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Abstract

Zinc is a common element in human and natural environments and plays an important part in many biological processes. Zinc, which is defined as an essential trace element, or a micronutrient, is essential for the normal growth and the reproduction of all higher plants and animals, and of humans. In addition, it plays a key role during physiological growth and fulfills an immune function. It is vital for the functionality of more than 300 enzymes, for the stabilization of DNA, and for gene expression. This review summarizes the role and manifestations of zinc in the environment and its importance for human health and metabolism, as well as its physiological role. Toxicity, teratogenicity, carcinogenicity, and immunological functions of zinc are outlined with particular reference to the properties of zinc as an antioxidant, and its role in cancer prevention.

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... Adequate Vitamin D intake ensures 48 that the body's calcium is effectively absorbed and utilized in bone-building, thus promoting bone 49 health [4]. Furthermore, eggs are a source of Zinc, a mineral crucial in supporting bone formation 50 and repair processes [5]. Zinc contributes to synthesizing collagen, a protein essential for 51 maintaining bone structure and integrity. ...
... Zinc contributes to synthesizing collagen, a protein essential for 51 maintaining bone structure and integrity. Its involvement in bone health has been highlighted in 52 various studies [5]. 53 Eggs also feature osteogenic bioactive components such as lutein and zeaxanthin. ...
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Introduction Eggs offer a range of essential nutrients that could potentially support skeletal health as individuals age. Maintaining bone density is crucial for reducing the risk of fractures and improving overall mobility and quality of life in later years. Understanding the potential benefits of habitual egg consumption on bone mass density among older people is essential, given that the natural decline in bone mass density occurs with age. This area of research has not garnered sufficient attention basically because of the mixed reactions and conflicting reports about the safety of egg consumption especially among the elderly hence the scoping review aims to systematically examine the existing literature to map the evidence regarding the association between habitual egg consumption and bone mass density in elderly individuals. Methodology The scoping review adhered to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR) guidelines to ensure methodological rigor and transparency. Five electronic databases were searched for published pieces of literature. The review included letters, reviews, observational studies, and experimental studies, while the exclusion criteria were books, grey literature, and publications not in English. Results Out of an initial 315 studies found across five databases, 27 duplicates were removed. After screening, 283 studies were excluded as they did not meet the study eligibility criteria. Only two studies were finally included in the review, with two excluded due to focusing on eggshell powder's impact on elderly bone mass and one involving children. Conclusion Limited research on the link between egg consumption and bone mass density in the elderly highlights the need for further investigation. Concerns about cholesterol have overshadowed potential benefits. Given aging populations and bone health challenges, exploring eggs' role in preventing falls and fractures is essential for a proactive approach to elderly well-being.
... Kẽm là một nguyên tố vi lượng thiết yếu, có vai trò quan trọng trong việc duy trì chức năng cấu trúc và xúc tác của hơn 200 enzym tham gia vào quá trình trao đổi chất [1]. Hiện nay tình trạng thiếu vi lượng kẽm trong cơ thể ngày càng phổ biến và đang báo động, gây ra các triệu chứng rụng tóc, mất trí nhớ, ảnh hưởng đến khả năng miễn dịch cũng như sự phát triển thần kinh… Sự thiếu kẽm của cơ thể thường do chế độ ăn không đầy đủ, khả năng hấp thu kẽm thấp hoặc sử dụng thức ăn có nguồn gốc thực vật chứa nhiều acid phytic làm ức chế sự hấp thu kẽm. ...
... Hiện nay tình trạng thiếu vi lượng kẽm trong cơ thể ngày càng phổ biến và đang báo động, gây ra các triệu chứng rụng tóc, mất trí nhớ, ảnh hưởng đến khả năng miễn dịch cũng như sự phát triển thần kinh… Sự thiếu kẽm của cơ thể thường do chế độ ăn không đầy đủ, khả năng hấp thu kẽm thấp hoặc sử dụng thức ăn có nguồn gốc thực vật chứa nhiều acid phytic làm ức chế sự hấp thu kẽm. Trong khi đó, gluconat là muối của acid gluconic thường được phối trộn với kẽm (Hình 1) trong cùng một sản phẩm dưới dạng siro hoặc viên nén giúp cơ thể hấp thu kẽm tốt hơn [1][2][3][4]. Để đánh giá chất lượng sản phẩm, việc xác định đồng thời hàm lượng kẽm và gluconat trong thực phẩm bảo vệ sức khỏe là cần thiết. ...
Article
Nutritional supplements providing bioavailable essential minerals, such as zinc (Zn) and magnesium (Mg), in forms of absorbable salts (e.g., gluconate, stearate, lactate, etc.) have been widely used. However, it should be noted that alongside these supplements, some excipients, including inorganic salts like zinc sulfate and magnesium sulfate, are frequently employed in pharmaceutical and nutraceutical products. Conventional analytical methods for total metal contents could not distinguish actual concentrations of bioavailable forms, suggesting the need for simultaneous analysis of both these essential minerals and their corresponding salts. In this study, we applied the capillary electrophoresis with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (CE-C4D) method to simultaneously measure zinc and gluconate in nutritional supplements. The optimal analytical parameters comprise: (1) 10 mM Tris/Ace electrolyte solution at pH 5.0; (2) silica capillary with an internal diameter of 50 μm and an effective length of 30 cm; (3) separation voltage of +15 kV; (4) hydrodynamic injection mode with siphoning technique at 10 cm height and injection time of 20 s. With these conditions, limit of detections of 1.0 mg/L for zinc and 1.5 mg/L for gluconate were achieved. The method has good repeatability (RSD < 3%) and good recovery (89-103% for zinc and 88-107% for gluconate). The validated method was applied to determine zinc and gluconate concentrations in three commercially available nutritional supplement samples. To ascertain the validity of the results, cross-validation was performed using the high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection (HPLCPDA) for gluconate and the inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICPOES) for zinc, thereby reinforcing the reliability of the CE-C4D method.
... Zinc is an essential mineral for maintaining human health that is involved in numerous physiological processes including immunity, wound healing, growth and development, taste and smell sensations, reproductive health, cognitive function, and antioxidant activities [10][11][12]. Zinc deficiency can lead to delayed growth and development, reproductive and fertility issues, impaired immune function, loss of appetite, weight loss, impaired physical function and frailty, and skin and hair problems [13][14][15]. It has also been reported that malaria can contribute to zinc deficiency through increased inflammation and oxidative stress [16] and that such a deficiency can increase susceptibility to malaria [17,18]. ...
... Based on an updated systematic review and previous systematic reviews [36,37], it is worth mentioning that while zinc supplementation may not directly reduce the risk of malaria or malariarelated outcomes, it may still have other important health benefits. Maintaining adequate blood zinc levels is essential for overall health as zinc is involved in various physiological processes and plays a crucial role in immune function, growth, and development [10][11][12]. However, it should not be considered a standalone preventive measure against malaria. ...
Article
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Zinc supplementation has been explored as a potential intervention to reduce the risk of malaria parasitaemia in randomised controlled trials (RCTs). However, inconsistent evidence has been obtained regarding the efficacy of zinc supplementation in the context of malaria prevention. This systematic review was implemented to survey the existing literature to determine the effects of the daily oral administration of zinc, either alone or in combination with other nutrient supplements, on the risk of malaria parasitaemia. The systematic review was prospectively registered in the PROSPERO database CRD42023424345 and followed PRISMA protocols. A comprehensive search was conducted across multiple databases, including Embase, MEDLINE, Ovid, PubMed, Scopus, ProQuest, and Google Scholar, from their inception until 6 May 2023. The risk of bias in RCTs was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool 2 (RoB 2). The effect sizes, represented as risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), were standardised by transforming them into log RRs and then pooling them using a fixed-effects or random-effects model depending on the heterogeneity across studies. Comparisons were made between individuals who received zinc alone or zinc in combination with other micronutrient supplements and those who did not receive zinc. A total of 1339 articles were identified through the database searches, and after the screening and selection process, 10 studies were included in the final synthesis. The meta-analysis revealed that zinc supplementation alone did not significantly affect the risk of malaria parasitaemia compared with placebo (p = 0.30, log RR = 0.05, 95% CI: −0.05–0.15, I2 = 0.00%, with 566 malaria cases in the zinc intake group and 521 malaria cases in the placebo group). However, the analysis demonstrated a borderline significant effect of zinc supplementation in combination with other micronutrients on the risk of malaria parasitaemia compared with placebo (p = 0.05, log RR = 1.31, 95% CI: 0.03–2.59, I2 = 99.22%, with 8904 malaria cases in the zinc intake group and 522 malaria cases in the placebo group). The findings of this systematic review indicate that zinc supplementation, either alone or combined with the supplementation of other micronutrients such as vitamin A, iron, or multiple nutrients, does not significantly alter the risk of malaria parasitaemia. Further research with larger sample sizes is warranted to explore the potential effects of multi-nutrient supplementation and to identify more specific micronutrients and additional factors associated with the risk of malaria, rather than just zinc alone, among individuals in different malaria-endemic areas.
... This species showed almost the double quantity of (Zn) observed in Silene vulgaris or Emex spinosa. This microelement plays a key role during growth and in the immune functions (Frassinetti et al., 2006). It is necessary for the functioning of more than 300 enzymes as well as in the regulation of gene expression (Dion et al., 2007;Frassinetti et al., 2006). ...
... This microelement plays a key role during growth and in the immune functions (Frassinetti et al., 2006). It is necessary for the functioning of more than 300 enzymes as well as in the regulation of gene expression (Dion et al., 2007;Frassinetti et al., 2006). ...
Article
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The present study aims to determine the micronutrients content of six wild edible plants (Malva sylvestris, Portulaca oleracea, Silene vulgaris, Nasturtium officinale, Emex spinosa, and Scolymus hispanicus) used as wild vegetables in the Al-Haouz, Morocco. Macroelements (Ca, Mg, Na, P, K, and S) and microelements (Cu, Mn, Fe, Zn, and B) were analyzed by the inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The results showed that the assessed wild species are very rich in micronutrients. The Zn and S contents were significantly higher in Nasturtium officinale (P<0.05) compared to other species, while Emex spinosa has the highest level of Na, Mg, Ca, and Mn. On the other hand, the Fe content was important in Scolymus hispanicus, Emex spinosa and Nasturtium officinale (1833.3 mg/kg, 1338.8 mg/kg and 1333.4 mg/kg, respectively). Finally, these wild species seem to be important nutritional resources and food supplements in the human diet.
... Zinc (Zn 2+ ) is an essential trace metal element in biology. Zn 2+ is incorporated in over 300 enzymes that have a broad range of biological functions including: regulation of smell, taste, and appetite; synthesis of DNA and RNA; hormonal regulation; immune functions; and antioxidation (Frassinetti et al., 2006). Zn 2+ is transported mainly by albumin in the blood and is maintained at a concentration of 1-10 µM in human serum or plasma (Frassinetti et al., 2006). ...
... Zn 2+ is incorporated in over 300 enzymes that have a broad range of biological functions including: regulation of smell, taste, and appetite; synthesis of DNA and RNA; hormonal regulation; immune functions; and antioxidation (Frassinetti et al., 2006). Zn 2+ is transported mainly by albumin in the blood and is maintained at a concentration of 1-10 µM in human serum or plasma (Frassinetti et al., 2006). Total cytosolic Zn 2+ concentration is a few hundreds of micromolar, but most Zn 2+ is tightly bound, leaving free Zn 2+ at a picomolar level. ...
Article
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Monatomic ions play critical biological roles including maintaining the cellular osmotic pressure, transmitting signals, and catalyzing redox reactions as cofactors in enzymes. The ability to visualize monatomic ion concentration, and dynamic changes in the concentration, is essential to understanding their many biological functions. A growing number of genetically encodable and synthetic indicators enable the visualization and detection of monatomic ions in biological systems. With this review, we aim to provide a survey of the current landscape of reported indicators. We hope this review will be a useful guide to researchers who are interested in using indicators for biological applications and to tool developers seeking opportunities to create new and improved indicators.
... As a trace element involved in the production of metallothionein, zinc (Zn) plays an important role in a variety of biochemical processes. For instance, it is a catalytic cofactor of more than 300 enzymes and a structural component of hundreds of zinc finger protein transcription factors, playing a key role in enhancing immunity, growth, reproductive performance, and disease resistance [11,12]. Because there is insufficient Zn in natural feed ingredients, appropriate amounts of Zn are commonly added to poultry diets. ...
Article
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Simple Summary The intestinal tract is an important part of the immune system and forms a congenital barrier against food antigens and pathogenic microorganisms. In poultry, heat stress can induce intestinal mucosal injury, damage intestinal tight junctions and microvillous structures, and trigger an inflammatory response and enterogenic infection. As an essential trace element, zinc has been shown to mitigate the adverse effects of heat stress on broilers. However, how the dietary supplementation of different sources and levels of zinc can improve the heat stress capacity of Chinese landraces remains unclear. Here, we investigated the effects of different levels of zinc sulfate (ZnS) and zinc proteinate with moderate chelation strength (Zn-Prot M) on the intestinal immune function under heat stress in Xueshan chickens, which comprise an important local breed in China. Abstract Heat stress can cause intestinal inflammation, impaired barrier integrity, and decreased immunity in poultry. While zinc is known to mitigate the adverse effects of heat stress, how the dietary supplementation of different sources and levels of it can improve the heat stress capacity of Chinese landraces remains unclear. This study investigated Xueshan chickens, which are an important local breed in China. The effects of different levels of ZnS and Zn-Prot M on their intestinal immune function under heat stress were compared. We found that different levels of ZnS and Zn-Prot M could effectively reduce the secretion level of IL-6 in the serum, and 60 mg/kg was optimal. Compared with ZnS, Zn-Prot M significantly increased duodenal villus height and VH/CD ratio. ZnS and Zn-Prot M effectively increased the villus height and villus width in the jejunum and ileum at 74 and 88 days old, with the 60 and 90 mg/kg groups outperforming other groups, and Zn-Prot M was more effective than ZnS. Both ZnS and Zn-Prot M significantly down-regulated TNF-α, IL-1β, and MyD88 in 102-day-old duodenum, and IL-1β, IL-6, and NFKBIA in jejunum and ileum at 74, 88, and 102 days old, with 60 mg/kg Zn-Prot M determined as optimal. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that Zn-Prot M is superior to ZnS in improving intestinal immunity in Xueshan chickens, and 60 mg/kg is the optimal addition dose.
... Zinc represents an essential trace element for all forms of life. 1 In living systems, the role of zinc can be catalytic or structural, but in some DNA A c c e p t e d m a n u s c r i p t interacting metalloproteins, this metal plays both these roles. 2 In the human body, zinc is required for the normal function of immune system, for proper wound healing, the sense of taste and smell, and for the normal growth and development. 3 Besides that, this metal has an important role for the normal function of the brain and can modulate its excitability, and it also influences the learning process. ...
Article
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In the present study, a zinc(II) complex with 4-ethynyl-2,2?-bipyridine (ebpy), [Zn(ebpy)Cl2], was synthesized and characterized by spectroscopic (1H NMR, IR and UV-Vis) methods and molar conductivity measurement. The crystal structure of the [Zn(ebpy)Cl2] complex was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, confirming the bidentate coordination of the ebpy ligand through its two nitrogen atoms, while the remaining two coordination sites are occupied by two chloride ions. With the aim to investigate the reactivity of the synthesized zinc(II) complex toward biologically important molecules, its binding affinity to calf thymus DNA (ct-DNA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was studied by fluorescence emission spectroscopy. From the obtained results, it can be concluded that [Zn(ebpy)Cl2] complex binds to BSA reversibly, while the combination of ethidium bromide (EthBr) and Hoechst 33258 (2?-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-5-[5-(4-methylpiperazine- 1-yl)benzimidazo-2-yl]-benzimidazole) competitive binding study suggests that this complex interacts with ct-DNA through the minor groove binding, which is in agreement with molecular docking study.
... In addition, it plays a key role during physiological development and fulfils an immune function. The properties of zinc, such as toxicity, teratogenicity, carcinogenicity, and immunological, are relevant to cancer prevention [117]. ...
Article
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The high rate of deaths around the world from noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) (70%) is a consequence of a poor diet lacking in nutrients and is linked to lifestyle and environmental conditions that together trigger predisposing factors. NCDs have increased 9.8% of public health spending worldwide, which has been increasing since 2000. Hence, international organizations such as the WHO, the Pan American Health Organization, and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations have been developing strategic plans to implement government and economic policies to strengthen programs in favor of food security and nutrition. A systematic review is presented to document an analysis of the origin and characteristics of obesity, cardiovascular disease, chronic respiratory diseases, diabetes, and cancers affecting a large part of the world’s population. This review proposes a scientifically based report of functional foods including fruits, vegetables, grains, and plants, and how their bioactive compounds called nutraceuticals—when consumed as part of a diet—benefit in the prevention and treatment of NCDs from an early age. Multifactorial aspects of NCDs, such as culture and eating habits, are limitations to consider from the clinical, nutritional, and biochemical points of view of everyone who suffers from them. Keywords: bioactive compounds; health; inflammatory factors; noncommunicable diseases; nourishment
... Impacts of zinc (Zn) in potato tubers irrigated with Fly Ash-treated AMD treatments The importance of micronutrients in health and nutrition cannot be overstated, and zinc is one of them (Bhowmik et al. 2010 andKing, 2011). In fact, the value of Zn is increasingly recognized especially in human health because its shortage especially in staple diets may play a significant role in the onset of diseases (Frassinetti et al. 2006 andAlloway, 2009). Analysis done in this research show that tubers irrigated with tap water and untreated acid mine drainage exhibited significant increased Zn concentration (Figure 4.4). ...
... Zinc is a micronutrient. However, its use is crucial for the proper functioning of the organism (Frassinetti et al., 2006) since it stabilizes many proteins present in crops and humans (Zhao and Bai, 2012). Cell membranes must have zinc to allow for plant growth (Hart et al., 2002); otherwise, these membranes lose their stability, leaking various carbon-rich compounds (e.g., sugars and amino acids) from the roots into the soil. ...
Article
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Barley is one of the most consumed cereals, with many different cultivars available worldwide. Like other crops, its yield has been affected by climate change and soil degradation. This work proposes controlled-release protein-based matrices with incorporated zinc to improve barley seed germination and zinc content in the plant. Thus, the main objective of this study was to investigate the use of controlled-release protein-based matrices for massive crops, such as barley. Different barley cultivars of barley were studied: Barke, Golden Promise, Morex, WB-200, WB379, and WB-446. The seeds of each cultivar were also analyzed in order to explain the behavior of plants observed during the growth. To this end, the physico-chemical (FT-IR, Raman spectroscopy, and Zn concentration) and microstructural (SEM) properties of the different seeds were firstly evaluated to establish differences between the studied cultivars. In addition, the use of controlled-release soybean protein-based matrices without zinc (M) or with zinc incorporated (MZ) was evaluated as fertilizers in the different barley cultivars. In this sense, the use of these matrices as a zinc carrier improved seed germination and zinc content in the plants, indicating that the use of matrices improves the amount of zinc assimilated by the crops (up to 30 and 50% with M and MZ, respectively) and allows the proper root growth of all cultivars of barley. In conclusion, this article shows the potential of controlled release protein-based matrices as substitutes for conventional fertilization.
... The most crucial micronutrients for human nutrition and health are iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn). Zn is a crucial cofactor for a number of crucial enzymes involved in metabolic processes [23][24][25]. ...
Article
Multiparent Advanced Generation Inter-cross Populations (MAGIC) populations are portrayed as inbred recombinant sets that were created by inter-crossing certain numerous parents. However it takes a lot of work to produce MAGIC populations but Its more effective approach for detecting QTL’s (Quantitative Trait Loci) when we involves MAGIC populations. The availability of more genetic variety in the germplasms due to various founder lines is one of the main benefits of employing a MAGIC population. In order to identify QTL’s for crop improvement under biotic and abiotic stress conditions, MAGIC populations were developed for the indica and japonica rice cultivars as well as MAGIC plus and Global MAGIC populations. Also the employment of MAGIC populations for the improvement of rice grain size also improves the yield and quality aspects of rice. Utilization of rice MAGIC plus populations for the improvement of nutrient profile of rice which is prime important in the biofortification program of rice as a goal of united nations. Where the utilization of association mapping and MAGIC populations in maize crop for improving saccharification efficiency results in higher biofuel production. Various institutes and universities are involved in production of MAGIC populations in respective specialised crops. This article gives the idea of MAGIC populations and their applications in different and diverse applications for the ultimate benefit of yield improvement.
... Except for zinc, iron is the most abundant trace element in almost all cellular structures found on earth [1][2][3]. The biological functions of iron-containing heme proteins include the transport of electrons, a vast number of catalytic functions in heme enzymes [4,5], and the transportation of molecular oxygen, but also that of signaling molecules such as carbon monoxide (CO) and NO. ...
Article
The nitrophorins (NPs) comprise an unusual group of heme proteins with stable ferric heme iron nitric oxide (Fe-NO) complexes. They are found in the salivary glands of the blood-sucking kissing bug Rhodnius prolixus, which uses the NPs to transport the highly reactive signaling molecule NO. Nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS) of both isoform NP2 and a mutant NP2(Leu132Val) show, after addition of NO, a strong structured vibrational band at around 600 cm-1, which is due to modes with significant Fe-NO bending and stretching contribution. Based on a hybrid calculation method, which uses density functional theory and molecular mechanics, it is demonstrated that protonation of the heme carboxyl groups does influence both the vibrational properties of the Fe-NO entity and its electronic ground state. Moreover, heme protonation causes a significant increase of the gap between the highest occupied and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital by almost one order of magnitude leading to a stabilization of the Fe-NO bond.
... Lost cognition is also observed due to a high copper intake in the general population [23]. The notable functions of zinc in humans include proliferation, protein synthesis, neuronal growth, DNA metabolism, free radical sequestration, cellular division and lipid peroxidation [24]. Zn +2 is considered toxic when a surplus amount of it is ingested into the body [25]. ...
Article
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The toxicity of transition metals, including copper(II), manganese(II), iron(II), zinc(II), hexavalent chromium, and cobalt(II), at elevated concentrations presents a significant threat to living organisms. Thus, the development of efficient sensors capable of detecting these metals is of utmost importance. This study explores the utilization of two-dimensional nitrogenated holey graphene (C2N) nanosheet as a sensor for toxic transition metals. The C2N nanosheet’s periodic shape and standard pore size render it well suited for adsorbing transition metals. The interaction energies between transition metals and C2N nanosheets were calculated in both gas and solvent phases and were found to primarily result from physisorption, except for manganese and iron which exhibited chemisorption. To assess the interactions, we employed NCI, SAPT0, and QTAIM analyses, as well as FMO and NBO analysis, to examine the electronic properties of the TM@C2N system. Our results indicated that the adsorption of copper and chromium significantly reduced the HOMO–LUMO energy gap of C2N and significantly increased its electrical conductivity, confirming the high sensitivity of C2N towards copper and chromium. The sensitivity test further confirmed the superior sensitivity and selectivity of C2N towards copper. These findings offer valuable insight into the design and development of sensors for the detection of toxic transition metals.
... Zinc (Zn) is an essential component of several enzymes in the organism and involved in a wide range of physiological functions, thus playing an important role for biological processes and health [1,2]. While horses seem to tolerate relatively high amounts of dietary Zn, a Zn deficiency has been demonstrated to result in skin and hair disorders, reduced growth, and inappetence [3]. ...
Article
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Little is known about the animal- and diet-related factors that could interfere with the plasma zinc (Zn) concentrations of equines. Additionally, the adequacy of plasma to reflect changes in the Zn intake is unclear. In the first part of this study, the plasma Zn concentrations of hospitalized horses and ponies (n = 538) were measured and evaluated for the impact of the age, sex, horse type, and internal diseases of the animals. In the second part, the effects of increasing dietary Zn chloride hydroxide and Zn methionine supplementations were assessed on the plasma and mane hair Zn concentrations of healthy horses (n = 2) and ponies (n = 8). Part 1: The age, sex, and horse type did not influence the plasma Zn concentrations. No effect of internal diseases was observed, with the exception of higher plasma Zn concentrations in animals with metabolic disorders compared to the control group (p < 0.05). Part 2: Both Zn supplements dose-dependently increased the Zn concentrations in the mane hair (p = 0.003), but not in the plasma of the horses and ponies. In conclusion, the plasma Zn concentrations were widely unaffected by nutritional and non-nutritional factors in equines, while mane hair samples better reflected the dietary Zn supply.
... Lead contamination can also affect human health when seafood and other marine products containing lead are consumed [42]. The bioaccumulation of lead in certain species of fish and shellfish can lead to health problems such as neurological damage, kidney damage, and reproductive issues [43]. For Zn, the highest concentration was found during the monsoon season at 0.093451 mg/l, while the lowest concentration was found during the pre-monsoon season at 0.031783 mg/l. ...
... It also performs an immunological function and plays a critical role during physiological development. It is required for the action of over 300 enzymes, the stability of DNA, and the expression of genes [20]. In keeping with the above-mentioned amazing properties, it also shows excellent antibacterial effect which makes it one of the good choices for biomedical applications [26]. ...
Article
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In this study, amorphous ZnO-containing calcium silicate nano powders were prepared by sol–gel technique and then calcined at different temperatures; namely, 600, 800 and 1000 °C, to study their crystallization. The synthesized powders were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Then, the synthesized powders were sintered at different temperatures. The sintered ceramics were examined for their physical properties, microstructure, mechanical properties and electrical properties by the suitable techniques. The results revealed that the synthesized nano powders were amorphous even after calcination up to 800 °C. By increasing the calcination temperature into 1000 °C, crystalline calcium silicate ceramic was formed. The average particle size of this crystalline material was 50 nm with lower agglomeration among the others calcined at low temperatures. Regarding to the sintered ceramics, the bulk density, fracture toughness and electrical conductivity were increased with increasing both sintering temperature and zinc content. On the other hand, microhardness, compressive strength, elastic moduli and Poisson's ratio were increased with increasing sintering temperature and decreased with increasing the zinc content.
... Zinc is an essential micronutrient that participates in numerous biochemical reactions in the human body (Frassinetti et al. 2006). Zinc is required for at least 300 enzymes to function properly, including the immune system, gene expression, cell growth, and division (Basabe-Desmonts et al. 2007;Shyamal et al. 2016;Chasapis et al. 2020;Suganya et al. 2020). ...
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The current study aims to provide a roadmap for future research by analyzing the research structures and trends in scholarly publications related to the status of zinc in public health. Only journal articles published between 1978 and 2022 are included in the refined bibliographical outputs retrieved from the Web of Science (WoS) database. The first section announces findings based on WoS categories, such as discipline heterogeneity, times cited and publications over time, and citation reports. The second section then employs VoSViewer software for bibliometric analysis, which includes a thorough examination of co-authorship among researchers, organizations, and countries and a count of all bibliographic databases among documents. The final section discusses the research’s weaknesses and strengths in zinc status, public health, and potential future directions; 7158 authors contributed to 1730 papers (including 339 with publications, more than three times). “Keen, C.L.” is a researcher with the most publications and a better understanding of zinc status in public health. Meanwhile, the USA has been the epicenter of research on the status of zinc in public health due to the highest percentage of publications with the most citations and collaboration with the rest of the world, with the top institution being the University of California, Davis. Future research can be organized collaboratively based on hot topics from co-occurrence network mapping and bibliographic couplings to improve zinc status and protect public health.
... Le cuivre et le zinc, comme beaucoup d'autres éléments traces, ont des effets paradoxaux sur les organismes. Ils sont à la fois nécessaires à de nombreuses activités métaboliques et deviennent toxiques lorsqu'ils sont présents à des niveaux trop élevés Salgueiro et al., 2000 ;Frassinetti et al., 2006). Le cuivre et le zinc sont notamment des cofacteurs essentiels pour de nombreuses enzymes , Lontie, 2018. ...
Thesis
The hyper-anthropization, particularly along our coasts, has profoundly modified the environment. New structures, such as harbors, emerging, forming “true” ecosystems. Among the multitude of species inhabiting the port, one group seems particularly interesting to study: the filter feeders (bivalves and tunicat). These organisms have a strong interaction with the port environment due to their behaviour. Indeed, by remaining anchored to the structures, they are constantly subjected to the environmental factors that characterize the port and their feeding behavior, the filtration, leads them to be in contact with a large quantity of water and therefore with the elements that are in it. The objective of this thesis is to study this particular socio-ecosystem that is the port environment through this key group: the filter feeders. Through a multidisciplinary approach, this work, has allowed :-to study and map the communities of filter feeders present in the marina of La Rochelle; showing the complexity of their community and the fact that they are impacted by anthropogenic and hydrosedimentary factors.-to analyze the effect of two common contaminants in the port environment, copper and zinc, on the metabolism of a model filter-feeder organism : the scallop (Mimachlamys varia); and to show that they impacted several metabolic pathways involved in numerous biological functions, such as osmoregulation, oxidative stress, energetic metabolism, reproduction and apoptosis.- to highlight the fact that filter feeders are involved in the composition of the mud by remobilizing the sediments present in the water column and by modifying their physico-chemical properties; and that is species dependent and is strongly modulated by environmental conditions such as the level of organic matter.- to develop several innovative sampling and analysis methods needed to understand this particular environment.
... In contrast, Zn deficiency has been shown to cause villus atrophy, elevated levels of mucosal cell apoptosis, ulceration, inflammation as well as reduction in crypt proliferation [11]. Considering the role of zinc as a coenzyme for more than 300 enzymes particularly in RNA-DNA synthesis and cell proliferation [15], these enhancements in intestine morphology may be explained by the beneficial effects of zinc on cell proliferation and differentiation. reported from this experiment [16]. ...
... Mg and Mn are parts of enzymes, are involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates, amino acids and cholesterol (Ferlemi et al., 2016). Zn maintains an optimal concentration of tocopherol, plays an important role in the growth and development of plants, in the formation of the immune response, the function of the nervous system, promotes the absorption of vitamin A (Frassinetti et al., 2006). In the prevention and treatment of age-related diseases, antioxidant strategies based on nutrition are used, including the addition of antioxidants and trace elements in the prevention (Opara, Rockway, 2006). ...
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In recent years, raspberry breeding has shifted its emphasis from agronomic performance to characteristics related to the sensory qualities of the fruit and its potential health benef its. The therapeutic and preventive properties of raspberries are related to their biochemical composition. In this regard, the purpose of the work was to determine the content of macro- and micronutrients in fruits of different cultivars of repair raspberry using modern high-tech analytical methods and the selection of genetic sources of the analyzed elements for further breeding. The objects of the research were 17 cultivars of repair raspberry of different ecological and geographical origin from the genetic plant bioresource collection of FSBSO ARHCBAN. It was found that the ash residue of berries contains 12 major elements, which form the following descending series: K > P > Mg ≥ Mo > Ca > S ≥ Ni > Zn > Mn > Se > Fe ≥ Co. The largest proportion of ash residue in raspberry fruits is K. Depending on the cultivar, its quantity averaged from 12.81 wt % (Samorodok and Karamelka) to 22.37 wt % (Atlant). The minimum K content was observed in the ash of the Carolina cultivar (5.62 wt %), while in berries of this cultivar Mg (2.91), Ca (2.62) and Zn (0.14 wt %) accumulated above average. Among the group of early maturing cultivars, the cultivar Yubileinaya Kulikova stands out with a high content of Mo (4.63), Ca (2.19), Fe (0.25) and Co (0.21 wt %). The cultivar Pingvin is characterized by a high content of K (22.65) and Se (0.31 wt %). The medium maturity cultivar Samorodok is characterized by a higher content of P (4.08), S (0.47), Ni (0.51) and Zn (0.26 wt %). Among the late maturing cultivars, the cultivar Poranna Rosa stands out with the preferential accumulation of nine elements: Mg (2.98), P (4.42), S (0.36), K (20.34), Ca (1.71), Mn (0.14), Co (0.13), Se (0.21) and Mo (3.08 wt %). Correlation relationships between the elements have been established. Samples with the highest accumulation of macro- and microelements in berries represent genetic sources for further selection of raspberry for improvement of the mineral composition of fruits.
... The physiopathological processes through which this bivalent cation mediates the protection of cells against the negative action of oxygen free radicals involve its effects of ensuring the preservation of sulfhydryl groups in proteins [64]. Moreover, by stabilizing lipids and proteins, Zn can protect the cell membrane and protein macromolecules from oxidative damage [65]. As a component element of the antioxidant enzyme SOD, Zn has an essential involvement in improving oxidative status [36] and in reducing the rate of lipid peroxidation [38]. ...
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Background and Objectives: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a complex disease affecting the whole metabolic balance of the body and resulting in multiple organ complications: cardiovascular, neuronal, renal, etc. Our study focuses on investigating the effect of zinc chloride (Zn) on certain blood parameters suggestive for assessing the metabolic disturbances, the liver and kidney function, the oxidative stress and the immune defense capacity in experimental-induced DM with streptozotocin (STZ) and cholesterol in rats. Materials and Methods: The animals were assigned to three groups, as follows: Group 1 (Control): buffer citrate solution 0.1 mL/100 g body; Group 2 (STZ): 20 mg/kg body STZ and fat diet (10 g cholesterol/100 g diet); Group 3 (STZ+Zn): 20 mg/kg body STZ + 5 mg/kg body Zn chloride and the same fat diet. DM was induced by administering STZ in a single take daily, for three consecutive days, Zn and citrate buffer were administered orally for a month. The protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of the University ‘Grigore T Popa’ Iasi, in agreement with the International Regulations about the handling of laboratory animals. Results: The use of STZ in rats fed with cholesterol was correlated with important weight gain, hyperglycemia, the intensification of the transaminases activity and the increase in serum alkaline phosphatase, cholesterol, triglyceride, urea, creatinine and in malondialdehyde. Conclusions: The treatment with Zn resulted in weight loss and a decrease in blood sugar in diabetic rats. Supplementation with Zn notably reduced oxidative stress, preserved the pancreatic architecture and restored the liver and kidney function and structure in STZ-induced DM in rats.
... Zinc is an essential micronutrient that participates in numerous biochemical reactions in the human body (Frassinetti et al. 2006). Zinc is required for at least 300 enzymes to function properly, including the . ...
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The current study aims to provide a roadmap for future research by analyzing the research structures and trends in scholarly publications related to the status of zinc in public health. Only journal articles published between 1978 and 2022 are included in the refined bibliographical outputs retrieved from the Web of Science (WoS) database. The first section announces findings based on WoS categories, such as discipline heterogeneity, times cited and publications over time, and citation reports. The second section then employs VoSViewer software for bibliometric analysis, which includes a thorough examination of co-authorship among researchers, organizations, and countries and a count of all bibliographic databases among documents. The final section discusses the research's weaknesses and strengths in zinc status, public health, and potential future directions. 7158 authors contributed to 1730 papers (including 339 with publications, more than three times). "Keen, C.L." is a researcher with the most publications and a better understanding of zinc status in public health. Meanwhile, the United States has been the epicenter of research on the status of zinc in public health due to the highest percentage of publications with the most citations and collaboration with the rest of the world, with the top institution being the University of California, Davis. Future research can be organized collaboratively based on hot topics from co-occurrence network mapping and bibliographic couplings to improve zinc status and protect public health.
... Mn, Zn, and Fe are known to be essential minerals in the body and other animals for maintaining physiological activities such as skin regeneration, formation of immunity cells, synthesis of proteins, nucleic acids, connective tissue development, and various essential therapeutic enzymes such as metalloproteinases and super oxide dismutase (Thomas, 1970;Agget, 1985;Boccio et al., 2003;Frassinetti et al., 2006). These trace minerals were abundant (Mn: 3.87-5.07 ...
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Sea cucumbers are soft-bodied echinoderms and some species are highly economic thanks to their unique biochemical compositions. Holothuria (Roweothuria) poli is an economically important species in Turkey and has been extensively exploited in the Mediterranean to meet the international market demand in the last decade. In this study, meat yield, proximate and mineral compositions of H. poli from the coasts of Çanakkale,Turkey, were investigated to determine the effect of seasons on food product quality and safety. The lowest meat yield was determined in the autumn samples, whereas the highest levels were in the samples from the spring to summer. The percent levels of moisture, protein, fat, ash, and carbohydrate levels were in the range of 80.8 - 84.0, 7.6 - 10.1, 1.4 - 1.8, 6.2 - 7.1, and 0.2 - 0.8, respectively. The levels of minerals were found in declining order; Na >Ca>Mg> K >S> P>Si> B> Mn> Zn> Fe> Cu> Hg> Pb> Sn> Se> Cr> As> Co> Sb> Ni> Cd> Pt. Apart from macro minerals, Si and B were determined as the most abundant minerals. The important minerals in human nutrition were found to be at desirable levels, whereas toxic minerals were found under the threshold levels. Our findings indicated significant seasonal differences in meat yield, proximate and mineral compositions of H. poli, but more importantly, this species tends to accumulate some minerals regardless of seasons. Further studies to better understand the optimal utilization season by determining the mineral accumulation tendency and product quality will be valuable for future research.
... Its deficiency was significantly associated with induced oxidative stress, inflammatory events, and vascular dysfunction. Epidemiological studies have shown that low serum zinc levels are negatively correlated with a variety of diseases, such as diabetes, coronary artery disease and Parkinson's disease (26)(27)(28)(29)(30)(31)(32). Since 1934, when zinc was shown to be a component of insulin crystals, a link between zinc and diabetes has been proposed. ...
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Introduction Serum vitamin D 3 concentration is associated with the risk of insulin resistance. Zinc has also been reported to be associated with a lower risk of insulin resistance. In addition, zinc is an essential cofactor in the activation of vitamin D 3 . However, the effect of dietary zinc intake on the relationship between vitamin D 3 and insulin resistance risk has not been fully studied. Therefore, we designed this cross-sectional study to assess the impact of changes in zinc intake on the relationship between vitamin D 3 and insulin resistance risk. Study design and methods This study analyzed data from the national Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2005 to 2018, involving 9,545 participants. Participants were stratified by zinc intake category (low zinc intake <9.58 mg/ day; High zinc intake: ≥9.58 mg/ day). Results In this cross-sectional study, serum vitamin D 3 levels were independently associated with the risk of insulin resistance in both the low and high Zinc intakes (β: −0.26, 95%Cl: −0.56~0.04 vs. β: −0.56, 95%Cl: −1.01~-0.11). In addition, this association was influenced by different dietary zinc intakes (interaction P < 0.05). Conclusions Our results suggest that zinc intake may influence the association between serum vitamin D 3 and the risk of insulin resistance. Further randomized controlled trials are needed to provide more evidence of this finding.
... Deficiency of zinc leads to night blindness, weight loss, poor appetite, dermatitis and poor immunity. Since zinc cannot be stored in the body like fat soluble vitamins, therefore, there is a constant requirement of zinc enriched diet (Frassinetti et al., 2006). ...
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Traditional agricultural practices enhanced nutritional content in plant food measurably but biofortification augments bio-availability of food with beneficial components using different techniques to provide a continuing and sustainable strategy. Fortification is the practice of deliberately increasing the content of an essential micronutrient, i.e. vitamins and minerals (including trace elements) in a food, so as to improve the nutritional quality of the food supply and provide a public health benefit with minimal risk to health. Biofortification differs from conventional fortification in that biofortification aims to increase nutrient levels in crops during plant growth rather than through manual means during processing of the crops.
... Deficiency of zinc leads to night blindness, weight loss, poor appetite, dermatitis and poor immunity. Since zinc cannot be stored in the body like fat soluble vitamins, therefore, there is a constant requirement of zinc enriched diet (Frassinetti et al., 2006). ...
Conference Paper
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Traditional agricultural practices enhanced nutritional content in plant food measurably but biofortification augments bio-availability of food with beneficial components using different techniques to provide a continuing and sustainable strategy. Fortification is the practice of deliberately increasing the content of an essential micronutrient, i.e. vitamins and minerals (including trace elements) in a food, so as to improve the nutritional quality of the food supply and provide a public health benefit with minimal risk to health. Biofortification differs from conventional fortification in that biofortification aims to increase nutrient levels in crops during plant growth rather than through manual means during processing of the crops.
... The determination of metal isotope composition has been well established for the fate of metal contaminants in soils and rivers (Desaulty and Petelet-Giraud, 2020). Studying the behavior of Cd and Zn is of primary interest because of their acute toxicity and their relative abundance (Cullen and Maldonado, 2013;Frassinetti et al., 2006). Cadmium isotope ratio analyses have helped with source apportionment of Cd pollution in the soil-plant cycling for agricultural soils , after freshly applied Cd through mineral phosphorus fertilizers and over time (Salmanzadeh et al., 2017). ...
Article
The remobilization of metals accumulated in contaminated soils poses a threat to humans and ecosystems in general. Tracing metal fractionation provides valuable information for understanding the remobilization processes in smelting areas. Based on the difference between the isotopic system of Cd and Zn, this work aimed to couple isotope data and their leachability to identify possible remobilization processes in several soil types and land uses. For soil samples, the δ66/64Zn values ranged from 0.12 ± 0.05‰ to 0.28 ± 0.05‰ in Avilés (Spain) and from −0.09 ± 0.05‰ to −0.21 ± 0.05‰ in Příbram (Czech Republic), and the δ114/110Cd ranged from −0.13 ± 0.05‰ to 0.01 ± 0.04‰ in Avilés and from −0.86 ± 0.27‰ to −0.24 ± 0.05‰ in Příbram. The metal fractions extracted using chemical extractions were always enriched in heavier Cd isotopes whilst Zn isotope systematics exhibited light or heavy enrichment according to the soil type and land uses. Coupling Zn and Cd systematics provided a tool for deciphering the mechanisms behind the remobilization processes: leaching of the anthropogenic materials and/or metal redistribution within the soil components prior to remobilization.
... Zinc is essential for the normal growth and reproduction for higher plants, animals, and humans. Hence it is called a micronutrient [25]. The mean zinc level in the water samples was 0.0052 mg/L and a had range of 0.003 to 0.011 mg/L ( Table 2). ...
Article
The levels of Chromium (Cr), Lead (Pb), Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn) and Iron (Fe) were determined in six different samples of Borehole waters obtained from six designated areas of Birnin Kebbi metropolis, Nigeria using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The mean concentrations of the heavy metals ranged from 0.0005 mg/L Cr to 0.2108 mg/L Fe. The relative abundance of the metals in Borehole waters followed the sequence of Fe (0.1769 mg/L)> Cr (0.0342 mg/L)> Cu (0.0298 mg/L)> Zn (0.0052 mg/L). The levels of Cr and other metals were found below the SON/WHO recommended safe limits for metals in water. The low concentration of Cr and absence of Pb in all the samples examined are indications that these Borehole waters contribute fewer toxic effects of metals. The pH values of the water samples were far below the recommended values by the SON/WHO and these could be adjusted through pH correction.
... Zinc is the second most essential trace element in all residing structures, from animals to humans, and performs a crucial function in lots of metabolic procedures in the body [1]. Each day's nutritional consumption of zinc is crucial to adjust the cell division through regulating the synthesis of protein and DNA [2]. ...
Article
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A selective, sensitive, and environmentally safe spectrophotometry method was developed and validated for the determination of zinc in pharmaceutical substances using natural reagents obtained from the leaves of plant Acacia catechu. Different factors were optimized such as volume of reagent, selection of pH, and stability of the color complex. The drug showed a stable yellowish orange color complex at 550 nm. The greenness of the methods was estimated using an eco-scale tool where the presented method was found to be excellent green with an ecoscore of 84 based on spectrophotometric determination. Also, the greenness of the method was assessed by the Green Analytical Procedure Index and found to be eco-friendly. The method was validated in conformance with ICH guidelines, with acceptable values for linearity, accuracy, precision, LOD, and LOQ. The linearity range for zinc sulphate was 5–25 μg mL−1 with an R2 value of 0.996. The % RSD for intraday precision and interday precision was less than 2%. The suggested method can be employed for the economic analysis of zinc in its pure form and various formulations. The presented spectrophotometric method is the first analytical method for the analysis of zinc present in zinc sulphate and showed greater ecoscale as compared to the official method.
... Zinc is added to aquafeeds as an additive in different forms under current European regulations. Since zinc is an essential trace element with 15-30 mg kg − 1 dietary requirement for common carp, it plays several key biological roles (Frassinetti et al., 2006;Zhao et al., 2014). ...
Article
The use of nano-sized materials is increasingly growing, while consequent health and environmental risks are still disputed. On the other hand, plant extracts have been reported to improve fish general health status and enhance antioxidant capacity. Thus, the present study was aimed to assess potential effects of Allium hirtifolium extract (AHE) to fortify antioxidant responses of Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) exposed to foodborne Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs). Five hundred and forty fish were randomly allocated into 18 tanks and received six diets including a basal diet (as control), basal diet incorporated with either 13 mg/kg (ZnO-25) or 26 mg/kg (ZnO-50) of ZnO-NPs, 1.5% AHE (AHE-1.5), and similar concentrations of ZnO-NPs plus AHE (ZnO-25-AHE) and (ZnO-50-AHE) for a period of 30 days. Results revealed that blood indices, stress biomarkers (glucose and cortisol), and antioxidant parameters and genes in AHE-1.5 group were significantly modulated and improved when compared to other groups (P < 0.05). In AHE-enriched groups, serum and liver tissue antioxidative parameters were enhanced as reflected in a noticeable decrease in malondialdehyde value and an increase in catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase. However, current results showed that diets incorporated with ZnO-NPs elevated the stress parameters besides a significant reduction for most measured biochemical parameters and AHE supplementation ameliorated these effects in terms of improving antioxidant parameters. In ZnO-25-AHE, and ZnO-50-AHE, the values for expression of GPx were found significantly (P < 0.05) different from that of ZnO-25 and ZnO-50. On the contrary, SOD showed a non-significant difference (P > 0.05) among control, ZnO-25, and ZnO-50-AHE, also in-between ZnO-25 and ZnO-25-AHE. The present results indicate that AHE supplementation could trigger antioxidant responses both at tissue and molecular levels suggesting its outstanding protective effects against foodborne toxicity of ZnO-NPs in Common carp.
... Zinc is added to aquafeeds as an additive in different forms under current European regulations. Since zinc is an essential trace element with 15-30 mg kg − 1 dietary requirement for common carp, it plays several key biological roles (Frassinetti et al., 2006;Zhao et al., 2014). ...
Article
Zinc is a trace element and necessary for normal functioning of Cyprinus carpio. Zinc oxide nanoparticles, as a possible dietary zinc source, are capable of inducing hazardeous impacts on aquatic animals and human health. On the other hand, the beneficial effects of plant ectracts have been exploited for various purposes in aquaculture. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the protective effects of Allium hirtifolium extract (AHE) against foodborne toxicity of Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) in C. carpio. Therefore, fish were fed six experimental diets including a control (basal diet), ZnO-13 (basal diet+13 mg.kg⁻¹ of ZnO-NPs), ZnO-26 (basal diet+26 mg.kg⁻¹ of ZnO-NPs), AHE (basal diet+15 g.kg⁻¹ of AHE), and ZnO-13-AHE and ZnO-26-AHE (the same concentrations of ZnO-NPs plus AHE-1.5) for 30 days. Results showed a significant improvement in growth and immune parameters in AHE-1.5 group compared to other treatments. A growth retardation and immunological impairment were observed in ZnO-13 and ZnO-26 while a mitigation of WG, FCR, SR, and SGR was found in ZnO-13-AHE and ZnO-26-AHE. This is however, no statistical differences were found when comparing immunological parameters of fish receiving ZnO alone (ZnO-13 and ZnO-26) and with AHE supplementation (ZnO-13-AHE and ZnO-26-AHE). Significant modulations were found in expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-8, and IL-10 genes suggesting the molecular cascade in responding to foodborne toxicity of ZnO-NPs. The present findings suggest potential role of AHE to mitigate foodborne toxicity induced by ZnO-NPs at molecular level. We also recommend the use of AHE as a growth promoter and an immunostimulant for C. carpio.
... Although the importance of Fe in host-pathogen interactions has been extensively examined [6], the role of Mn and Zn in host-pathogen interactions and the mechanisms utilized by bacteria to maintain their cellular levels and ratios properly balanced are less understood [7,[12][13][14][15][16][17]. The second most abundant trace metal in vertebrates, Zn, is estimated to be incorporated into approximately 5% of the bacterial proteome and plays structural and catalytic roles in multiple biological processes [18,19]. In bacteria, Zn acquisition under severe Zn-restricted conditions such as those that can be encountered in host environments depends on the activity of surface-associated Zn uptake systems from the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family (reviewed in Refs. ...
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Bacterial pathogens require a variety of micronutrients for growth, including trace metals such as iron, manganese, and zinc (Zn). Despite their relative abundance in host environments, access to these metals is severely restricted during infection due to host-mediated defense mechanisms collectively known as nutritional immunity. Despite a growing appreciation of the importance of Zn in host-pathogen interactions, the mechanisms of Zn homeostasis and the significance of Zn to the pathophysiology of E. faecalis, a major pathogen of nosocomial and community-associated infections, have not been thoroughly investigated. Here, we show that E. faecalis encoded ABC-type transporter AdcACB and an orphan substrate-binding lipoprotein AdcAII that work cooperatively to maintain Zn homeostasis. Simultaneous inactivation of adcA and adcAII or the entire adcACB operon led to a significant reduction in intracellular Zn under Zn-restricted conditions and heightened sensitivity to Zn-chelating agents including human calprotectin, aberrant cell morphology, and impaired fitness in serum ex vivo. Additionally, inactivation of adcACB and adcAII significantly reduced bacterial tolerance toward cell envelope-targeting antibiotics. Finally, we showed that the AdcACB/AdcAII system contributes to E. faecalis virulence in a Galleria mellonella invertebrate infection model and in two catheter-associated mouse infection models that recapitulate many of the host conditions associated with enterococcal human infections. Collectively, this report reveals that high-affinity Zn import is important for the pathogenesis of E. faecalis establishing the surface-associated AdcA and AdcAII lipoproteins as potential therapeutic targets.
... The concentration of zinc ions in the milk protein complex is 9.6-fold higher than in milk [18]. Zinc takes part in the processes of cell division and differentiation, the formation of T-cell immunity, and the functioning of dozens of enzymes, including Zn-dependent metalloproteases, superoxide dismutases, and dihydrocorticosterone [30,53]. Zinc has an essential role in the processes of skin regeneration, hair and nail growth, and the secretion of the sebaceous glands. ...
Article
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Metal ions and other elements play many different critical roles in all biological processes. They can be especially important in high concentrations for the functioning of organisms living in seawater. It is important to understand how much the concentrations of different trace elements in such organisms can be higher than in seawater. Some marine organisms capable of rapid recovery after different injuries are fascinating in this regard. Sea cucumbers Eupentacta fraudatrix can completely restore all organs and the whole body within several weeks after their division into two parts. Here, for the first time, a comparison of the content of different elements in seawater, sea cucumber, and its very stable multiprotein complex (2000 kDa) was performed using two-jet plasma atomic emission spectrometry. Among the 18 elements we found in sea cucumbers, seawater contained only six elements in detectable amounts, and their content decreased in the following order: Mg > Ca > B > Sr ≈ Si > Cr (0.13–930 µg/g of seawater). The content of these elements in sea cucumbers was higher compared with seawater (-fold): Ca (714) > Sr (459) > Cr (75) > Si (42)> B (12) > Mg (6.9). Only four of them had a higher concentration in the protein complex than in seawater (-fold): Si (120.0) > Cr (31.5) > Ca (9.1) > Sr (8.8). The contents of Mg and B were lower in the protein complex than in seawater. The content of elements additionally found in sea cucumbers decreased in the order (µg/g of powder) of P (1100) > Fe (47) > Mn (26) > Ba (15) > Zn (13) > Al (9.3) > Mo (2.8) > Cu (1.4) > Cd (0.3), and in the protein complex, in the order of P (290) > Zn (51) > Fe (23) > Al (14) ≈ Ni (13) > Cu (7.5) > Ba (2.5) ≈ Co (2.0) ≈ Mn (1.6) > Cd (0.7) >Ag (0.2). Thus, sea cucumbers accumulate various elements, including those contained in very low concentrations in seawater. The possible biological roles of these elements are discussed here.
... In addition, zinc is an essential element important for the normal growth and reproduction of animal. It's vital for the functions of more than 300 enzymes, for the stabilization of DNA and for gene expression and normal function of cell membranes [53] . Moreover, the increase in total serum globulins in the present experiment is mainly due to the increase in gamma globulins which well known that it's mainly composed from immunoglobulin. ...
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The present experiment was investigated to study the complementary effect of vitamin C and Zinc supplementation on some parameters related to the immune system in intact and ovariectomized rabbits. Twenty female rabbits (7-8 weeks) have been used in this study. Ten of them had been subjected to ovariectomy and the other ten were left with intact ovaries. After recovery from the operation and acclimatization, the rabbits were divided into four equal groups as follow: Group one (G1): Intact rabbits received distilled water. Group two (G2): Intact rabbits received complementary vitamin C and Zinc with the dose (10.166 mg/kg/B.W) orally and daily. Group three (G3): Ovariectomized rabbits received distilled water. Group four (G4): Ovariectomized rabbits received complementary vitamin C and Zinc. The daily supplementation of complementary vitamin C and Zinc induces a significant increase in total leukocytes (14.06 and 11.08 × 10 3 /mm 3) in both intact and ovariectomized rabbits respectively. Moreover, the Arneth , s index reveals a significant higher percentage of neutrophils of four and five lobes in both supplemented groups. The total percentage of mature cells was (27.9% and 14.1%) for G2 and G4 respectively in comparison with (9.0% and 8.3%) for G1 and G3 respectively. There is a significant increase in eosinophil's and lymphocytes percentages in Ovariectomized rabbits only. However, the result also revealed a significant increase in total protein and total gamma concentration in both intact and ovariectomized rabbits that supplemented with complementary vitamin C and Zinc. In conclusion, the results from this experiment confirm and for the first time that the complementary vitamin C and Zinc supplementation to rabbits has an important protective role on the immune system in ovariectomized rabbits. This supplementation can overcome the deleterious effect of ovariectomy and ovarian hormones deficiency on bodies' immunity.
... Moreover, vitamin C is required for regeneration of α-tocopherol, which may prevent LDL-C oxidation (Mawatari and Murakami, 2001). The results of the current study are documented by a previous findings (Frassinetti et al., 2006) who found that patients when treated with Zinc resulted in reduction of TC and TG and increase of HDL-C concentrations but did not decrease LDL-C concentration significantly which indicate that its treatment improved the individuals metabolic condition. Zinc plays an important role in the structure and function of biological membranes (Ortona et al., 2015). ...
Article
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This experiment was aimed to investigate the antioxidant effect of vit C and zinc on some metabolic disorders after ovariectomy. Twenty female rabbits 7-8 weeks of age were divided into four groups.G1andG2 were left with the intact ovaries while, G3 and G4 were subjected to ovariectomy of both ovaries. Vitamin C and zinc at at dose of 10.166mg/kg B.W was supplemented to G2 and G3 daily by stomach tube for 30 days. The results reveal a significant elevation in serum cholesterol in the ovariectomized groups(67.0 and 64.6) in comparison with the intact group(50.33 and 39.34) respectively. Vitamin C and zinc supplementation lowering serum cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-C and glucose level accompanied with elevating the HDL-C concentration. Moreover, the supplementation induces a significant decrease in serum level of cortisol, T3 and T4. The antioxidant effect of vitamin C and zinc and their vital role in metabolic had been discussed. In conclusion, this complementary antioxidant has an ameliorative effect against the metabolic disorder after ovariectomy. Keywords: metabolic disorder, ovariectomy, Vitamin C, Zinc.
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The utilization of materials in medical implants, serving as substitutes for non-functional biological structures, supporting damaged tissues, or reinforcing active organs, holds significant importance in modern healthcare, positively impacting the quality of life for millions of individuals worldwide. However, certain implants may only be required temporarily to aid in the healing process of diseased or injured tissues and tissue expansion. Biodegradable metals, including zinc (Zn), magnesium (Mg), iron, and others, present a new paradigm in the realm of implant materials. Ongoing research focuses on developing optimized materials that meet medical standards, encompassing controllable corrosion rates, sustained mechanical stability, and favorable biocompatibility. Achieving these objectives involves refining alloy compositions and tailoring processing techniques to carefully control microstructures and mechanical properties. Among the materials under investigation, Mg- and Zn-based biodegradable materials and their alloys demonstrate the ability to provide necessary support during tissue regeneration while gradually degrading over time. Furthermore, as essential elements in the human body, Mg and Zn offer additional benefits, including promoting wound healing, facilitating cell growth, and participating in gene generation while interacting with various vital biological functions. This review provides an overview of the physiological function and significance for human health of Mg and Zn and their usage as implants in tissue regeneration using tissue scaffolds. The scaffold qualities, such as biodegradation, mechanical characteristics, and biocompatibility, are also discussed.
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The discovery of new coordination compounds with anticancer properties is an active field of research due to the severe side effects of platinum-based compounds currently used in chemotherapy. In the search for new agents for the treatment of cancer, unsymmetrical N2O2-tetradentate ligand (H2L1 and H2L2) and their Ni(II) and Zn(II) asymmetric complexes (NiII-L1-2 and ZnII-L1-2) have been synthesized and fully characterized. 1H NMR studies revealed that the ligands and complexes were stable in mixtures of DMSO : D2O (9 : 1). Complementary UV-Vis studies confirmed that ZnII derivatives also exhibit high stability in mixtures DMSO : buffer (6 : 4) after 24 h. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies confirmed the molecular structures of H2L1, H2L2, NiII-L1, and NiII-L2. At the molecular level, complexes were completely planar without significant distortions of the square-planar geometry according to τ4 parameter. Furthermore, the crystalline structures revealed non-classical intermolecular interactions of the C-H⋯O and the Ni⋯Ni type. The ligands and complexes were screened against the human osteosarcoma (MG-63), human colon cancer (HCT-116), breast cancer (MDA-MB-231) cell lines, and non-cancerous cells (L929). H2L1 and H2L2 ligands not caused cytotoxic effects at a concentration of 100 μM, while NiII-L2, ZnII-L1, and ZnII-L2 complexes induce cytotoxic effects in all cell lines. NiII-L2 was a more active complex against MG-63 (3.9 ± 1.5) and HCT-116 (3.4 ± 1.7) cell lines with IC50 values in the low micromolar range. In addition, this compound was 10-, 5-, and 11-fold more potent than cisplatin in MG-63 (39 ± 1.8), HCT-116 (17.2), and MDA-MB-231 (131 ± 18), respectively. Three complexes exhibited great selectivity for tumoral cells with SI values ranging from 1.6 to 7.4.
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Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity. Several studies have investigated the relationship between trace element status, including copper status, and CVDs in population studies; however, there are controversies about the role of dietary copper and CVD. We aimed to review the association between dietary copper intake with CVD and this association's related factors by reviewing both animal models and human studies. Some animal model studies have reported a strong relationship between dietary copper intake and atherogenesis based on the possible molecular pathways, whilst other studies have not confirmed this relationship. Human studies have not revealed a relationship between CVDs and dietary copper intake, but there is uncertainty about the optimal amount of dietary copper intake in relation reducing the risk of CVDs. These associations may be influenced by ethnicity, gender, underlying co-morbidities and the methods used for its measurement.
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A novel Zn²⁺ ion and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) selective fluorescence turn-on sensor L was developed by reacting pyridoxal 5’-phosphate (PLP) with hydrazine. Sensor L shows significant flurescence enhancement at 476 nm due to the formation of a L-Zn²⁺ complex in 1:1 binding stoichiometry with the association constant of 3.1⋅10⁴ M− 1. Using L, the concentration of Zn²⁺ can be detected down to 2.34 µM, and the practical utility of L was validated by quantifying Zn²⁺ in real water samples. Additionally, the receptor L was applied to mimic the dephosphorylation reaction catalysed by the enzyme ALP and the resulted fluorescence change was monitored to detect the ALP activity.
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Zinc is a crucial micronutrient found in food that is essential for the development of all living organisms, it plays a vital role in gene expression and various physical processes, its deficiency can lead to disease onset and reduce crop yield, restrict plant development, and lower the quality of produced goods, zinc is also used in fertilizers and the handling of metals to protect them from oxidation. Additionally, Zinc is important in enhancing the human immune system, and its deficiency can result in hair loss, memory loss, skin disorders, and muscular weakness.
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Background: The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had a devastating impact on health systems, food supplies, and population health. This is the first study to examine the association between zinc and vitamin C intakes and the risk of disease severity and symptoms among COVID-19 patients. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 250 recovered COVID-19 patients aged 18-65 years from June to September 2021. Data on demographics, anthropometrics, medical history, and disease severity and symptoms were collected. Dietary intake was evaluated using a web-based, 168-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The severity of the disease was determined using the most recent version of the NIH COVID-19 Treatment Guidelines. Using multivariable binary logistic regression, the association between zinc and vitamin C intakes and the risk of disease severity and symptoms in COVID-19 patients was evaluated. Results: The mean age of participants in this study was 44.1 ± 12.1, 52.4% of them were female, and 46% had a severe form of the disease. Participants with higher zinc intakes had lower levels of inflammatory cytokines, such as C-reactive protein (CRP) (13.6 vs. 25.8 mg/l) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (15.9 vs. 29.3). In a fully adjusted model, a higher zinc intake was also associated with a lower risk of severe disease (OR: 0.43; 95% CI: 0.21, 0.90, P-trend = 0.03). Similarly, participants with higher vitamin C intakes had lower CRP (10.3 vs. 31.5 mg/l) and ESR serum concentrations (15.6 Vs. 35.6) and lower odds of severe disease after controlling for potential covariates (OR: 0.31; 95% CI: 0.14, 0.65, P-trend = <0.01). Furthermore, an inverse association was found between dietary zinc intake and COVID-19 symptoms, such as dyspnea, cough, weakness, nausea and vomiting, and sore throat. Higher vitamin C intake was associated with a lower risk of dyspnea, cough, fever, chills, weakness, myalgia, nausea and vomiting, and sore throat. Conclusion: In the current study, higher zinc and vitamin C intakes were associated with decreased odds of developing severe COVID-19 and its common symptoms.
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Herein we have discussed such important modified rhodamine compounds which have been used as chemosensors for the last 7-8 years. This review covered some chemosensors for the detection of metal ions like Al(III), Cu(II), Hg(II), Co(II), Fe(III), Au(III), Cr(III), and some anion like CN-. The selectivity, sensitivity, photophysical properties (i.e., UV-Vis spectral studies, fluorescence studies giving special emphasis to absorption wavelength in UV-Vis spectra and excitation and emission wavelength in fluorescence spectra), binding affinity, the limit of detection, and the application of those chemosensors are described clearly. Here we have also discussed some functionalized rhodamine-based chemosensors that emit in the near-infrared region (NIR) and can target lysosomes and detect lysosomal pH. Their versatile applicability in the medicinal ground is also delineated. We have focused on the photophysical properties of spirolactam rhodamine photoswitches and applications in single-molecule localization microscopy and volumetric 3D light photoactivable dye displays. The real-time detection of radical intermediates has also been exemplified.
Article
A novel fluorescence sensor (MT) was successfully designed and synthesized based on a [5]helicene derivative bearing tris(2-pyridylmethyl)amine as a selective zinc ion (Zn²⁺) recognition. MT allowed a favorable Zn²⁺-triggered “turn-on” hypsochromic fluorescence response through the intramolecular charge transfer process. The limit of detection of MT was 29 nM (1.91 ppb), which was considerably below the limit recommended by the World Health Organisation for the amount of Zn²⁺ in drinking water (76 μM). MT showed an excellent selectivity toward Zn²⁺ in HEPES buffer: MeOH (5 mM, pH 7.2, 3:2) over other competitive metal ions through a fluorogenic color change from orange to blue, which was easily observed with the naked-eye. The good fluorogenic sensing of the Zn²⁺ probe helped to determine a small amount of Zn²⁺ in practical utilization such as a Zn²⁺-marking agent for intracellular applications in human hepatoma (HepG2) and glioblastoma astrocytoma (U251) cells.
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Background: Zinc as a cofactor is effective in the function of many enzymes and is also essential for collagen synthesis and bone mineralization. Objectives: The current study aims to survey the effect of oral zinc supplementation on bone biomarkers (alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin) in rats in the experimental model of space exploration (simulated weightlessness). Methods: This was an experimental study. A laboratory model of space exploration for inducing weightlessness in rats was done by the Hindlimb suspension technic. Rats were randomly divided into 2 groups; group A (n=7) received daily zinc sulfate and group B (n=7) received daily placebo. Rats received the supplement or placebo for 30 days. The alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin were assessed in both groups at baseline and 30 days. Results: The microgravity simulation model of space exploration increased significantly alkaline phosphatase and decreased significantly osteocalcin in rats. Adding zinc sulfate to the diet has been effective in increasing the amount of alkaline phosphatase but has not shown a significant effect on the amount of osteocalcin reduction. Conclusion: According to current findings, it seems that Zinc administration did not have an effect on osteocalcin improvement but led to more rising of alkaline phosphatase in rats.
Article
A 3-formyl-chromone-appended zinc(II) intercalator drug candidate of the formulation [bis(chromone)(H 2O)2Zn(II)] was prepared as a potent anticancer agent and thoroughly characterized by multi-spectroscopic and single X-ray crystallographic studies. Preliminary binding studies of complex 1 with ct-DNA/tRNA were carried out employing various complementary biophysical techniques and the corroborative results of these experiments suggested strong binding propensity via intercalation binding mode towards ct-DNA/tRNA therapeutic targets, with higher preference for tRNA as quantified by binding constant { K b, K and K sv} parameters. The cleavage studies with pBR322 DNA were performed which implied that 1 cleaved the DNA by hydrolytic cleavage pathway which was further validated by T4 religation assay. Moreover, 1 was found to exhibit the tRNA cleavage behavior in a concentration and time-dependent manner. The cytotoxicity of complex 1 was evaluated against Huh-7, DU-145 and the PNT2 cell lines by MTT assay. A dose-dependent growth inhibition of the Huh-7 and DU-145 cells at low micromolar concentrations was observed and in another set of experiments, lipid peroxidation & glutathione (GSH) depletion were induced in the presence of the tested drug candidate. Interestingly, drug candidate 1 demonstrated selective cytotoxic activity for the DU-145 cancer cell line with LC50value of 3.2 μM which was further visualized by confocal microscopy.
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The OECD is currently harmonizing procedures for aquatic hazard identification of substances. Such a system already exists in Europe where it is recognized that special consideration must be given to sparingly soluble metals and metal compounds (SSMMCs) because standard hazard testing procedures designed for organic chemicals do not accommodate the characteristics of SSMMCs. Current aquatic hazard identification procedures are based on persistence, bioaccumulation, and toxicity (PBT) measurements. Persistence measurements typically used for organic substances (biodegradation) do not apply to metals. Alternative measurements such as complexation and precipitation are more appropriate. Metal bioaccumulation is important in terms of nutritional sufficiency and potential food chain transfer and toxicity. Unlike organic substances, metal bioaccumulation potential cannot be estimated using log octanol-water partition coefficients. Further, bioaccumulation and bioconcentration factors are often inversely related to exposure concentration for most metals and organisms, and hence are not reliable predictors of chronic toxicity or food chain accumulation. Metal toxicity is due predominately to the free metal ion in solution. In order to assess the toxicity of SSMMCs, the rate and extent of transformation to a soluble form must be measured.
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X-ray absorption spectroscopy is ideally suited for the investigation of the electronic structure and the local environment (approximately 5 A) of specific atoms in biomolecules. While the edge region provides information about the valence state of the absorbing atom, the chemical identity of neighboring atoms, and the coordination geometry, the extended x-ray absorption fine structure region contains information about the number and average distance of neighboring atoms and their relative disorder. The development of sensitive detection methods has allowed studies using near physiological concentrations (as low as approximately 100 microM). RNA polymerase from Escherichia coli contains two zinc atoms: one tightly bound in the beta' subunit, the subunit that participates in template binding, and the other loosely bound in the beta subunit, the subunit that participates in substrate binding. X-ray absorption studies of these zinc sites in the native protein and of the zinc site in the beta' subunit after removal of the zinc in the beta subunit site by p-(hydroxymercuri)benzenesulfonate (Giedroc, D. P., and Coleman, J. E. (1986) Biochemistry 25, 4969-4978) indicate that both zinc sites have octahedral coordination. The zinc in the beta' subunit site has four sulfur ligands at an average distance of 2.36 +/- 0.02 A and two oxygen (or nitrogen) ligands at an average distance of 2.23 +/- 0.02 A. The beta subunit zinc site has five sulfur ligands at an average distance of 2.38 +/- 0.01 A and one histidine nitrogen ligand at 2.14 +/- 0.02 A. These results are in general agreement with earlier biochemical and spectroscopic studies.
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This review critically summarizes the literature on the spectrum of health effects of zinc status, ranging from symptoms of zinc deficiency to excess exposure. Studies on zinc intake are reviewed in relation to optimum requirements as a function of age and sex. Current knowledge on the biochemical properties of zinc which are critical to the essential role of this metal in biological systems is summarized. Dietary and physiological factors influencing the bioavailability and utilization of zinc are considered with special attention to interactions with iron and copper status. The effects of zinc deficiency and toxicity are reviewed with respect to specific organs, immunological and reproductive function, and genotoxicity and carcinogenicity. Finally, key questions are identified where research is needed, such as the risks to human health of altered environmental distribution of zinc, assessment of zinc status in humans, effects of zinc status in relation to other essential metals on immune function, reproduction, neurological function, and the cardiovascular system, and mechanistic studies to further elucidate the biological effects of zinc at the molecular level.
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Millions of people worldwide suffer from nutritional imbalances of essential metals like zinc. These same metals, along with pollutants like cadmium and lead, contaminate soils at many sites around the world. In addition to posing a threat to human health, these metals can poison plants, livestock, and wildlife. Deciphering how metals are absorbed, transported, and incorporated as protein cofactors may help solve both of these problems. For example, edible plants could be engineered to serve as better dietary sources of metal nutrients, and other plant species could be tailored to remove metal ions from contaminated soils. We report here the cloning of the first zinc transporter genes from plants, the ZIP1, ZIP2, and ZIP3 genes of Arabidopsis thaliana. Expression in yeast of these closely related genes confers zinc uptake activities. In the plant, ZIP1 and ZIP3 are expressed in roots in response to zinc deficiency, suggesting that they transport zinc from the soil into the plant. Although expression of ZIP2 has not been detected, a fourth related Arabidopsis gene identified by genome sequencing, ZIP4, is induced in both shoots and roots of zinc-limited plants. Thus, ZIP4 may transport zinc intracellularly or between plant tissues. These ZIP proteins define a family of metal ion transporters that are found in plants, protozoa, fungi, invertebrates, and vertebrates, making it now possible to address questions of metal ion accumulation and homeostasis in diverse organisms.
Article
Two studies were completed to assess leptin levels during zinc deficiency-induced anorexia. Sprague-Dawley male rats were provided AIN-93-based diets made either adequate or deficient in zinc (30 or I mg Zn/kg diet) and provided tu +Zn. -Zn, and +Zn/pair-fed groups. Study 1: 30 rats were divided into -Zn (n=12), +Zn (n=6), and +Z/n/PF (n=12) groups. On d 19, 6 -Zn rats were repleted with -Zn diet for the final 2 d (REPL). On d 21, 6 +Zn PI rats were provided their final meal and the other 6 + Zn/PF rats had the linal meal withheld. Plasma ieptin levels ware lower in -Zn rats compared to +Zn rats and highest in the PF/fed and +Zn rats. Leptin levels as measured by RIA were: +Zn: 0.57 ab ug/mL; -Zn: 0.31 - ug/mL. REPL: 0.49 bc ug/mL; +Zn/PF/fed: 0.73 aug/mL; and +Zn/PF/tasted: 0.52 bcug/mL (different superscripts: p<0.05). Plasma glucose was lowest in the REPL rats and highest in the PF/fed rats Study 2: groups (n=4 ea.) of +Zn, -Zn, and +Zn/PF rats were maintained for 4. 9, and 28 d and fed using a 4 h meal-feeding protocol Serum leptin levels of +Zn/PF rats were reduced (p<0.05) compared to +Zn rats only at d 28, while on d 9 and 28, -Zn rats had Ieptin levels helms both +Zn and +Zn/PF groups (p<0.05). Low blood leptin levels have been correlated with increased hypothalamic Neuropeptide Y (NPY). The present data are consistent with prior finding that hypothalamic NPY levels are elevated during Zinc deficiency. Reduced Ieptin levels during Zinc deficiency suggest -Zn rats have reduced body fat compared to both +Zn and +Zn/PF rats; our attempts to obtain i.p. fat from -Zn rats support this suggestion. As ieptin receptor mRNAs have been found in reproductive tissues, reductions in circulating leptin levels may be one of the signals that contribute to the hypogonadism associated with zinc deficiency.
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For efficient detection and evaluation of environmental chemical mutagens, the assay procedures must be simple and inexpensive. By the use of microorganisms as the repair test, chemicals that damage DNA may be selected very quickly. These DNA-damaging chemicals are likely to be mutagenic and carcinogenic as well as efforts of chromosome aberrations. Recent developments in techniques and mutagen screening by the rec-assay system using recombination-proficient and -deficient strains of Bacillus subtilis are reviewed in this article.
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Bacterial systems have not had success predicting metal carcinogenicity. Hypotheses explaining this failure are examined. Using a broad genetic endpoint, λ prophage induction, under sub‐toxic growing conditions, genotoxicity is seen for compounds of chromium, manganese, lead, molybdenum and tungsten. Copper, manganese, arsenic and molybdenum compounds enhanced UV mutagenesis in E. coli WP2.The toxicity of metal compounds to cultured mammalian cells correlates well with rat oral LD50 values. Whereas insolubility can present problems in bacterial studies, concentrations of metal compounds toxic to mammalian cells can be determined even in the presence of precipitate, and sometimes [Pb(NO3)2, BaCl2 and BeCl2] occurs only in its presence. PbS and MnS, which are insoluble, are much more toxic than the more soluble compounds Pb(NO3)2 and MnCl2. These results demonstrate the importance of cellular phagocytosis of insoluble metal compounds as a factor in studying the toxicity and genotoxicity of metal compounds.
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Zinc is an indispensable trace element and is a constituent of more than 200 enzymes. It can assure the stability of biological molecules such as DNA, or biological structures such as membranes or ribosomes. It is not surprising, therefore, that, compared with zinc toxicity, zinc deficiency is a much more frequent risk. Few acute toxic effects have been ascribed to zinc and no long-term effects were found after single or prolonged exposure at doses below 1 g&sol;kg of food. Zinc is neither mutagenic nor carcinogenic, although its levels may influence tumor growth. Zinc appears not to be teratogenic but, on the contrary, deleterious action on zinc deficiency on the developing organisms is well documented.
Article
The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that prostatic cancer is associated with the changes of zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) concentration. Normal prostate, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and prostatic carcinoma (PCA) were analyzed for Zn and Cd by atomic absorption spectrometry. Cd level was measured using a graphite furnace and Zn level was measured by flame mode. Metal content was assessed in whole tissues and in nuclear, plasma membrane, and cytosolic fractions. An increase of Zn content in BPH, but a decrease in PCA as compared to normal tissue, was observed. Cd concentration appeared to be higher in BPH and PCA than in normal tissue. No correlation between Zn and Cd level was found in BPH specimens obtained from the same patients. Probability values ofp ≤0.05 were considered to indicate significant differences. Obtained results seem to support the hypothesis of Cd carcinogenicity and preventing function of Zn in prostatic cancer. Plasma membrane fraction corresponding to lysosomal, mitochondrial, and microsomal subcellular compartments are probably critical in Zn and Cd participation in human prostate neoplasms.
Article
Rabbit liver metallothionein-1 (Mr 6500), which contains zinc and/or cadmium ions, appears to scavenge free hydroxyl (•OH0 and superoxide (O2•) radicals produced by the xanthine/xanthine oxidase reaction much more effectively than bovine serum albumin (Mr 65 000) which was used as a control. Kinetic competition studies between metallothionein and either a spin trap for •OH or ferricytochrome c for O2 radicals gave bimolecular rate constants of the order of kOH/MT ≈ 1012 M−1·ss−1 and kO2/MT ≈ 5 · 105 M−1·s−1, respectively. The former value suggests that all 20 cysteine sulfur atoms are involved in this quenching process and that they all act in the diffusion control limit. The aerobic radiolysis of an aqueous solution of metallothionein, generating O2− and •OH radicals, induced metal ion loss and thiolate oxidation. These effects could be reversed by incubation of the irradiated protein with reduced glutathione and the appropriate bivalent metal ion. Metallothionein appears to be an extraordinarily efficient •OH radical scavenger even when compared to proteins 10–50-times its molecular weight. Moreover, hydroxyl radical damage to metallothionein appears to occur at the metal-thiolate clusters, which may be repaired in the cell by reduced glutathione. Metallothionein has the characteristics of a sacrificial but renewable cellular target for •OH-mediated cellular damage.
Article
An understanding of the role that amino acids play in the regulation of normal feeding behavior is rapidly emerging. For several years it has been recognized that extremes in dietary protein content and composition cause distortion in plasma amino acid patterns and depression in food consumption of experimental animals. More recently it has become apparent that normal shifts in plasma amino acid caused by food ingestion provide signals to the brain that aid in the control of feeding behavior. The signals or relevance may arise from the function of amino acids as neurotransmitters or as precursors for neurotransmitter synthesis. At least two neuronal systems, those utilizing the neurotransmitters 5-HT and the catechols, are involved in food intake control mechanisms. These same neurotransmitters are uniquely influenced by changes in brain availability of their amino acid precursors. That is, the synthesis of 5-HT and of the catechols is directly related to availability of the precursors Trp and Tyr, respectively, in the brain. Because of the nature of brain amino acid uptake mechanisms, brain free amino acid content is acutely sensitive to that in plasma. Therefore changes in the plasma amino acid pattern may influence activity in serotonergic and catecholaminergic neurons, which in turn provides the signals required for the animal to express the appropriate response to food. Based on these relationships among diet, plasma amino acids, and brain neurotransmitter formation, the animal allowed to select among dietary options may respond by altering either quantitative or qualitative aspects of food consumption. Current evidence suggests that shifts in plasma Trp relative to other large NAA and hence in brain Trp and 5-HT provide information required for the animal to alter food preference for regulation of protein consumption. Energy, or total quantitative food intake, appears to be influenced by shifts in plasma Tyr relative to other large NAA and consequent alteration in brain Tyr and brain catecholamine activity.
Article
The toxic concentration of different heavy metal salts was determined in normal stimulated human lymphocyte cultures and was found to be 3 X 10(-3), 1 X 10(-2) and 5 X 10(-4) for zinc chloride, lead acetate and cadmium chloride respectively. Furthermore 3 subtoxic doses of each salt (2, 10 and 100 times less than the toxic dose) were added to 48- and 72-h cultures at 0 h and 24 h after initiation. Chromosome preparations were made and 100 well spread metaphases from each culture were analysed for the presence of numerical and structural aberrations. The most common aberration found for all tested metal salts was the occurrence of chromosome fragments. Dicentric chromosomes were only recorded in lymphocyte cultures treated with the lowest concentration of zinc chloride (3 X 10(-5) M) added at time 0, regardless whether the cultures were fixed after 48 or 72 h.
Article
Metals have long been recognized as essential constituents of living systems, and one trace metal that has been studied extensively is zinc. In addition to serving a structural or catalytic role in numerous enzymes, zinc has been linked to certain key cellular and physiologic processes. For instance, zinc, accelerates wound healing, is involved in membrane stabilization, and is obligatory for nucleic acid synthesis. Aqueous zinc acetate injected i.p. prevented tumor growth in 50-70% of BDF male mice previously inoculated i.p. with L1210 leukemia cells. However, aqueous zinc acetate injected s.c. did not prevent tumor growth in AKR/J mice inoculated i.m. with BW5147 lymphatic cells. In the latter mice, only a small but statistically significant increase in mean survival was noted.
Article
The effects of divalent cations on mixing curves of synthetic polyribonucleotides in solution are described. Manganese and cadmium chlorides at 10(-3) M induce changes suggestive of base mispairing. MnCl2 induces mispairing in complexes formed between both poly(I) and poly(C,U) and poly(I) and poly(C,A) while CdCl2 affects base pairing between poly(I) and poly(C,U) only. By contrast, the chlorides of magnesium and zinc show no mispairing effects with either polymer pair. Manganese and cadmium are both reported carcinogens in animals while magnesium and zinc are not. The possibility that direct metal-nucleic acid interaction may be involved in metal carcinogenesis is discussed.
Article
Zinc deficiency impairs the metabolism of thyroid hormones, androgens, and above all growth hormones. In view of their important role in growth, it is not surprising to find growth disorders associated with zinc deficiency. Stunted growth linked to zinc deficiency is found during gestation, and also in the newborn and children up to adolescence. Depending on the country, 5-30% of children suffer from moderate zinc deficiency, responsible for small-for-age height. Zinc supplementation has proven effective in many studies, mainly in children where zinc deficiency has first been found. Finally, zinc supplementation makes it possible in certain cases to overcome resistance to growth hormone treatment.
Article
Intraperitoneal administration of zinc chloride (ZnCl2) to Swiss albino mice in vivo induced a significant (p less than or equal to 0.05) increase in the frequencies of chromosomal aberrations of the bone-marrow cells at all concentrations used following acute (7.5, 10, 15 mg/kg body weight) and chronic (2.0, 3.0 mg/kg body wt) treatment. The degree of clastogenicity was directly proportional to the concentrations (p less than or equal to 0.05, trend test) and indirectly to the period of treatment (p less than or equal to 0.05, ANOVA test). It induced a dose-dependent, statistically significant increase (Mann-Whitney U statistics, Student's t-test) in sperm-head abnormalities. The data designate ZnCl2 as a potent clastogen and as a toxic chemical at the concentrations used.
Article
Condensates of smoke from titanium dioxide/hexachloroethane and zinc/hexachloroethane pyrotechnic mixtures were investigated for their potential to produce genetic damage in the tester strains TA98, TA100, TA1535 and TA1537 of Salmonella typhimurium and in the mouse bone marrow micronucleus assay. Both smoke condensates contained several chlorinated hydrocarbons among which tetrachloroethylene, hexachloroethane, hexachlorobutadiene and hexachlorobenzene were identified by GC/MS. Condensate of smoke from titanium dioxide/hexachloroethane showed a dose-related positive response in the Salmonella assay with strains TA98 and TA100 in the absence of metabolic activation from rat liver S9 fraction. Both smoke condensates were negative in the micronucleus assay but produced a small but significant depression of erythropoietic activity. The results indicate that smoke condensate from titanium dioxide/hexachloroethane mixtures contains unidentified compound(s) that may be considered mutagenic in the Salmonella assay.
Article
Rats having received drinking water enriched with zinc (zinc acetate, 22.8 mmol/l) developed significantly more pulmonal metastases after an i.v. injection of 5 x 10(5) cultivated cells of a benzpyrene-induced sarcoma than receiving normal drinking water. Zinc ions seem to promote the emigration, implantation and outgrowth of circulating tumour cells.
Article
The purpose of this review is to consider whether an essential biochemical function of zinc (Zn) is to serve as an antioxidant. Zn has been shown to have an antioxidant role(s) in defined chemical systems. Two mechanisms have been elucidated; the protection of sulfhydryl groups against oxidation and the inhibition of the production of reactive oxygens by transition metals. Supraphysiological concentrations of Zn have antioxidant-like effects in organelle-based systems and isolated cell-based systems in vitro. Administration of pharmacological doses of Zn in vivo has a protective effect against general and liver-specific prooxidants. Dietary Zn deficiency causes increased susceptibility to oxidative damage in membrane fractions from some tissues suggesting that increased oxidative stress may be a small but significant component of the pathology observed in dietary Zn deficiency. However, the biochemical basis for Zn deficiency pathology remains unelucidated; critical antioxidant functions for Zn may still be uncovered.
Article
Human growth hormone (hGH) elicits a diverse set of biological activities including lactation that derives from binding to the prolactin (PRL) receptor. The binding affinity of hGH for the extracellular binding domain of the hPRL receptor (hPRLbp) was increased about 8000-fold by addition of 50 micromolar ZnCl2. Zinc was not required for binding of hGH to the hGH binding protein (hGHbp) or for binding of hPRL to the hPRLbp. Other divalent metal ions (Ca2+, Mg2+, Cu2+, Mn2+, and Co2+) at physiological concentrations did not support such strong binding. Scatchard analysis indicated a stoichiometry of one Zn2+ per hGH.hPRLbp complex. Mutational analysis showed that a cluster of three residues (His18, His21, and Glu174) in hGH and His188 from the hPRLbp (conserved in all PRL receptors but not GH receptors) are probable Zn2+ ligands. This polypeptide hormone.receptor "zinc sandwich" provides a molecular mechanism to explain why nonprimate GHs are not lactogenic and offers a molecular link between zinc deficiency and its association with altered functions of hGH.
Article
The genotoxicity of zinc was examined in 4 short-term mutagenicity assays. Zinc acetate produced dose-related positive responses in the L5178Y mouse lymphoma assay and an in vitro cytogenetic assay with Chinese hamster ovary cells, but was negative in the Salmonella mutation assay and did not induce unscheduled DNA synthesis in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. Zinc-2,4-pentanedione produced frameshift mutations in Salmonella tester strains TA1538 and TA98, but did not induce unscheduled DNA synthesis in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. The effect of ligand binding of zinc in the in vitro test systems is discussed.
Article
Using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA100 and TA98 tests have been carried out to detect the inhibitory activity of various trace elements on mutagenesis induced by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in the presence of a rat liver microsomal activation system. Several trace elements have shown significant modulating activity in both the strains, while a few show inhibition only in a particular strain. Among the most effective elements are copper, manganese, zinc and selenium, all of which exhibit an inhibition pattern which is dose-dependent. Copper, in particular, shows exceptional activity, since the molar excess dose of this element required to inhibit AFB1 mutagenicity by 50% has been observed to be very low. The action of trace elements is possibly mediated through interaction with microsomal enzymes, thereby modulating the formation of the reactive metabolite before modification of DNA. These results suggest that certain trace elements notably copper may have potential anticarcinogenic activity against AFB1.
Article
The effects of zinc oxide (ZnO) and zinc acetate (ZnAcet) administered i.m. together with nickel subsulfide (Ni3S2), a potent muscle carcinogen, were observed over 66 weeks in male F344/NCr rats. The rats (20/group) received a single injection of 2.5 mg Ni3S2 (equal to 31 mumol Ni) alone or combined with different molar proportions of ZnO or ZnAcet (8-60 mumol Zn) into both thighs. One more group of rats given i.m. Ni3S2 received s.c. ZnO (60 mumol Zn) at the nape of the neck. Control rats were treated with i.m. ZnO (60 mumol Zn) or the injection vehicle, water. In rats given Ni3S2 alone the incidence of local tumors reached 100% in 40 weeks. In rats treated locally with Ni3S2 + ZnO or ZnAcet, the tumor incidence at week 40 was only 40-60%; it reached 85-100% in 66 weeks, with no significant differences among the treatments. Treatment with i.m. Ni3S2 + s.c. ZnO resulted in 100% muscle tumors at week 58. One local tumor was found in rats given ZnO alone and none in the water injected animals. Statistical analysis revealed highly significant differences in the tumor occurrence rates between rats treated with Ni3S2 alone and rats treated with Ni3S2 combined with ZnO or ZnAcet, whereas the final tumor incidences at week 66 were not different. The first tumors were found at weeks 24-31 regardless of the treatment. Hence, administration of zinc slows the carcinogenic process induced by nickel. This effect has a systemic character and is produced by both water-soluble and insoluble zinc compounds despite their different retention times in the muscle. The half-lives of ZnO and ZnAcet in the muscle were approx. 24 days and 2.5 days, respectively; that of Ni3S2 was 21 days. Zinc in either form exerted no apparent influence upon the retention of nickel at the injection site and did not significantly affect the early local cellular reactions to nickel.
Article
Zinc is a common element in the human environment and constitutes an important trace element intervening in many biological processes. Toxicity of zinc is low; zinc deficiency represents, however, a hazard for human health. Zinc is not mutagenic and has little, if any, clastogenic properties. Zinc can induce tumours but only following local application, and does not represent a carcinogenic risk to man. It is still uncertain whether zinc can cause malignant transformation but zinc is needed for cellular proliferation of existing tumours and tumour growth is retarded by zinc deficiency. Zinc is not teratogenic; it can, in fact, avert teratogenicity of other agents. Conversely, zinc deficiency may be harmful to the developing organism.
Article
The mutagenic potential of 16 metal derivatives was studied with a new mutant of Salmonella typhimurium, the strain TA102 (Levin et al., 1983). Some of these compounds are known as carcinogens (As, Cr VI, Cd, Ni) or suspected carcinogens in man (Pb, Hg), others are known as non-carcinogens (Cr III, Al, Cu, Mn, Fe). Among these 16 derivatives, only the two Cr(VI) compounds are strong mutagens (K2Cr2O7 or K2CrO4).
Article
Mercuric acetate (Hg) together with either cadmium sulfate (Cd) or zinc sulfate (Zn) were administered intravenously to pregnant golden hamsters on the eighth gestation day in order to study their effects upon embryogenesis. Upon sacrifice on either Day 12 or 14 of gestation, the resorption and malformation rates were determined and all living embryos were scrutinized for gross malformations. Several generalizations can be made regarding these experiments. (1) The detrimental effects of the Hg + Cd combinations are much more severe than those of the Hg + Zn combinations. (2) With both combinations the severity of the embryotoxicity depends upon the method by which the metals are introduced and to some extent upon the dosage level of the Hg. (3) The protective value of Zn against the embryopathic effects of Hg is also determined by the method of administration of the two metals. (4) Both the types of malformations observed after the administration of either Cd or Hg alone are detected in the animals treated with Hg + Cd. (5) The Hg + Zn combinations produce only a few miscellaneous malformations. The results are briefly correlated with known biological actions of Cd, Hg, and Zn.
Article
The growth of P388 leukemia cells as an ascites tumor is markedly depressed in mice fed a zinc-deficient diet. Tritiated-thymidine labeling data suggest that zinc-deficient tumor cells accumulate in G1.
Article
The analysis of mitotic indices (MI) and chromosome breakages in metaphases of 50-hr lymphocyte cultures exposed to the calcium or zinc chelates of diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) demonstrated: (1) an 80% reduction in MI in cultures from three women but no reduction in those from two men after in vitro exposure to CaDTPA in concentrations as low as 10 micrograms/ml culture medium, and complete suppression of mitoses in cultures from men and women after exposure to 40 micrograms/ml CaDTPA; (2) minor suppression in MI in cultures from women and none in those from men after exposure to 40 or 80 micrograms/ml ZnDTPA; (3) no ring or dicentric chromosomes in 1700 metaphases from DTPA-treated cultures. Likewise, in other experiments we observed no differences in the frequency or distributions of rings and dicentrics in lymphocyte cultures from two persons after in vitro exposure to 250-R 60Co gamma radiation in the presence or absence of 10 micrograms/ml CaDTPA or 10 or 80 micrograms/ml ZnDTPA. These data indicate that while accurate estimates of the frequencies of radiation-induced rings and dicentrics in lymphocytes can be made in actinide-contaminated persons undergoing DTPA chelation therapy, blood samples for cytogenetic cultures should not be obtained from chelated patients until the compound has been cleared from the blood plasma.
Article
As part of our investigation into mutagenic effects of environmental compounds, we studied chemicals allowed as ingredients of cosmetics according to the guidelines of the Council of the European Communities (27 July 1976). We used three systems, the Salmonella/microsome test, the Basc test on Drosophila and the micronucleus test on mouse bone marrow. Of the 31 chemicals tested, 15 were mutagenic in the Ames test; and of these, 5 were also mutagenic in the Basc test and 2 in the micronucleus test.
Article
7 inorganic metal salts including magnesium chloride, cadmium chloride, nickel chloride, zinc chloride, cobalt(II) chloride, lead acetate, sodium arsenate, and the platinum coordination complex, trans-platinum(II) diaminedichloride, were tested for the potential to induce trifluorothymidine-resistant (TFTRes) mutants in L5178Y/TK+/- mouse lymphoma cell by directly exposing cells to varied doses of each compound for 3 h. Of these 8 chemicals, cadmium chloride, nickel chloride, and trans-platinum(II) diaminedichloride consistently produced dose-related increases in the absolute number of TFTRes mutants as well as increases in mutation frequencies at compound concentrations permitting greater than 20% survival. Trans-platinum(II) diaminedichloride was a particularly effective mutagen, comparable to the direct-acting mutagen, methyl methanesulfonate. 15 representative TFTRes mutant cell clones derived from cultures originally treated with either the cadmium, or nickel, or platinum compounds were first grown out for 7 days in nonselective medium, then verified as phenotypically stable TK-/- mutants by demonstrated cross-resistance to 5-bromodeoxyuridine and 100% sensitivity to the folate antagonist methotrexate in THMG medium. These results demonstrate that the soluble salts of 2 metals reported to be human carcinogens and 1 noble metal complex known to bind DNA are all mammalian cell mutagens as well.
Article
The mutagenic potential of zinc pyrithione (Znpt) was evaluated in vitro in the Salmonella/mammalian microsome plate incorporation mutagenicity (Ames) assay and the CHO/HGPRT gene mutation assay. The clastogenic potential of Znpt was evaluated in vivo using the mouse micronucleus test. Znpt was negative in the Ames test in five tester strains in the presence and absence of rat liver microsomal enzymes when assayed at concentrations ranging between 10 and 333 micrograms per plate and between 0.03 and 33 micrograms per plate, respectively. Znpt also produced negative results in the CHO/HGPRT assay. No significant increases in mutant frequencies were seen in the presence and absence of rat liver microsomal enzymes. In each case, the highest concentrations reduced cellular viability by 83% and 85%, respectively. Znpt also did not induce increased frequencies of micronuclei in mouse bone marrow cells when tested at the maximally tolerated dose (MTD) (44 mg kg-1). These data support the conclusion that Znpt lacks genotoxic activity under the conditions of these tests.
Article
The toxicity of cadmium with regard to the vegetative reproduction of duckweed, Lemna gibba, grown in sterile culture, was determined. The EC50 was found to be 800 ppb. Duckweed grown in 2.24 ppm cadmium (supplied as cadmium nitrate) for 7 days accumulated 98.5% of the available cadmium from the growth medium. Plants that had been grown for 7 days in 2.24 ppm cadmium and control plants were fed to red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, for 14 days. The concentrations of cadmium were measured in hepatopancreata and muscles of crayfish on Day 0 and in crayfish fed duckweed grown in cadmium for 14 days. Accumulation of this metal in hepatopancreata increased 26-fold, i.e., 176.80 ppb on Day 0 to 4657.56 ppb on Day 14, and in muscles almost 7-fold, i.e., 6.75 ppb on Day 0 to 46.28 ppb on Day 14. Crayfish fed cadmium-containing duckweed demonstrated inhibition (55% after 14 days of feeding) of acetylcholinesterase activity in their central nervous tissue compared to crayfish fed cadmium-free duckweed. The ovarian index and total lipids content in the ovaries of crayfish fed cadmium-containing duckweed demonstrated significant increases on Day 14.