Article

Medicine - Grapes versus gluttony

University of Washington Seattle, Seattle, Washington, United States
Nature (Impact Factor: 41.46). 12/2006; 444(7117):280-1. DOI: 10.1038/nature05308
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

A compound found in red grapes called resveratrol improves the health and lifespan of mice on a high-calorie diet. This is potentially good news for overweight humans. Does it bode well for the rest of us too?

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Available from: Matt Kaeberlein
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    • "In addition, ROS formation may have adverse consequences that contribute to mitochondrial dysfunction and induce IR [5]. Because RES is well known for its antioxidant properties [12], we postulate that it protects the mitochondria by targeting the mitochondrial respiratory chain and antioxidant enzymes, thereby improving insulin sensitivity in the CUG model. "

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    • ", has realized the absence of any effective therapy for mitochondrial diseases, but it also mentioned several interesting reports. They were the reports about coenzyme Q10, creatine, dichloroacetic acid (DCA), and dimethylglycine as the therapeutic materials but the results were controversial [7] [8]. However, some clinical trials, such as coenzyme Q10 for mitochondrial diseases, DCA for MELAS, and idebenone for Leber hereditary optic neuropathy are still on going. "

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    • "In addition, ROS formation may have adverse consequences that contribute to mitochondrial dysfunction and induce IR [5]. Because RES is well known for its antioxidant properties [12], we postulate that it protects the mitochondria by targeting the mitochondrial respiratory chain and antioxidant enzymes, thereby improving insulin sensitivity in the CUG model. "
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    ABSTRACT: Caloric restriction followed by refeeding, a phenomenon known as catch-up growth (CUG), affects mitochondrial function and results in systemic insulin resistance (IR). We investigated the potential of resveratrol (RES) in CUG to prevent IR by increasing activity of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and antioxidant enzymes in skeletal muscle. Rats (8 weeks of age) were divided into 3 groups: normal chow, CUG, and CUG with RES intervention. Skeletal muscle and systemic IR were measured in each group after 4 and 8 weeks. Mitochondrial biogenesis and function, oxidative stress levels, and antioxidant enzyme activity in skeletal muscle were assessed. Catch-up growth-induced IR resulted in significant reductions in both average glucose infusion rate(60-120) at euglycemia and skeletal muscle glucose uptake. Mitochondrial citrate synthase activity was lower; and the activity of complexes I to IV in the intermyofibrillar and subsarcolemmal (SS) mitochondria were reduced by 20% to 40%, with the decrease being more pronounced in the SS fraction. Reactive oxygen species levels were significantly higher in intermyofibrillar and SS mitochondria, whereas activities of antioxidant enzymes were decreased. Oral administration of RES, however, increased silent information regulator 1 activity and improved mitochondrial number and insulin sensitivity. Resveratrol treatment decreased levels of reactive oxygen species and restored activities of antioxidant enzymes. This study demonstrates that RES protects insulin sensitivity of skeletal muscle by improving activities of mitochondrial complexes and antioxidant defense status in CUG rats. Thus, RES has therapeutic potential for preventing CUG-related metabolic disorders.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2011 · Metabolism: clinical and experimental
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