Transgelin Functions as a Suppressor via Inhibition of ARA54-Enhanced Androgen Receptor Transactivation and Prostate Cancer Cell Growth

George Whipple Laboratory for Cancer Research, University of Rochester Medical Center, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Box 626, Rochester, New York 14642, USA.
Molecular Endocrinology (Impact Factor: 4.02). 03/2007; 21(2):343-58. DOI: 10.1210/me.2006-0104
Source: PubMed


The androgen receptor (AR) requires coregulators for its optimal function. However, whether AR coregulators further need interacting protein(s) for their proper function remains unclear. Here we describe transgelin as the first ARA54-associated negative modulator for AR. Transgelin suppressed ARA54-enhanced AR function in ARA54-positive, but not in ARA54-negative, cells. Transgelin suppressed AR transactivation via interruption of ARA54 homodimerization and AR-ARA54 heterodimerization, resulting in the cytoplasmic retention of AR and ARA54. Stable transfection of transgelin in LNCaP cells suppressed AR-mediated cell growth and prostate-specific antigen expression, whereas this suppressive effect was abolished by the addition of ARA54-small interfering RNA. Results from tissue surveys showing decreased expression of transgelin in prostate cancer specimens further strengthened the suppressor role of transgelin. Our findings reveal the novel mechanisms of how transgelin functions as a suppressor to inhibit prostate cancer cell growth. They also demonstrate that AR coregulators, like ARA54, might have dual in vivo roles functioning as both a direct coactivator and as an indirect mediator in AR function. The finding that a protein can modulate AR function without direct interaction with AR might provide a new therapeutic approach, with fewer side effects, to battle prostate cancer by targeting AR indirectly.

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Available from: Yu-Jia Chang, May 12, 2014
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    • "In addition to direct interaction with actin, transgelin may also influence cell phenotype by affecting gene regulation. This idea is based on transgelin's partial nuclear localization, its homology to transgelin 3, which has transcriptional regulatory activity [28], and other evidence [1, 25, 26]. To address the influence of transgelin on gene regulation in greater depth, we performed comprehensive gene expression profiling comparing low-and high-expressing RKO cells. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Transgelin is an actin-binding protein that promotes motility in normal cells. Although the role of transgelin in cancer is controversial, a number of studies have shown that elevated levels correlate with aggressive tumor behavior, advanced stage, and poor prognosis. Here we sought to determine the role of transgelin more directly by determining whether experimental manipulation of transgelin levels in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells led to changes in metastatic potential in vivo. Methods Isogenic CRC cell lines that differ in transgelin expression were characterized using in vitro assays of growth and invasiveness and a mouse tail vein assay of experimental metastasis. Downstream effects of transgelin overexpression were investigated by gene expression profiling and quantitative PCR. Results Stable overexpression of transgelin in RKO cells, which have low endogenous levels, led to increased invasiveness, growth at low density, and growth in soft agar. Overexpression also led to an increase in the number and size of lung metastases in the mouse tail vein injection model. Similarly, attenuation of transgelin expression in HCT116 cells, which have high endogenous levels, decreased metastases in the same model. Investigation of mRNA expression patterns showed that transgelin overexpression altered the levels of approximately 250 other transcripts, with over-representation of genes that affect function of actin or other cytoskeletal proteins. Changes included increases in HOOK1, SDCCAG8, ENAH/Mena, and TNS1 and decreases in EMB, BCL11B, and PTPRD. Conclusions Increases or decreases in transgelin levels have reciprocal effects on tumor cell behavior, with higher expression promoting metastasis. Chronic overexpression influences steady-state levels of mRNAs for metastasis-related genes.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2016 · BMC Cancer
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    • "Transgelin 2 was also proved to have relationship with hepatitis B and liver carcinoma. The oncogene Ras inhibits the expression of transgelin 2 genes in thoracic wall and large bowel neoplasm and some other cancers [12–16]. The inhibition effect on tumor cell proliferation of calycosin might be caused by upregulated transgelin 2 protein expression. "
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    ABSTRACT: We cocultured calycosin with human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (BEL-7402) to investigate the effect on cell proliferation. Calycosin can markedly block the cell growth in G 1 phase ( P < 0.01 ) on the IC 50 concentration. There were seventeen genes involved in cell-cycle regulation showing differentially expressed in treated cells detected by gene chip. Eight genes were upregulated and nine genes were downregulated. Downregulated TFDP-1, CDKN2D, and SPK2 and upregulated CDC2 and CCNB1 might affect cell cycle of tumor cells. Furthermore, we checked the transcription pattern using 2D gel method to find different expression of proteins in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells after exposure to calycosin. Fourteen proteins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Twelve proteins expression were increased such as transgelin 2, pyridoxine 5′-phosphate, stress-induced-phosphoprotein 1, peroxiredoxin 1, endoplasmic reticulum protein 29, and phosphoglycerate mutase 1. Only thioredoxin peroxidase and high-mobility group box1 proteins’ expression decreased. Both genes and proteins changes might be relate to the mechanism of antitumor effect under treatment of calycosin. In conclusion, calycosin has a potential effect to inhibit the BEL-7402 cell growth by inhibiting some oncogene expression and increasing anticancer genes expression, what is more, by blocking cell cycle.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013
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    • "Some of these proteins have been implicated in various aspects of tumorigenesis and these are hereby discussed. The CapG protein is important in the maintenance of cellular structure and morphology [48]–[55]. The overexpression of CapG in PC3-ML2 compared to PC3-N2 in this study would suggest that CapG can promote invasion and metastasis in prostate cancer. "
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    ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer is a clinically heterogeneous disease, ranging from indolent asymptomatic disease to very aggressive metastatic and life threatening forms of the disease. Distant metastasis represents the major lethal cause of prostate cancer. The most critical clinical challenge in the management of the patients is identifying those individuals at risk of developing metastatic disease. To understand the molecular mechanisms of prostate cancer metastasis and identify markers with metastatic potential, we have analyzed protein expression in two syngeneic prostate cancer cells lines PC3-N2 and PC3-ML2 using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation labeling and multi-dimensional protein identification technology liquid chromatography matrix assisted laser desorption ionization tandem mass spectrometry. PC3-N2 is lowly metastatic while PC3-ML2 highly metastatic. A total of 1,756 proteins were identified in the analyses with 130 proteins showing different expression levels (p<0.01) in the two cell lines. Out of these, 68 proteins were found to be significantly up-regulated while 62 are significantly down-regulated in PC3-ML2 cells compared with PC3-N2 cells. The upregulation of plectin and vimentin which were the most significantly differentially expressed were validated by Western blot and their functional relevance with respect to invasion and migration was determined by siRNA gene silencing. To our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate that up-regulation of vimentin and plectin expression positively correlates with the invasion and metastasis of androgen-independent PCA.
    Full-text · Article · May 2013 · PLoS ONE
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