The Activity of Sunitinib against Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor Seems to be Distinct from Its Antiangiogenic Effects
Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York, United StatesClinical Cancer Research (Impact Factor: 8.72). 11/2006; 12(20 Pt 1):6203-4. DOI: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-06-1292
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Article: GIST under imatinib therapy[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The prognosis of patients with a GIST improved significantly since the introduction of imatinib mesylate treatment, leading to disease control in 70% to 85% of patients. The response depends on the presence/ absence and type of mutations in the KIT or Platelet derived growth factor receptor. Unfortunately, we are increasingly faced with the problem of resistance to imatinib treatment, mainly secondary resistance, which by definition occurs after at least 6 months of initial response to the drug. The effects of imatinib on a GIST are still in full exploration and this review focuses upon the available data on the phenotype and genotype of a GIST treated with imatinib. Two settings are elaborated separately, a responding/stable GIST, and a resistant GIST. In addition, the attention will be drawn to remarkable (immuno)phenotypic changes that can occur in a GIST under imatinib treatment.
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ABSTRACT: Sunitinib is an orally bioavailable, multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor with selectivity for PDGF receptors, VEGF receptors, FLT3, and KIT. Sunitinib was tested at concentrations ranging from 0.1 nM to 1.0 microM against 23 cell lines from the PPTP in vitro panel. We also compared sunitinib (53.5 mg/kg) or vehicle administered for 28 days by oral gavage in 46 murine xenograft models representing 9 distinct pediatric cancer histologies. The leukemia cell line, Kasumi-1 (gain-of-function KIT(Asn822Lys) mutation) was the only line with an in vitro response to sunitinib (IC(50) 75.7 nM). Sunitinib significantly prolonged EFS in 19 of 35 (54%) of the solid tumor, and in 3 of 8 (38%) of the ALL xenografts analyzed. Using the PPTP time to event measure of efficacy, sunitinib had intermediate (13) and high (1) levels of activity against 14 of 34 evaluable solid tumor xenografts, including 4 of 6 rhabdomyosarcoma, 4 of 5 Ewing tumor, and 2 of 3 rhabdoid tumor xenografts. Following cessation of treatment for the 14 solid tumor xenografts without tumor events by day 28, tumor growth rate increased in most. The only regression noted to sunitinib in the solid tumor panels was a complete response in a rhabdoid tumor xenograft. Sunitinib demonstrated significant tumor growth inhibition against most of the PPTP's solid tumor panels, but little activity against the neuroblastoma and ALL panel. Antitumor activity was manifested primarily as tumor growth delay, consistent with an anti-angiogenic effect for sunitinib against many of the pediatric preclinical models evaluated. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2008;51:42-48. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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ABSTRACT: Most GIST patients develop clinical resistance to KIT/PDGFRA tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI). However, it is unclear whether clinical resistance results from single or multiple molecular mechanisms in each patient. KIT and PDGFRA mutations were evaluated in 53 GIST metastases obtained from 14 patients who underwent surgical debulking after progression on imatinib or sunitinib. To interrogate possible resistance mechanisms across a broad biological spectrum of GISTs, inter- and intra-lesional heterogeneity of molecular drug-resistance mechanisms were evaluated in the following: conventional KIT (CD117)-positive GISTs with KIT mutations in exon 9, 11 or 13; KIT-negative GISTs; GISTs with unusual morphology; and KIT/PDGFRA wild-type GISTs. Genomic KIT and PDGFRA mutations were characterized systematically, using complementary techniques including D-HPLC for KIT exons 9, 11-18 and PDGFRA exons 12, 14, 18, and mutation-specific PCR (V654A, D820G, N822K, Y823D). Primary KIT oncogenic mutations were found in 11/14 patients (79%). Of these, 9/11 (83%), had secondary drug-resistant KIT mutations, including six (67%) with two to five different secondary mutations in separate metastases, and three (34%) with two secondary KIT mutations in the same metastasis. The secondary mutations clustered in the KIT ATP binding pocket and kinase catalytic regions. FISH analyses revealed KIT amplicons in 2/10 metastases lacking secondary KIT mutations. This study demonstrates extensive intra- and inter-lesional heterogeneity of resistance mutations and gene amplification in patients with clinically progressing GIST. KIT kinase resistance mutations were not found in KIT/PDGFRA wild-type GISTs or in KIT-mutant GISTs showing unusual morphology and/or loss of KIT expression by IHC, indicating that resistance mechanisms are fundamentally different in these tumours. Our observations underscore the heterogeneity of clinical TKI resistance, and highlight the therapeutic challenges involved in salvaging patients after clinical progression on TKI monotherapies.