research based on nonegocentric and actor–observer biases and the consequences of these unintended biases for participant interaction are discussed. (16 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Three studies extended M. Ross and F. Sicoly's (see record 1980-23237-001) work on egocentric biases in close relationships. In Study 1 (157 individuals in an ongoing heterosexual relationship), egocentric biases in judging responsibility were evidenced for a number of activities in a relationship, and the percentage of self-instances recalled was related to the responsibility judgment. In Study 2 (56 romantically involved couples), visibility, desirability, and stressfulness of the activity did not contribute to overestimation of responsibility, thus further implicating selective retrieval as a cause of the phenomenon. In Study 3, 54 individual members of ongoing romantic relationships asked what information they had used to make their judgments. Over 90% of the time, typical or dispositional information was reported as the basis of the judgment. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for the causes of egocentric biases and for the process by which individuals make judgments about an ongoing relationship. (7 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Recent research has shown that final offer arbitration increases resolution behaviors of labor–management negotiators. Under final offer arbitration, if negotiators do not reach an agreement, each must submit a "final offer" to the arbitrator, who selects a final offer from one of the parties. Theoretical and empirical work is presented that suggests that selection (based on a negotiator's perspective-taking ability) and training (designed to eliminate negotiator's overconfidence) mechanisms improve resolution frequency under final offer arbitration. Results of a laboratory bargaining simulation involving 170 undergraduates indicate that training successfully (a) decreases the Ss' subjective probability of success in arbitration and (b) increases their amount of concession. The impact of perspective-taking ability, however, increased the Ss' subjective probability of success in arbitration (opposite from prediction) and had no effect on concessionary behavior. Results are discussed in terms of decreasing negotiators' biases as a new direction for improving the effectiveness of dispute resolutions. (29 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Guided by equity theory, this study among 185 Dutch students explored the effects of exchange orientation and reciprocity in the relationship with the best friend upon loneliness. Reciprocity was in general more common in this relationship than feeling advantaged or deprived. The association between reciprocity and loneliness was as predicted on the basis of equity theory: Those feeling deprived as well as those feeling advantaged in the relationship with the best friend reported much more loneliness than those perceiving reciprocity in terms of giving and receiving help. The association between reciprocity and loneliness was especially pronounced among those high in overbenefitting exchange orientation, but not among those high in underbenefitting exchange orientation. However, more loneliness was found among those high in underbenefitting exchange orientation, independent of the degree of reciprocity in the relationship with the best friend. The effects of lack of reciprocity and exchange orientation upon loneliness remained the same when self-esteem was included as a covariate.
Article
This paper explores a judgmental heuristic in which a person evaluates the frequency of classes or the probability of events by availability, i.e., by the ease with which relevant instances come to mind. In general, availability is correlated with ecological frequency, but it is also affected by other factors. Consequently, the reliance on the availability heuristic leads to systematic biases. Such biases are demonstrated in the judged frequency of classes of words, of combinatorial outcomes, and of repeated events. The phenomenon of illusory correlation is explained as an availability bias. The effects of the availability of incidents and scenarios on subjective probability are discussed.
Article
When court trials (or arbitration) are the mechanisms for resolving bargaining impasses, the costs and risks associated with third-party intervention should motivate settlement (Henry Farber and Harry Katz, 1979). However, empirical evidence suggests that impasses and inefficient settlements are common in the legal system and in contract negotiations. For example, one study of asbestos suits found that only 37 cents of every dollar spent by both sides end up in the plaintiffs' hands (James Kakalik et al., 1983).
Article
Individuals tend to overestimate their relative contributions to collaborative endeavors. Thus, the sum of group members! estimates of the percentage they each contributed to a joint task typically exceeds the logically allowable 100%. We suggest that this tendency stems partly from individuals! inclination to regard their fellow group members as a collective rather than as individuals, and that leading people to think about their collaborators as individuals should therefore reduce the perceived relative magnitude of their own contributions. Consistent with this thesis, four experiments demonstrate that people!s tendency to claim more than their fair share of the credit for a group task is attenuated when they "unpack" their collaborators, conceptualizing them as separate individuals, rather than as "the rest of the group."
Article
It is proposed that motivation may affect reasoning through reliance on a biased set of cognitive processes--that is, strategies for accessing, constructing, and evaluating beliefs. The motivation to be accurate enhances use of those beliefs and strategies that are considered most appropriate, whereas the motivation to arrive at particular conclusions enhances use of those that are considered most likely to yield the desired conclusion. There is considerable evidence that people are more likely to arrive at conclusions that they want to arrive at, but their ability to do so is constrained by their ability to construct seemingly reasonable justifications for these conclusions. These ideas can account for a wide variety of research concerned with motivated reasoning.