Article

Sleep and the metabolic syndrome

Cardiovascular/Metabolic Diseases, Pfizer Global Research & Development, Eastern Point Road, MS 8260-2506, Groton, CT 06340, USA.
Experimental Physiology (Impact Factor: 2.67). 02/2007; 92(1):67-78. DOI: 10.1113/expphysiol.2006.033787
Source: PubMed
ABSTRACT
The metabolic syndrome represents a clustering of several interrelated risk factors of metabolic origin that are thought to increase cardiovascular risk. It is still uncertain whether this clustering results from multiple underlying risk factors or whether it has a single cause. One metabolic abnormality that may underlie several clinical characteristics of the metabolic syndrome is insulin resistance. This review discusses the evidence that sleep disturbances (obstructive sleep apnoea, sleep deprivation and shift work) may independently lead to the development of both insulin resistance and individual clinical components of the metabolic syndrome. The converse may also be true, in that metabolic abnormalities associated with the metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance may potentially exacerbate sleep disorders. The notion that sleep disturbances exert detrimental metabolic effects may help explain the increasing prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in the general population and may have important implications for population-based approaches to combat the increasing epidemic of metabolic and cardiovascular disease.

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    • "This finding supports the considerable, although inconclusive evidence, suggesting that sleep disturbances exert detrimental metabolic effects by e.g. impairing glucose metabolism thereby increasing the risk of developing insulin resistance and diabetes, or by leading to increases in appetite and consequent weight gain [31,32]. "
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    • "There was no significant association (except in few ethnic groups) for other risk factors (hypertension and lipids). This seems to suggest that apart from known proposed biological mechanisms linking short sleep and hypertension and lipids [15,5354555657, a different unidentified or non-biological mechanism may be involved. Although these mechanisms might drive the association between short sleep and obesity/diabetes, the association between short sleep and obesity/diabetes are rather consistent across groups, though in some groups, there were no associations. "
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    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Sleep Medicine
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    • "Such changes in the chronobiological pattern in the human body disrupt the normal circadian rhythms of blood pressure, which drops at night and increases in the morning [22]. In other words, shift work converts the changes of blood pressure in a day from a dipper to non-dipper pattern [23,24]. "Dipper" here refers to the drop of nighttime blood pressure by more than 10% of the average mean arterial pressure. "
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