Article

Calcium and Dairy Intakes of Adolescents Are Associated with Their Home Environment, Taste Preferences, Personal Health Beliefs, and Meal Patterns

Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis 55454, USA.
Journal of the American Dietetic Association (Impact Factor: 3.92). 11/2006; 106(11):1816-24. DOI: 10.1016/j.jada.2006.08.018
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

To identify correlates of calcium, dairy, and milk intakes among male and female adolescents.
Cross-sectional study design. Adolescents self-reported measures pertaining to correlates on the Project EAT (Eating Among Teens) survey and completed a food frequency questionnaire at school.
Subjects were a total of 4,079 middle and high school students from Minneapolis/St Paul, MN, public schools.
Multiple linear regression models based on social cognitive theory were examined by sex.
Male adolescents reported higher daily intakes of calcium (male: 1,217+/-663 mg; female: 1,035+/-588 mg; P<0.001), dairy servings (male: 2.9+/-1.9; female: 2.4+/-1.7; P<0.001), and milk servings (male: 2.0+/-1.5; female: 1.5+/-1.4; P<0.001) than female adolescents. Calcium intakes of male adolescents were significantly and positively related to availability of milk at meals, taste preference for milk, eating breakfast, higher socioeconomic status, and social support for healthful eating; intakes were significantly and inversely related to consumption of soft drinks and fast food. Among female adolescents, availability of milk at meals, taste preference for milk, eating breakfast, higher socioeconomic status, personal health/nutrition attitudes, and self-efficacy to make healthful food choices were significantly and positively related to intakes; intakes were significantly and inversely related to fast-food consumption. Models of calcium intake explained 71% of the variance in male adolescents and 72% of the variance in female adolescents.
Multicomponent interventions with a focus on the family environment are likely to be most effective in increasing calcium intakes among adolescents.

2 Followers
 · 
15 Reads
  • Source
    • "White milk intake contributes 21% of dietary calcium intake and 54% of vitamin D intake in children (Nicklas et al. 2013). Between 35% and 40% of children's daily nutritional needs are met at school and therefore, a healthy school food environment is crucial to encourage the development of healthy eating habits (Larson et al. 2006). Flavoured milk (FM) provides an option for meeting the recommended intake of milk and alternatives. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Studies in the United States report inclusion of flavoured milk in the diets of children and youth improves nutrient intakes. No research has investigated the contribution of flavoured milk to overall milk intake or the milk preferences of Canadian children. The objective of the study was to measure milk consumption (plain milk and flavoured milk) by children in an elementary school environment and investigate factors contributing to milk choice. A mixed-method research design was applied across 6 schools for 12 weeks. Milk waste was measured in grades 1-8 for 12 weeks. Weeks 1-4 (phase 1) and 9-12 (phase 3) provided both plain milk and flavoured milk as chocolate milk while weeks 5-8 (phase 2) provided plain milk only. Beverage Frequency Questionnaires were used in each phase (in grades 5-8 only) to assess usual beverage consumption. Statistical nutrient modelling was conducted to determine the effects of removing chocolate milk during phase 2 as a milk choice. Later, focus groups were conducted with students in grades 5-8 to determine what influences them to choose/not choose to drink milk. Total milk intake decreased by 12.3% when chocolate milk was removed from the schools (26.6% ± 5.2% to 14.31% ± 1.6%, p < 0.001). Milk choice was influenced by environmental factors as well as taste, cost, convenience, and variety. Total milk intake was associated with location (p = 0.035) and cost (p < 0.001), with rural students and/or those students receiving free milk drinking the greatest amount of milk. Nutrient modelling revealed chocolate milk is more cost-efficient and convenient at providing nutrients than alternative food/drink combinations.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Applied Physiology Nutrition and Metabolism
  • Source
    • "It was found that male LP allele carriers exhibited significantly increased BMI, FMI, leg adiposity, trunk adiposity, and waist circumference, whereas none of these associations were significant in females. Other groups have similarly confirmed a significantly lower dairy consumption in females when compared to males in adolescent cohorts (Larson et al. 2006).When considering that girls consumed less lactose than boys, it could be possible that the association between LP allele and adiposity measures responds to a potential threshold effect of lactose consumption that was not achieved for girls in our sample. This explanation, although potentially feasible, will require further scientific investigation that goes above and beyond the scope of this study. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hypertension and dyslipidemia have traditionally been associated with dietary sodium and fat intakes, respectively; however, they have recently been associated with the consumption of added sugars in adults and older adolescents, but there is no clear indication of how early in the life span this association manifests. This study explored the cross-sectional association between added sugar (sugars not naturally occurring in foods) consumption in children, blood pressure (BP), and fasting blood lipids [triglycerides and total, low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol]. BP, blood lipids, and dietary intakes were obtained in a multiethnic pediatric sample aged 7-12 y of 122 European American (EA), 106 African American (AA), 84 Hispanic American (HA), and 8 mixed-race children participating in the Admixture Mapping of Ethnic and Racial Insulin Complex Outcomes (AMERICO) study-a cross-sectional study conducted in the Birmingham, AL, metro area investigating the effects of racial-ethnic differences on metabolic and health outcomes. Multiple regression analyses were performed to evaluate the relations of added sugars and sodium intakes with BP and of added sugars and dietary fat intakes with blood lipids. Models were controlled for sex, race-ethnicity, socioeconomic status, Tanner pubertal status, percentage body fat, physical activity, and total energy intake. Added sugars were positively associated with diastolic BP (P = 0.0462, β = 0.0206) and serum triglycerides (P = 0.0206, β = 0.1090). Sodium was not significantly associated with either measure of BP nor was dietary fat with blood lipids. HA children had higher triglycerides but lower added sugar consumption than did either the AA or EA children. The AA participants had higher BP and HDL but lower triglycerides than did either the EA or HA children. These data suggest that increased consumption of added sugars may be associated with adverse cardiovascular health factors in children, specifically elevated diastolic BP and triglycerides. Identification of dietary factors influencing cardiovascular health during childhood could serve as a tool to reduce cardiovascular disease risk. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00726778.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
  • Source
    • "It was found that male LP allele carriers exhibited significantly increased BMI, FMI, leg adiposity, trunk adiposity, and waist circumference, whereas none of these associations were significant in females. Other groups have similarly confirmed a significantly lower dairy consumption in females when compared to males in adolescent cohorts (Larson et al. 2006).When considering that girls consumed less lactose than boys, it could be possible that the association between LP allele and adiposity measures responds to a potential threshold effect of lactose consumption that was not achieved for girls in our sample. This explanation, although potentially feasible, will require further scientific investigation that goes above and beyond the scope of this study. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Childhood obesity is a worldwide health concern with a multifaceted and sometimes confounding etiology. Dairy products have been implicated as both pro- and anti-obesogenic, perhaps due to the confounding relationship between dairy, lactose consumption, and potential genetic predisposition. We aimed to understand how lactase persistence influenced obesity-related traits by observing the relationships among lactose consumption, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) near the lactase (LCT) gene and body composition parameters in a sample of multiethnic children (n = 296, 7-12 years old). We hypothesized that individuals with the lactase persistence (LP) allele of the LCT SNP (rs4988235) would exhibit a greater degree of adiposity and that this relationship would be mediated by lactose consumption. Body composition variables were measured using dual X-ray absorptiometry and a registered dietitian assessed dietary intake of lactose. Statistical models were adjusted for sex, age, pubertal stage, ethnic group, genetic admixture, socio-economic status, and total energy intake. Our findings indicate a positive, significant association between the LP allele and body mass index (p = 0.034), fat mass index (FMI) (p = 0.043), and waist circumference (p = 0.008), with associations being stronger in males than in females. Our results also reveal that lactose consumption is positively and nearly significantly associated with FMI.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · Genes & Nutrition
Show more