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Externalizing and Oppositional Behaviors and Karate-do: The Way of Crime Prevention A Pilot Study


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Childhood disruptive behaviors can be precursors to later deviance. To verify the efficacy of karate, a complex psychomotor activity that enhances self-regulation and executive skills, as an intervention for externalizing behaviors, 16 children, ranging in age from 8 to 10 years, and meeting diagnostic criteria for oppositional defiant disorder were studied. Eight were randomly assigned to a 10-month Wa Do Ryu karate program, whereas 8 children received no intervention. The children were assigned to a larger karate class, composed of typically developing youngsters. Three domains of temperament--intensity, adaptability, and mood regulation--were measured at the beginning and the end of the training period in all 16 participants. A significant improvement in temperament scale scores was measured in the karate group for all tested items compared to controls. Karate, when properly taught, can be a useful adjunct in multimodal programs aimed at externalizing behavior reduction.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Authors’ Note: This study was carried out by researchers and instructors from the FIAM (Federazione
Italiana di Arti Marziali—Italian Federation of Martial Arts) the Center for the Scientific Study of
Karate—Yo Sho Kan, AFAR—Associazione Fatebenefratelli per la Ricerca, and the Department of
Neurology, Medical College of Wisconsin.
International Journal of
Offender Therapy and
Comparative Criminology
Volume 50 Number 6
December 2006 1-7
© 2006 Sage Publications
hosted at
Externalizing and Oppositional
Behaviors and Karate-do:
The Way of Crime Prevention
A Pilot Study
Mark T. Palermo
Massimo Di Luigi
Italian Federation of Martial Arts
Gloria Dal Forno
Medical College of Wisconsin
Cinzia Dominici
David Vicomandi
Augusto Sambucioni
Luca Proietti
Italian Federation of Martial Arts
Patrizio Pasqualetti
Associazione Fatebenefratelli per la Ricerca
Childhood disruptive behaviors can be precursors to later deviance. To verify the efficacy of
karate, a complex psychomotor activity that enhances self-regulation and executive skills,
as an intervention for externalizing behaviors, 16 children, ranging in age from 8 to 10
years, and meeting diagnostic criteria for oppositional defiant disorder were studied. Eight
were randomly assigned to a 10-month wa do ryu karate program, whereas 8 children
received no intervention. The children were assigned to a larger karate class, composed of
typically developing youngsters. Three domains of temperament, intensity, adaptability, and
mood regulation, were measured at the beginning and the end of the training period in all
16 participants. A significant improvement in temperament scale scores was measured in
the karate group for all tested items compared to controls. Karate, when properly taught, can
be a useful adjunct in multimodal programs aimed at externalizing behavior reduction.
Keywords: karate; aggression; disobedience
2 International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
xternalizing and disruptive behaviors in childhood, which include disobedience
(Kalb & Loeber, 2003), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), conduct disorder, and
attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; American Psychiatric Association,
1994), are a common cause for psychiatric referral and may be a precursor of later
developing deviant behaviors (Frick, 2006). Furthermore, oppositionality, which may
affect from 2% to 16% of the childhood population (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual
of Mental Disorders, DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) positively
correlates with later antisocial behavior (Lahey, McBurnett, & Loeber, 2000; Loeber,
Burke, Lahey, Winters, & Zera, 2000). Noncompliance with rules and regulations may
be likewise associated with both aggression and antisocial behavior throughout child-
hood (Hämäläinen & Pulkkinen, 1996; Parrish, Cataldo, Kolko, Neef, & Egel, 1986).
All these disorders benefit from multidisciplinary interventions, including behavioral
approaches and medication administration, for the treatment of extreme overactivity or
comorbid conditions.
Common sense would indicate that an activity teaching self-control, such as karate,
a martial art that requires compliance and obedience during practice, should be effec-
tive in reducing a number of problem behaviors so common in the classroom or in
the modern household. However, this is not documented by the scientific literature
because of a lack of studies addressing the impact of such sport activities in the treat-
ment of externalizing behaviors and overactive syndromes of childhood. Green activ-
ities (outdoor activities; Kuo & Taylor, 2004) have been advocated for the reduction of
symptoms of ADHD in children, and sport is commonly used in the rehabilitation of
people with disabilities (Allison, Basile, & MacDonald, 1995). The fear of many is that
karate may induce aggressive behaviors. One study does not seem to support this
notion (Reynes & Lorant, 2004) and may indeed suggest that karate practice is pro-
tective against aggressive behavior, although the instrument used in the study to mea-
sure a propensity for aggression (Buss & Perry, 1992) may not be as adequate for use
in a childhood population. In fact, the instrument required the presence of an adult to
explain some of the questions in the inventory. Furthermore, children in this study were
not aggressive at baseline because the purpose was to determine whether karate
induces aggressive behaviors in otherwise typically developing children.
To verify the efficacy of karate as an effective intervention for disruptive behavior,
we followed a group of 16 children with externalizing conditions for a period of 10
months. All children met DSM-IV criteria for ODD, characterized by persistent defi-
ance, disobedience, hostility toward authority figures (parents, teachers, and other
adults in general), fighting, arguing and loss of temper, refusal to comply with requests
or rules, limit testing, and stubbornness. In addition, these children had manifested, at
least once, serious interpersonal aggression as evidenced by historical information of
fist fighting, throwing objects at peers, or, in two cases, jabbing a peer with a pencil.
Because of the relatively nonspecific and dimensional nature of many of the behav-
iors that fall under the rubric of ODD and the lack of specificity for interpersonal
aggressive acts of many of the scales used in the assessment of externalizing problems
Palermo et al. / Karate and Externalizing Behaviors 3
and aggression, we chose to look at three domains of temperament, intensity, adapt-
ability, and mood regulation, in our referred children rather than at a diagnostic cate-
gory in itself. These areas of social emotional development were chosen as they may
represent specific vulnerabilities in some children with externalizing behaviors.
Participants and Method
Sixteen children participated in the study. Children were referred to the Federazione
Italiana di Arti Marziali (FIAM) project Dal Dojo alla Famiglia alla Società (From
the Dojo to the Family to Society;, July 2006), a karate program
developed to include in the ordinary dojo, the training hall for practicing karate and
other martial arts, children with social cognitive disorders and disruptive behaviors.
Ages ranged from 8 to 10 years (M = 8.5); 13 were male and 3 were female. Children
were of a mixed socioeconomic background and were all attending regular elemen-
tary school classes. Three children required an aid in class for behavior-management
At the beginning of the study, all children were screened for the presence of an anx-
iety or mood disorder using the TAD (Test of Anxiety and Depression; Newcomer,
Barenbaum, & Bryant, 1996), a multidimensional, standardized diagnostic question-
naire for anxiety and depressive disorders in childhood and youth composed of child,
parent, and teacher scales. The Carey Temperament Scale (Carey Temperament Scales,
B-DI 14636 N. 55th St., Scottsdale, AZ 85254) was used to determine the child’s tem-
peramental style on the domains of intensity, defined as the energy level of behavior
responses, regardless of quality or direction; adaptability, or the ease or difficulty with
which reactions to stimuli can be modified in a desired way; and mood, that is, the
amount of pleasant or unpleasant behavior observed in various situations. The scale
was administered to all children at the beginning and end of the 10-month program.
Half of the participants (8 children) were randomly assigned to take part in karate
training sessions. These children participated in a 10-month wa do ryu karate program
with a frequency of three lessons per week. They were assigned to a larger class of typ-
ically developing youngsters free of behavioral problems who were unaware of any
clinical diagnosis of the participants or their enrollment in a study. Because of the
children’s age and the FIAM federal regulations, none of the children participated in
actual combat situations, beyond stereotyped ippon kumite, a set of movements of attack
and defense aimed at preparing young athletes for later controlled contact bouts. Classes
are taught following a rigorous framework that includes a warm-up period followed by
methodical practice of the kihon (fundamentals) and kata (a set of internationally rec-
ognized standard movements, representing the mimicking of a combat situation). The
kihon portion of the session is part of group practice, and in addition to developing the
necessary technical skills, in our program it is designed to stimulate executive compe-
tence development. It involves a set of progressively more complex motor sequences
carried out on command, approximately 30% of which is designed following a go-no-
go format, where verbal commands alternate rapidly, stimulating auditory attention and
gross visual-motor skills at once. The kata practice takes place in small groups and indi-
vidually, allowing the child to practice under direct observation of his or her peers. The
beginning and the end of each training session are marked by a formal salutation of the
teacher and the dojo by all participants and between athletes and by a brief period of
breathing techniques aimed at promoting concentration and attention.
To verify whether the children participating in the karate program differed at base-
line from the 8 children not exposed to the training program, and because the range of
values obtained in the whole sample was limited to either one or two standard devia-
tions (1 SD or 2 SD), the Fisher’s exact test was applied to the score distribution of the
three variables studied. No differences were noted at baseline between study groups
(p = 1.00 for each of the three scales; see Table 1).
To study the behavioral changes between the beginning (T0) and the end of the
study (T1) occurring in the two groups (karate intervention vs. no karate interven-
tion) as measured by the three scales, the nonparametric Mann-Whitney’s test was
applied. Statistically significant differences were noted in all three scales, with evi-
dence of improvement in all scores in the karate intervention group, as opposed to
the control participants. This was particularly noticeable for the intensity scale
scores (see Table 2).
In this small study, 8 children with severe disruptive behaviors taking part in a
10-month program of traditionally taught karate aimed at determining whether partic-
ipation in this activity leads to behavioral improvement showed a substantial reduction
4 International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
Table 1
T0 Evaluation of Temperamental Variables
Intensity Mood Adaptability
1 SD 13 3
2 SD 75 5
No karate
1 SD 04 4
2 SD 84 4
p (Fisher’s exact test) 1.000 1.000 1.000
a. n = 8.
in problem behaviors when compared to controls receiving no intervention. These
improvements were evident at home, in the dojo, and in school with improved self-
regulation, a significant reduction in overactive behavior, and improved adaptive and
organizational behaviors.
Karate is, from a neuropsychological perspective, a very sophisticated and com-
plex activity, which, when traditionally and methodically taught and practiced, leads
to improvement in self-regulation, executive skills, goal-directed attention, and
capacity for concentration. Likewise, it introduces children and adolescents to effec-
tive social skills, fostering self-confidence and mutual respect, primarily through
behavior mirroring.
The fact that these children were regularly accompanied by parents or other care-
givers most likely had an impact on the overall improvement. In fact, in regular karate
dojos, there is typically a dropout rate of 5% to 10% during the first 3 months of
practice. Our program’s insistence on regularity and rigorous attendance, and active
involvement of parents, besides fostering much-needed tenacity, is also stressed in
light of the association between inconsistent discipline and child conduct problems
(Chamberlain & Patterson, 1995). Indeed, most treatment programs include parent
training approaches. Although these are very effective in allowing families to receive
needed parenting skills (Dretzke et al., 2005), they are obviously parent centered and
do not allow for guided group work with identified children. Behaviors, however,
respond best to peer groups (Plumer & Stoner, 2005) and clearly are affected by
example, whether it is that of a peer or of an adult with whom the child has a long-
standing relationship. It may be likewise important for this modelling and mirroring to
occur outside of the household, particularly when family functioning is under stress
and during the initial stages of reorganizing a family system.
Although the frequency of physical aggression may itself decrease naturally after the
4th year after birth (Brame, Nagin, & Tremblay, 2001), we believe that a number of
other factors may have contributed to the clinical improvement noted in our study.
Direct commands, typical of the karate dojo, where participants relate to only one
Palermo et al. / Karate and Externalizing Behaviors 5
Table 2
T0 to T1 Changes in Temperamental Variables
Intensity Mood Adaptability
Mdn 1.5 0.5 1.5
Min 0.5 0.0 0.0
Max 2.0 2.0 2.0
Mdn 0.0 0.0 0.75
Min 0.0 0.0 –1.0
Max 0.0 0.0 1.0
Z (based on Mann-Whitney U) –3.608 –2.21 –2.095
p .000 .027 .036
instructor, have been shown to improve compliance, as compared to indirect instruction
(Schaffer & Cook, 1980). Furthermore, long maintenance of interpersonal eye contact,
such as that seen in karate practice, has been shown to decrease noncompliance in
children with ADHD (Kapalka, 2004). Although karate has been compared to “moving
meditation” (Deshimaru, 1995; Tokitsu, 1992), and Zen practices may indeed enhance
attention (Austin, 1999), we believe that in children, the regular participation in a disci-
pline emphasizing loyalty and respect through example may promote moral standard
internalization in situations where this has been unavailable (Kochanska & Askan,
1995). This may significantly help in altering a behavioral trajectory that could other-
wise deviate toward delinquency (Nagin & Tremblay, 1999). There clearly is a need for
better ways to operationalize aggressive behavior in childhood (Tremblay, 2000), and
the interchangeable use of aggression and deviance-related terminology (crime, delin-
quency, violence, aggression) reduces any specificity of the existing scales.
Furthermore, although much emphasis is placed on academic failure, nonschool
socialization failure seems to be more important as a causal agent in allowing certain
temperamental and cognitive vulnerabilities to promote the development of antisocial
conduct (Lahey, Waldman, & McBurnett, 1999). Improved socialization through a sport
that is practiced in a group setting, yet is individually based, could be effective in the
gradual transitioning of a previously socially peripheral child into the mainstream, min-
imizing typically inhibiting group responsibilities intrinsic in team sports (Palermo,
2006) and promoting self-regulation and self-efficacy.
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Palermo et al. / Karate and Externalizing Behaviors 7
... Dampak negatif maupun positif dari latihan beladiri dapat dilihat dari tingkat partisipasi pelakunya. Menurut Kochanska dan Askan (Palermo, 2006), partisipasi yang rutin dalam sebuah kegiatan yang menekankan kedisiplinan, kepatuhan, dan sikap hormat yang ditunjukkan melalui contoh dapat meningkatkan internalisasi moral pada anak-anak. Latihan beladiri merupakan salah satu kegiatan yang menekankan kedisiplinan dan diajarkan melalui contoh. ...
... Siswa yang tidak bertahan dalam perguruan biasanya pergi setelah satu tahun atau bahkan kurang dari itu. Pada kenyataannya, dalam dojo karate biasa terdapat tingkat drop out dari peserta yang mencapai 5-10% selama 3 bulan pertama latihan (Palermo, 2006). ...
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The aim of this research was to found out the correlation between karate martial art participation and aggression on children karatekas. The proposed hypothesis in this research was negative correlation between karate martial art participation and aggression on children karatekas. The population in this research were children karatekas in INKAI DIY and the sample was 53 karatekas. The data were collected using karate martial art participation scale andaggression scale. Data analyzed with Pearson's Product Moment correlation. The results showed that there was negative significant correlation between karate martial art participation and aggression on children karatekas, with r =-0,535, p = 0,00 (p<0,01). Therefore, hypothesis was accepted. The higher the level of karate martial art participation, the lower the aggression. Conversely, the lower the level of karate martial art participation, the higher the aggression. The R Square (r2) of the result = 0,287, that means the effective contribution of karate martial art participation to aggression was 28,7 %. Keyword: karate martial art participation, aggression ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan antara partisipasi dalam beladiri karate dan agresivitas anak. Hipotesis yang diajukan adalah ada hubungan yang negatif antara partisipasi dalam berladiri karate dan agresivitas anak. Populasi penelitian ini adalah anak-anak anggota INKAI DIY yang berjumlah 53 anak. Data dikumpulkan dengan menggunakan skala partisipasi dalam beladiri karate dan skala agresivitas. Data dianalisis dengan teknik korelasi produk momen dari Pearson. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan ada hubungan negatif antara partisipasi dalam berladiri karate dan agresivitas anak, dengan r =-0,535, p = 0,00 (p<0,01). Dengan demikian hipotesis penelitian diterima. Semakin tinggi partisipasi semakin rendah agresi. Adapun sumbangan partisipasi dalam beladiri karate terhadap agresi adalah 28,7%. Kata kunci : partisipasi dalam beladiri karate, agresivitas PENDAHULUAN Beladiri merupakan salah satu olahraga yang digemari masyarakat, termasuk anak-anak. Beladiri sendiri sering didefinisikan sebagai sistem pertarungan menyerang dan bertahan, baik yang melibatkan latihan ta-ngan kosong maupun menggunakan senjata. Beladiri modern umumnya merupakan seni pertarungan yang telah dimodifikasi untuk tujuan olahraga, pertahanan diri, dan rekreasi (Woodwart,2009). Aktivitas yang berhubung-an dengan beladiri telah berkembang selama ribuan tahun (Hatfield, 2001) yang menun-jukkan bahwa olahraga ini mampu bertahan dalam ujian ruang dan waktu. Peminat olah
... Martial arts are also discussed as a way to achieve self-control in individuals with disruptive behaviour disorders -and transforming aggression and oppositional behaviour through combat sports is considered a viable means to enhance crime prevention [21]. To increase self-control and cultivate self-discipline, the present article suggests activities that (i) facilitate one's experience of self-identity, which also improves adherence and sustainability [22], (ii) require regular training alongside motivating feedback-control, (iii) involve physical exertion and strengthen cardiorespiratory fitness, and (iv) allow artistic transformation of inner impulses and affective processes. ...
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Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is characterised by recurrent patterns of developmentally inappropriate, negativistic, defiant, hostile, annoying and disobedient behaviour, mainly toward people in authority, and it may increase the risk of delinquency. Notwithstanding the wide variation of relevant statistical data, ODD can be considered a serious global issue ‒ and it is one of the most prevalent psychiatric diseases among Chinese children and adolescents. Mental health is a key objective of the Chinese ministry of education, and a declaration issued in 2021 calls for enhanced mental health education in primary and secondary schools. In consonance with these objectives, the Research Centre for Arts Therapies of Beijing Normal University is developing arts-based models to strengthen mental health, improve prevention of psycho-affective disorders and alleviate (subclinical) symptoms in the younger generation, ODD included. Regarding the pathological features of ODD, the present article suggests to notably regard the related dynamic complex of intrinsic factors, socio-cultural interdependencies and challenging personality traits. Moreover, it introduces the 4S-model of Chinese music therapy for ODD consisting of (i) self-discovery, e.g. through aesthetic mirror techniques, (ii) self-control, e.g. involving creative martial arts, (iii) self-actualisation, e.g. based on sound-scene improvisation and (iv) self-adjustment, e.g. by means of music-induced trance and imagination techniques. Further research to optimise cultural sensitivity, e.g. concerning the ethnic minorities living in China, and to evaluate effect sizes are needed, alongside implementation into regular curricula and nationwide in-service-trainings for teachers.
... Thus, alternative interventions, such as karate, can be suggested for individuals with overweight and obesity. Karate practice is capable of promoting great energy expenditure (14), improving physical condition through a decrease in BP (36), and assisting in the treatment of behavioral disorders (33). In addition, karate offers little risk of injury and can be practiced by most people (21). ...
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Purpose: This study evaluated the effects of 12 weeks of karate training on cardiometabolic parameters, oxidative stress, and inflammation in adolescents with overweight and obesity. Method: Seventy adolescents were randomized into 2 groups: control received nutritional and psychological interventions once a week for 12 weeks, and treatment received nutritional and psychological interventions once a week, plus 3 karate sessions per week, for 12 weeks. The main outcome measure was improvement in cardiometabolic parameters, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Results: After the intervention period, the treatment group showed a reduction in resting heart rate (77.86 [10.89]), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (40.86 [8.31]), and triglycerides (75.18 [32.29]) and an increase in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (95.64 [42.53]) in relation to pretraining. Regarding oxidative stress markers, there was a reduction in protein carbonylation (0.07 [0.06]) and nitric oxide (1.39 [1.11]) and an increase in superoxide dismutase (0.68 [0.31]) and glutathione (0.11 [0.08]) compared with pretraining. With respect to inflammation, adiponectin increased (14.54 [5.36]) after the intervention when compared with preintervention. Conclusion: The study concluded that the intervention may improve cardiometabolic parameters, oxidative stress, and inflammation in adolescents with overweight and obesity. Long-term effects need to be evaluated.
... Moreover, Karate trainings are also used to help individuals control their aggression and disruptive behaviour and to reduce delinquency (Palermo et al., 2006). An Austrian doctoral thesis (Kral, 2009) explored the health-related benefits of Karate and a recently published study highlighted its manifold preventative parameters (Mastnak, 2016a). ...
... This was also indicated by Harwood et al. (2017), in their meta-analysis they found a relationship between the intervention time and the results obtained. In this way the study with less intervention time (Delva-Tauiliili, 1995), reported the least effect, while the greatest effect was generated in the longer intervention, 10 months (Palermo et al., 2006). This relationship was not observed in our study, where although there was a great variety in the time of interventions, the results in the reduction of anger did not seem to be related with time, so the longest intervention, two years, (Reynes & Lorant, 2004) did not show positive or negative effects. ...
Martial Arts and combat sports (MA&CS) are the subject of a dispute. On the one hand, they have been considered an ideal means to acquire emotional self-control. On the other hand, they have been considered aggressive practices which may promote violent behaviors. The current systematic review aims to analyze the evidence of the effects of MA&CS participation in anger and aggression, and the quality of this evidence. The review was conducted according to the PRISMA-P protocol. The studied variables were study type and aims, sample, interventions and procedures, measurements and outcomes. Nine studies (three cohort studies and six randomized controlled trials) were selected for inclusion. The following results should be viewed with much caution, as the volume of studies and the methodological quality of most of them is not optimal. Training in traditional martial arts seems to be an effective means to lower levels of anger and aggression. Regarding the age of subjects, there is a predisposition to reduce anger in the adult population. In addition, young subjects with violent or behavioral problems show a positive response to working with martial arts. However, the available evidence, overall, shows no relationship between MA&CS practice and anger and aggression levels.
... A este respeito, Kuoenierz e colaboradores sugerem que a sua prática oferece a possibilidade de difundir emoções e aliviar a tensão, o que pode resultar na diminuição do nível de comportamentos de agressividade entre pares (Kuoenierz, Cynarski, & Litwiniuk, 2014). Estudos de menor escala têm evidenciado que a prática de AM reduz os níveis de agressividade entre pares (Palermo et al., 2006;Theeboom, De Knop, & Wylleman, 2008). De referir, ainda, alguns estudos que sugerem que as AM têm um efeito positivo no desenvolvimento pessoal e social (Lakes & Hoyt, 2004), e diminuem significativamente os níveis de violência (Zivin et al., 2001). ...
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Resumo. Esta revisão sistemática teve por objetivo sintetizar e analisar os estudos que relacionam a prática de Artes Marciais & Desportos de Combate (AM&DC) com a violência, nomeadamente com o fenómeno de Bullying em idade escolar. De fevereiro a agosto de 2018 foram recolhidas e analisadas 48 publicações de sete bases de dados científicas internacionais, mas apenas 18 cumpriram os critérios para serem incluídas neste estudo. Esta revisão evidencia que a prática de AM&DC promove alterações genericamente favoráveis no léxico biopsicossocial das crianças e adolescentes que as praticam. São um ótimo meio de desenvolvimento biopsicoemocional, ético e estético de crianças e adolescentes, sendo reportados nos seus praticantes níveis superiores de comportamentos pró-sociais entre pares. Esta condição é tanto mais benéfica quanto maior for a graduação do praticante (tempo de prática), a modalidade de participação nas AM&DC (praticante ou competidor), as qualificações profissionais dos treinadores, as características dos locais de prática, a tipologia de artes marciais ou mesmo o estilo (tradicional ou moderno). Palavras-Chave: artes marciais; bullying; relações entre pares; crianças; adolescentes. Abstract. This systematic review aims to synthesize and analyse studies that relate the practice of Martial Arts and Combat Sports (AM&DC) with violence, in particular the phenomenon of school bullying. From February to August, 48 publications were collected from seven international scientific databases on the subject under analysis, but only 18 met all the criteria to be included in this study. This review shows that the practice of AM&DC promotes generically favorable changes in the biopsychosocial lexicon of children and adolescents who practice them. They are great ways of biopsychosocial, ethical and aesthetic development of children and adolescents, and their practitioners report higher levels of prosocial behavior among peers. This condition is all the more beneficial the higher the practitioner's degree (length of practice), mode of participation in the AM&DC (practitioner or competitor), the professional qualification of coaches, characteristics of places of practice, the typology of martial arts or even the style (traditional or modern). Resumen. Esta revisión sistemática tuvo como objetivo sintetizar y analizar los estudios que relacionan la práctica de artes marciales y deportes de combate (AM&DC) con la violencia, en particular el fenómeno del acoso escolar. De febrero a agosto se recopilaron 48 publicaciones de siete bases de datos científicas internacionales sobre el tema en análisis, pero solo 18 cumplieron con todos los criterios para ser incluidos en este estudio. Esta revisión muestra que la práctica de AM&DC promueve cambios genéricamente favorables en el léxico biopsicosocial de niños y adolescentes que los practican. Son un excelente medio de desarrollo biopsicosocial, ético y estético de niños y adolescentes, con niveles más altos de comportamiento prosocial entre los pares en sus practicantes. Esta condición es tanto más beneficiosa cuanto mayor sea el grado del profesional (duración de la práctica), el modo de participación en AM&DC (profesional o competidor), las calificaciones profesionales de los entrenadores, las características de los lugares de práctica, la tipología de artes marciales o incluso el estilo (tradicional o moderno).
... 100 Organized sports programs can also help at-risk youth improve selfesteem, self-concept, and temperament. 104,105 Similarly, Special Olympics athletes demonstrate improved self-esteem and confidence, according to parent surveys. 13 ...
Interest and participation in organized sports for children, preadolescents, and adolescents continue to grow. Because of increased participation, and younger entry age, in organized sports, appropriate practice, game schedules, and content become more important, taking into account athlete developmental stage and skills. Parental support for organized sports in general, with focus on development and fun instead of winning, has emerged as a key factor in the athlete's enjoyment of sports. Schools and community sports organizations who support multiple levels of sport (eg, recreational, competitive, elite) can include more youth who want to play sports and combat sport dropout. This report reviews the benefits and risks of organized sports as well as the roles of schools, community organizations, parents, and coaches in organized sports. It is designed to complement the American Academy of Pediatrics clinical reports "Physical Activity Assessment and Counseling in Pediatric Clinical Settings" and "Sports Specialization and Intensive Training in Young Athletes" by reviewing relevant literature on healthy organized sports for youth and providing guidance on organized sport readiness and entry. The report also provides guidance for pediatricians on counseling parents and advocating for healthy organized sports participation.
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Background. Regular martial art practice develops synergy between the psychophysiological self and the neurocognitive mechanism within the body. The Zen tradition of this training on mind sets helps manage stress, and improve cognition and neural control with enhanced neurotrophic signaling. Aim of the study. The present review tries to liberate the interplay between neurochemical secretions, and their relationship in respect to martial art practitioners. The interaction between two neurochemicals, Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) and Cortisol, on the different mind sets in three martial art forms-karate, judo, and taekwondo have been highlighted in this study. Method (acquisition of evidence). PICOS strategy was adopted in a compilation of the data sources, which elaborated data extraction in relation to its Participants, Intervention, Comparison, Outcomes and Study design for the numerous literature that were surveyed. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) was applied to screen, collaborate and synthesize the items for the present study. Results (evidence synthesis). Selected studies on minute and critical reviewing evidently showed that regular martial arts training could improve neurocognition and neurohormonal homeostasis, a major setback being limited research in this area. Conclusions. Data from the present findings suggest that martial arts training in regular, repetitive patterns can reduce cortisol levels and improve neurotrophic outcomes in the form of elevated secretions of BDNF. Comparative and individual inferences to prove the efficiency of martial art forms better require further research.
Objectives Years of sport participation (YoP) is conventionally used to estimate cumulative repetitive head impacts (RHI) experienced by contact sport athletes. The relationship of this measure to other estimates of head impact exposure and the potential associations of these measures with neurobehavioral functioning are unknown. We investigated the association between YoP and the Head Impact Exposure Estimate (HIEE), and whether associations between the two estimates of exposure and neurobehavioral functioning varied. Methods Former American football players ( N = 58; age = 37.9 ± 1.5 years) completed in-person evaluations approximately 15 years following sport discontinuation. Assessments consisted of neuropsychological assessment and structured interviews of head impact history (i.e., HIEE). General linear models were fit to test the association between YoP and the HIEE, and their associations with neurobehavioral outcomes. Results YoP was weakly correlated with the HIEE, p = .005, R 2 = .13. Higher YoP was associated with worse performance on the Symbol Digit Modalities Test, p = .004, R 2 = .14, and Trail Making Test-B, p = .001, R 2 = .18. The HIEE was associated with worse performance on the Delayed Recall trial of the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised, p = .020, R 2 = .09, self-reported cognitive difficulties (Neuro-QoL Cognitive Function), p = .011, R 2 = .10, psychological distress (Brief Symptom Inventory-18), p = .018, R 2 = .10, and behavioral regulation (Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function for Adults), p = .017, R 2 = .10. Conclusions YoP was marginally associated with the HIEE, a comprehensive estimate of head impacts sustained over a career. Associations between each exposure estimate and neurobehavioral functioning outcomes differed. Findings have meaningful implications for efforts to accurately quantify the risk of adverse long-term neurobehavioral outcomes potentially associated with RHI.
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Montenigro et al. (2016) assert that repetitive head impacts obtained while playing football increases later-life neurological consequences. While this is an important line of research inquiry that can be very fruitful, several faulty scientific premises undermine the veracity of these claims. In this Commentary piece, we outline a few of the problems with the basic research premise, arguing first and foremost that "causality" cannot be established given the research design. Also, the absence of authoritative controls for spurious relations and confounding weaken the argument that participation in contact sports like football is related to later clinical symptoms and even lasting neurological problems. We also discuss the requirements for establishing linkages between early adolescent or young adult activities and long-term neurological impairment. The basic premise that repetitive head impacts can contribute to later life problems requires first establishing a scientific paradigm to examine these developmental relations beyond reproach. We conclude with several suggestions that have ramifications for future studies of this nature, utilizing more robust methodology and statistical techniques to clarify whether the chicken invariably preceded the egg.
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Motivationally distinct forms of child compliance, mutually positive affect, and maternal control, observed in 3 control contexts in 103 dyads of mothers and their 26–41-month-old children, were examined as correlates of internalization, assessed using observations of children while alone with prohibited temptations and maternal ratings. One form of compliance (committed compliance), when the child appeared committed wholeheartedly to the maternal agenda and eager to endorse and accept it, was emphasized. Mother-child mutually positive affect was both a predictor and a concomitant of committed compliance. Children who shared positive affect with their mothers showed a high level of committed compliance and were also more internalized. Differences and similarities between children's compliance to requests and prohibitions (“Do” vs. “Don't” demand contexts) were also explored. Maternal “Dos” appeared more challenging to toddlers than the “Don'ts.” Some individual coherence of behavior was also found across both demand contexts. The implications of committed compliance for emerging internalized regulators of conduct are discussed.
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Reliable changes in a variety of behaviors, or classes of behaviors, when only one is manipulated experimentally, have demonstrated that even topographically dissimilar responses can be functionally related. We investigated such a relationship between topographically different child behaviors (compliance and inappropriate activities) by using a methodology that tests for response covariation. Five conditions were provided to sequentially increase and decrease first one and then the other of these behaviors, with the degree of covariation between the two behaviors (i.e., the relationship between changes in the targeted and nontargeted behaviors) being the finding of interest. Results showed that, regardless of the intervention used, the behavior targeted, or the direction manipulated, the nontargeted behavior reliably covaried inversely with the targeted one. The findings have immediate relevance to the clinical treatment of multiple behavior problems exhibited by children. Furthermore, the study of relationships between responses and the processes underlying these relationships can have important implications for understanding the complexity characteristic of human behavior not yet analyzed by behavioral research.
A new questionnaire on aggression was constructed. Replicated factor analyses yielded 4 scales: Physical Aggression, Verbal Aggression, Anger, and Hostility. Correlational analysis revealed that anger is the bridge between both physical and verbal aggression and hostility. The scales showed internal consistency and stability over time. Men scored slightly higher on Verbal Aggression and Hostility and much higher on Physical Aggression. There was no sex difference for Anger. The various scales correlated differently with various personality traits. Scale scores correlated with peer nominations of the various kinds of aggression. These findings suggest the need to assess not only overall aggression but also its individual components.
Research on human aggression has been a flourishing industry in the 20th century. As the attention shifted from an instinctual paradigm to a drive paradigm and a social learning paradigm, what have we learned on the development of aggressive behaviour during childhood? Are children born with an aggressive instinct or do they have to learn to aggress?This question has deep philosophical roots, but it also has important practical implications. Should interventions prevent children from learning to aggress or should they help children learn to inhibit aggressive reactions? Since most of the 20th century work on the development of aggression was concentrated on adolescents and elementary school age children, there appeared to be an implicit assumption that aggression is learned during these developmental periods. It is argued that to understand the origins of aggressive behaviour and prevent chronic cases of physical aggression we will need to focus on the development of aggressive behaviour during the first few years after birth, and differentiate among forms of aggressive behaviour. The form of agressive behaviour that is generally considered more “serious” or “socially unacceptable” (physical aggression) is clearly ontogenetically antecedent to less “serious” forms of aggressive behaviour, such as verbal aggression or indirect aggression. Furthermore, as a rule the frequency of physical aggression appears to decrease with age. However, infants’ physical aggression has generally not been considered developmentally significant. This is probably because of “the weakness of their limbs” and the apparent lack of “intentionality”. To have a relatively complete description of the life-span developmental trajectories of human aggressive behaviour by the end of the 21st century, we will need to start recruiting pregnant women very soon.
each of the 4 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV) discipline subtypes is briefly reviewed along with an overview of the major studies that empirically and/or conceptually support them / studies on child and adolescent compliance are presented with data on normal/problem rates of compliance, the influence of parental factors on compliance, and proactive parenting strategies / the effects of harsh, inconsistent discipline on child compliance is examined as well as the influences of poor supervision and association with negative peers on adolescent noncompliance studies on the long-term consequences of child and adolescent noncompliance are presented as is a discussion of family process patterns that develop in homes where noncompliance is problematic / evidence for a bidirectional relationship between parental warmth and child/adolescent compliance is discussed / results from studies on the effectiveness of various discipline techniques are reviewed (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Observed 24 children aged 15 mo and 24 mo with their mothers in a directed play situation. Mothers were asked to take an active role by ensuring that the children played with the full range of toys available. The children's responses to the mothers' control directives were assessed in terms of 3 types of compliance: orientation, contact, and task compliance. Differences in the overall rate for these 3 types were examined. Considerable variations occurred in compliance rate according to the type of response required. Maternal controls were most likely to succeed if they formed part of a sequential attention–action strategy designed to manipulate the child's involvement state. The findings bear on a view of socialization that stresses the mutuality of the parent–child relationship; they also have implications for the concept and the assessment of compliance. (13 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
The participants (originally 196 boys and 173 girls) in an ongoing longitudinal study were examined using peer nomination and teacher rating at ages 8 and 14 years. Criminal records were collected at age 27 years. The results showed that (a) criminal offenses were best predicted if the accumulation of behavior problems over the school years was considered; (b) the risk for different types of offenses was highest for boys who exhibited escalating conduct problems and school failure over the school years; (c) norm-breaking behavior in early adolescence was strongly related to a propensity to later criminal offenses; (d) childhood aggressiveness did not predict arrests without the presence of other problems. When followed by norm-breaking in early adolescence, it predicted violent offenses, and when followed by poor school success, it predicted property offenses; (e) interestingly, low prosociality turned out to have a significant independent relationship to arrests; and (f) the distinction between an early-onset path and a late-onset path proved to be valid.
A review and meta-analysis of 42 group and single-case studies evaluating antecedent exercise (AE) as a means of reducing disruptive behaviors was conducted. Of 16 group studies, 12 produced positive results and 4 produced negative results. The weighted mean effect size, expressed as Cohen's d, was .33 with a standard error of .08. Moderator analysis indicated that studies using direct behavioral observation, hyperactive subjects, or nonaerobic exercise obtained greater effects, and that studies of higher quality obtained weaker effects. Of 26 single-case studies, 22 produced positive results, 1 produced no effect, and 3 produced negative results. The weighted mean effect size, expressed as d, was 1.99 with a standard error of .411. Among the single-subject studies, moderator analyses were unable to detect statistically significant moderators of effect size. Information was reviewed suggesting that AE is socially acceptable, can be implemented with treatment integrity, and has a benign side effect profile. The extent to which AE is functionally based remains open to question due to a lack of understanding regarding mechanism of action. Ten hypothesized mechanisms of action are briefly discussed.
A new questionnaire on aggression was constructed. Replicated factor analyses yielded 4 scales: Physical Aggression, Verbal Aggression, Anger, and Hostility. Correlational analysis revealed that anger is the bridge between both physical and verbal aggression and hostility. The scales showed internal consistency and stability over time. Men scored slightly higher on Verbal Aggression and Hostility and much higher on Physical Aggression. There was no sex difference for Anger. The various scales correlated differently with various personality traits. Scale scores correlated with peer nominations of the various kinds of aggression. These findings suggest the need to assess not only overall aggression but also its individual components.