From the Genome to the Proteome: Uncovering Peptides in the Apis Brain

Department of Animal Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, United States
Science (Impact Factor: 33.61). 11/2006; 314(5799):647-9. DOI: 10.1126/science.1124128
Source: PubMed


Neuropeptides, critical brain peptides that modulate animal behavior by affecting the activity of almost every neuronal circuit,
are inherently difficult to predict directly from a nascent genome sequence because of extensive posttranslational processing.
The combination of bioinformatics and proteomics allows unprecedented neuropeptide discovery from an unannotated genome. Within
the Apis mellifera genome, we have inferred more than 200 neuropeptides and have confirmed the sequences of 100 peptides. This study lays the
groundwork for future molecular studies of Apis neuropeptides with the identification of 36 genes, 33 of which were previously unreported.

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Available from: Jonathan Sweedler, May 20, 2014
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    • "Orcokinins (OKs) are arthropod neuropeptides that were first discovered in the spiny-cheek crayfish Orconectes limosus through its myotropic activity (Stangier et al., 1992). An OK neuropeptide was identified for the first time in insects in B. germanica (Pascual et al., 2004), and subsequently in species from different insect orders (Hofer et al., 2005; Hummon et al., 2006; Jiang et al., 2015; Ons et al., 2009; Roller et al., 2008). In insects, the OK gene is transcribed into two different mRNAs that code for two families of conserved mature neuropeptides: Orcokinin A (OKA) and Orcokinin B (OKB) (Jiang et al., 2015; Sterkel et al., 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: Orkokinins (OKs) are neuropeptides that were first identified in crustacean through their myotropic activity. In insects, the OK gene gives rise to two mRNAs coding for two different families of conserved mature neuropeptides: OKA and OKB. Although OKs are conserved in many insect species, its physiological role in this animal class is not fully understood, and only two different activities, prothoracicotropic and regulatory of light entrainment to the circadian clock, have been reported for OKA. Here we report the identification of OKA and OKB precursors in the cockroach Blattella germanica. OKA mRNA was detected in brain, whereas OKB mRNA was detected both in brain and midgut. In vivo silencing of OK precursors suggests the involvement of OK gene products in the regulation of vitellogenin expression in the fat body, an action that appears to be independent of juvenile hormone. This is the first time that a function of this kind has been reported for OKs.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Journal of insect physiology
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    • "Short neuropeptide F (sNPF) has been shown to modulate feeding behavior in a wide variety of insect species. While this peptide stimulates feeding and food-searching behavior in Drosophila melanogaster (Hong et al. 2012) and Apis mellifera (Hummon et al. 2006), an opposite effect has recently been demonstrated in the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria (Dillen et al. 2014) and P. americana (Mikani et al. 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: Immunohistochemical reactivities against short neuropeptide F (sNPF-ir) and crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP-ir) were detected in both the brain-subesophageal ganglion (Br-SOG) and midgut epithelial cells of the male American cockroach, Periplaneta americana. Four weeks of starvation increased the number of sNPF-ir cells and decreased the CCAP-ir cells in the Br-SOG, whereas refeeding reversed these effects. The contents of sNPF in the Br-SOG, midgut and hemolymph titer decreased in response to an injection of CCAP into the hemocoel of normally fed male cockroaches, while CCAP titers/contents decreased in response to an injection of sNPF. The results of a double-labeling experiment demonstrated that sNPF-ir co-existed in CCAP-ir cells in the pars intercerebralis (PI), dorsolateral region of protocerebrum (DL), deutocerebrum (De) and SOG. sNPF-ir and CCAP-ir were also colocalized in the midgut. sNPF and CCAP are neuropeptides and midgut factors that interact with each other. Since the two peptides are known to be secreted by identical cells that affect each other, this constitutes autocrine negative feedback regulation for a quick response to food accessibility/inaccessibility. These peptides not only constitute the switch in the digestive mechanism but also couple digestive adaptation with behavior. A CCAP injection suppressed locomotor activity when cockroaches were starved, whereas sNPF activated it when they were fed.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Cell and Tissue Research
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    • "The L. migratoria genome contains more neuropeptide genes than other insect species, such as D. melanogaster, A. aegypti, A. mellifera and T. castaneum (with 31, 31, 36 and 41 precursor genes, respectively) (Hewes and Taghert, 2001; Hummon et al., 2006; Li et al., 2008; Predel et al., 2010), probably because of less loss events and possible expansion of neuropeptide genes in the locust species. L. migratoria retains all AKH-related neuropeptide precursors (ACP and corazonin) and AST family members, whereas these precursors are all selectively lost in other insect species (Table 2). "
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    ABSTRACT: Neuropeptides serve as the most important regulatory signals in insects. Many neuropeptides and their precursors have been identified in terms of the contig sequences of whole genome information of the migratory locust (Locusta migratoria), which exhibits a typical phenotypic plasticity in morphology, behavior and physiology. However, functions of these locust neuropeptides are largely unknown. In this study, we first revised the 23 reported neuropeptide precursor genes and identified almost all the neuropeptide precursors and corresponding products in L. migratoria. We further revealed the significant expansion profiles (such as AKH) and alternative splicing of neuropeptide genes (Lom-ITP, Lom-OK and Lom-NPF1). Transcriptomic analysis indicated that several neuropeptides, such as Lom-ACP and Lom-OK, displayed development-specific expression patterns. qRT-PCR data confirmed that most neuropeptide precursors were strongly expressed in the central nervous system. Fifteen neuropeptide genes displayed different expression levels between solitarious and gregarious locusts. These findings provide valuable clues to understand neuropeptide evolution and their functional roles in basic biology and phase transition in locusts. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Insect biochemistry and molecular biology
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