Sleep and the metabolic syndrome
Cardiovascular/Metabolic Diseases, Pfizer Global Research & Development, Eastern Point Road, MS 8260-2506, Groton, CT 06340, USA.Experimental Physiology (Impact Factor: 2.67). 02/2007; 92(1):67-78. DOI: 10.1113/expphysiol.2006.033787
The metabolic syndrome represents a clustering of several interrelated risk factors of metabolic origin that are thought to increase cardiovascular risk. It is still uncertain whether this clustering results from multiple underlying risk factors or whether it has a single cause. One metabolic abnormality that may underlie several clinical characteristics of the metabolic syndrome is insulin resistance. This review discusses the evidence that sleep disturbances (obstructive sleep apnoea, sleep deprivation and shift work) may independently lead to the development of both insulin resistance and individual clinical components of the metabolic syndrome. The converse may also be true, in that metabolic abnormalities associated with the metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance may potentially exacerbate sleep disorders. The notion that sleep disturbances exert detrimental metabolic effects may help explain the increasing prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in the general population and may have important implications for population-based approaches to combat the increasing epidemic of metabolic and cardiovascular disease.
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[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background/objectives: Metabolic deregulations and development of metabolic syndrome may be an important pathway underlying the relationship between stress and cardiovascular disease. We aim to estimate the effect of a comprehensive range of psychosocial factors on the risk of developing metabolic syndrome in men and women. Methods: The study population consisted of 3621 men and women from the Copenhagen City Heart Study who were free of metabolic syndrome at baseline and reexamined after 10years. The data was analyzed by multivariable logistic regression models adjusted for age, education, income, menopausal status and life style factors. Results: We found major life events in adult life (OR 1.48, 95% CI 0.93 to 2.36) and major life events at work (OR 2.75, 95% CI 1.38 to 5.50), lacking a confidant (OR 1.94, 95% CI 1.07 to 3.53) and dissatisfaction with social network (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.11 to 2.11) to be risk factors for developing the metabolic syndrome in women, while vital exhaustion (OR 2.09, 95% CI 0.95 to 4.59) and intake of sleep medications (OR 2.54, 95% CI 0.92 to 5.96) may play a more important role in men. Conclusions: Experiencing major life events in work and adult life and/or dysfunctional social networks is a risk factor for metabolic syndrome in women, and stress reactions such as vital exhaustion and intake of sleep medications may play a more important role in the development of metabolic syndrome men.
- "This finding supports the considerable, although inconclusive evidence, suggesting that sleep disturbances exert detrimental metabolic effects by e.g. impairing glucose metabolism thereby increasing the risk of developing insulin resistance and diabetes, or by leading to increases in appetite and consequent weight gain [31,32]. "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between short sleep duration and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors including hypertension, diabetes, obesity and lipid profile among various ethnic groups (South Asian Surinamese, African Surinamese, Ghanaians, Turks, Moroccans and the Dutch) living in the Netherlands. The contribution of social economic status (SES) and lifestyle factors were also examined to this association. Method: A total of 12,805 participants (aged 18-70 years) from the multi-ethnic Healthy Life in an Urban Setting (HELIUS) cohort. Short sleep duration was defined as <7 h/night. The association between short sleep and CVD risk factors, along with the contribution of SES and lifestyle factors, was assessed using prevalence ratios (PRs). Results: Short sleep was significantly associated with obesity in four out of six ethnic groups, with the socio-demographic-adjusted PR of 1.45 (95% CI, 1.07-1.95) in the Dutch, 1.21 (1.01-1.44) in South Asian Surinamese, 1.25 (1.09-1.43) in African Surinamese and 1.16 (1.04-1.29) in Turks. Short sleep was significantly associated with diabetes in African Surinamese (1.45, 1.14-1.84), Turks (1.59, 1.26-2.02) and Moroccans (1.29, 1.02-1.63). By contrast, the associations between other cardiovascular risk factors and short sleep were not significant in most ethnic groups, with the exception of the association with hypertension in the Dutch and Turks, and dyslipidaemia in South Asian Surinamese (reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride) and Moroccans (raised total cholesterol). SES and lifestyle factors contributed little to the observed associations. Conclusion: The findings indicate that short sleep is associated with obesity and diabetes in most ethnic groups. The associations for other risk factors vary between ethnic groups. Further studies are warranted to establish the potential factors that might lead to the observed differences across populations.
- "There was no significant association (except in few ethnic groups) for other risk factors (hypertension and lipids). This seems to suggest that apart from known proposed biological mechanisms linking short sleep and hypertension and lipids [15,5354555657, a different unidentified or non-biological mechanism may be involved. Although these mechanisms might drive the association between short sleep and obesity/diabetes, the association between short sleep and obesity/diabetes are rather consistent across groups, though in some groups, there were no associations. "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between night work and cardiovascular diseases among wage workers in Korea. The study was based on the 3rd Korean Working Conditions Survey (KWCS; 2011). This study included 29,711 wage workers. We used the chi-squared test and logistic regression to examine the association between cardiovascular diseases and night work and cumulative night work. Among all of the paid workers, 12.5% reported doing night work ≥ 1 day per month. Night work was significantly associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (odds ratio [OR] 1.58, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11-2.25). Also, compared to the group that did not do night works, the group with higher cumulative night work demonstrated an increased risk for cardiovascular diseases (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.19-2.74). This study suggests that night work is significantly associated with cardiovascular diseases.
- "Such changes in the chronobiological pattern in the human body disrupt the normal circadian rhythms of blood pressure, which drops at night and increases in the morning . In other words, shift work converts the changes of blood pressure in a day from a dipper to non-dipper pattern [23,24]. "Dipper" here refers to the drop of nighttime blood pressure by more than 10% of the average mean arterial pressure. "