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The effects of music tempo and loudness level on treadmill exercise

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Abstract

This study examined the effects of loudness and tempo of background music on exercise performance. A total of 30 volunteers performed five 10-min exercise sessions on a treadmill. The music listened to whilst exercising was either fast/loud, fast/quiet, slow/loud, slow/quiet or absent. Measures of running speed, heart rate, perceived exertion and affect were taken. Significant effects and interactions were found for running speed and heart rate across the different music tempo and loudness levels. More positive affect was observed during the music condition in comparison to the 'no music' condition. No significant differences for perceived exertion were found across conditions. These results confirm that fast, loud music might be played to enhance optimal exercising, and show how loudness and tempo interact.

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... Loud music has also been documented to increase psychological arousal and alertness [17]. Pertaining to exercise, loud/intense music has been shown to produce greater ergogenic effects compared to soft/sedative music and no music [18,19]. Edworthy et al. showed that loud/fast music resulted in faster running speeds and HR compared to soft and no music [18]. ...
... Pertaining to exercise, loud/intense music has been shown to produce greater ergogenic effects compared to soft/sedative music and no music [18,19]. Edworthy et al. showed that loud/fast music resulted in faster running speeds and HR compared to soft and no music [18]. Supporting this further, Karageorghis et al. showed that loud/fast music resulted in improved grip strength [19]. ...
... Also, a "no music" control was not included in the current study design which has been widely used in music preference research previously [2]. This was due to the already wide array of studies showing loud, fast, or preferred music to be ergogenic compared to no music [2,9,[11][12][13]18,20]. Therefore, the reader is cautioned in their interpretation that only differences in volume preference, not the presence of music, were compared. ...
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The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of preferred versus non-preferred music volume on relative power output, trial time to completion (TTC), heart rate (HR), rate of perceived exertion (RPE), and motivation during endurance rowing exercise. Physically active females (age 18–25) volunteered to participate. In a crossover counterbalanced design, participants completed two trials: non-preferred (NPV) and preferred (PV) music volume. Participants began with a rowing warm-up at 50% of HRmax for 5 min. Following this, participants completed a 2000 m rowing time trial as quickly as possible. Relative power output, HR, and RPE were documented each minute during the exercise bout. TTC and motivation levels were documented at the cessation of exercise. Results showed that there were no significant differences between NPV and PV for relative power output (p = 0.287; d = 0.17), TTC (p = 0.816; d = 0.01), and HR (p = 0.956; d = 0.08). However, RPE was significantly lower (p = 0.002; d = 0.86) and motivation was significantly higher (p < 0.001; d = 2.14) during the PV condition versus NPV. Findings suggest that while PV does not impart performance-enhancing effects during endurance exercise compared to NPV, it may improve psychological responses related to intensity and effort which could have important implications for enduring intense exercise and training.
... Baumgartner's study [36] demonstrated that it is possible to increase the stride frequency of subjects by 5% to 10% by carrying a sound stimulus at a constant tempo, although the sound stimulus was constant beeps emitted by a clock that was unmotivating and even stressful for the runners. Numerous studies have demonstrated the importance of music as a tool that favors the motivation of athletes and consequently their performance [28,29,46,47]. ...
... Listening to music during running has different effects on both running speed and heart rate [46,48,49]. It also improves performance [46,47], and interactions with tempo music are associated with different performance benefits [29] such as lengthening the time to exhaustion, accelerating the rate of post-exercise recovery [20,24], and increasing work time [48,49]. ...
... Listening to music during running has different effects on both running speed and heart rate [46,48,49]. It also improves performance [46,47], and interactions with tempo music are associated with different performance benefits [29] such as lengthening the time to exhaustion, accelerating the rate of post-exercise recovery [20,24], and increasing work time [48,49]. Depending on the style of music used, different benefits can be achieved [47]. ...
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The number of participants in popular races has increased in recent years, with most of them being amateurs. In addition, it has been observed that there is a high percentage of injuries among them, and some of these injuries may be related to a low stride frequency. The aim of this research was to check if a continuous running training program with a musical base improves the stride frequency of popular runners. For this purpose, the effect of a 6 week continuous running training program with the help of a musical track with a constant rhythm that was 10% higher than the preferred stride frequency of the subjects was analyzed and compared to a control group that performed the continuous running training without sound stimuli. Significant increases were found in the evolution of stride frequency in the experimental group between the pre- and post-test (p = 0.002). No significant changes were observed in the stride frequency of the control group. These results show that training with music feedback helps to improve stride frequency in recreational runners. Future research should study the evolution of the improvement obtained in time as it is unknown if the increase in stride rate has been integrated in the runner’s technique, making the improvement obtained permanent. Future research is needed to confirm these results by enlarging the sample and carrying out an exhaustive biomechanical study.
... Research has explored music use as a motivational device in sports and exercise, primarily to enhance performance. Studies have considered its effects on intensity (Edworthy & Waring, 2006;Waterhouse, Hudson & Edwards, 2010) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) (Dyrland & Wininger, 2008;Terry, et al., 2012), as well as affect (Bird, et al., 2016;Edworthy & Waring, 2006;Terry et al., 2012) and strength (Biagini, et al., 2012;Razon, et al., 2009), with favorable results. Karageorghis and Priest, in their review of the field (2012a), note that listening to music during repetitive-movement endurance exercise reduces perceived exertion, increases output and improves affect. ...
... Research has explored music use as a motivational device in sports and exercise, primarily to enhance performance. Studies have considered its effects on intensity (Edworthy & Waring, 2006;Waterhouse, Hudson & Edwards, 2010) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) (Dyrland & Wininger, 2008;Terry, et al., 2012), as well as affect (Bird, et al., 2016;Edworthy & Waring, 2006;Terry et al., 2012) and strength (Biagini, et al., 2012;Razon, et al., 2009), with favorable results. Karageorghis and Priest, in their review of the field (2012a), note that listening to music during repetitive-movement endurance exercise reduces perceived exertion, increases output and improves affect. ...
... These would be majorly contributed by the rhythm and tempo within the music. Similarly, Edworthy and Waring (2006) found that tempo affected speed of walking or running on a treadmill. Waterhouse, Hudson & Edwards (2010) found that participants increased their intensity on a stationary bike when tempo was increased by a small amount and that faster music was enjoyed more. ...
... Many studies have shown the beneficial effects of music on sport-specific performance, particularly during aerobic events [9][10][11]. The use of music as an ergogenic aid may enhance performance by influencing exercise intensity (i.e., running speed and heart rate) and rating of perceived effort (RPE) [9,11,12]. ...
... Many studies have shown the beneficial effects of music on sport-specific performance, particularly during aerobic events [9][10][11]. The use of music as an ergogenic aid may enhance performance by influencing exercise intensity (i.e., running speed and heart rate) and rating of perceived effort (RPE) [9,11,12]. In addition, Karageorghis et al. [12] reported that the careful application of music can lead to a number of benefits that include lower perceived exertion (RPE), greater energy efficiency, and faster time trial performances. ...
... RPE as a marker of subjective perception of effort during exercise is thought to be part of a regulatory motor program that incorporates a number of physiological parameters and psychological and affective components [15]. Accordingly, Edworthy and Warring [11] reported that listening to fast music during exercise may lower RPE by directing attention away from physical fatigue toward music, which seems to allow athletes to sustain higher exercise intensity. Lima-Silva et al. [16] suggested that the manipulation of external cues, such as music, is able to modify RPE during exercise and consequently it may influence the adopted pacing strategy and performance level. ...
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Several studies have investigated the effects of music on both submaximal and maximal exercise performance at a constant work-rate. However, there is a lack of research that has examined the effects of music on the pacing strategy during self-paced exercise. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of preferred music on performance and pacing during a 6 min run test (6-MSPRT) in young male adults. Twenty healthy male participants volunteered for this study. They performed two randomly assigned trials (with or without music) of a 6-MSPRT three days apart. Mean running speed, the adopted pacing strategy, total distance covered (TDC), peak and mean heart rate (HRpeak, HRmean), blood lactate (3 min after the test), and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured. Listening to preferred music during the 6-MSPRT resulted in significant TDC improvement (?10%; p = 0.016; effect size (ES) = 0.80). A significantly faster mean running speed was observed when listening to music compared with no music. The improvement of TDC in the present study is explained by a significant overall increase in speed (main effect for conditions) during the music trial. Music failed to modify pacing patterns as suggested by the similar reversed “J-shaped” profile during the two conditions. Blood-lactate concentrations were significantly reduced by 9% (p = 0.006, ES = 1.09) after the 6-MSPRT with music compared to those in the control condition. No statistically significant differences were found between the test conditions for HRpeak, HRmean, and RPE. Therefore, listening to preferred music can have positive effects on exercise performance during the 6-MSPRT, such as greater TDC, faster running speeds, and reduced blood lactate levels but has no effect on the pacing strategy.
... Music has been well described to mediate arousal during exercise [44]. Indeed, inherent characteristics of music, such as high tempo and volume, have been implicated to mediate increases in arousal with concomitant increases in performance [45]. Changes in arousal while listening to music are not fully understood, but have been shown in imaging studies to manifest in particular brain regions involved in emotion and affective responses. ...
... We attributed the lack of differences in performance to the possible standardization of tempo for the music. Previous evidence has shown that tempos >120 bpm can be considered "stimulative" for exercise performance and both preferred and non-preferred music met these tempo criteria [45]. Furthermore, music in itself may have less of an effect on sprint performance due to the maximal nature of the exercise. ...
Article
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Listening to music has been repeatedly shown to have ergogenic benefits during various modes of exercise, including endurance, sprint, and resistance-based activities. Music is commonly incorporated into training regimens by recreational exercisers and competitive athletes alike. While specific modalities of exercise elicit varying physiological responses, listening to music has been shown to modulate many of these responses (i.e., heart rate, catecholamines, muscle activation) often leading to improved performance. Furthermore, listening to music during exercise may positively impact psychological (i.e., mood, motivation) and psychophysiological (i.e., rate of perceived exertion, arousal) changes, which may allow for favorable responses during an exercise challenge. However, there is mixed evidence regarding music’s efficacy, which may be mediated through differences in music selection and preference. Emerging evidence has shown that, whether an individual prefers or does not prefer the music they are listening to during exercise greatly influences their ergogenic potential in addition to physiological, psychological, and psychophysiological responses to exercise. From a practical standpoint, music may be controlled by the individual through headphones but is often played communally over speakers in locker rooms, gyms, and health clubs, which may have consequences on performance and training. The following review will describe the physiological, psychological, and psychophysiological responses to exercise while listening to music and how music preference may particularly alter them. Current knowledge and new evidence on how music preference factors into enhancing performance in various modes of exercise will be further discussed, incorporating practical considerations for individuals and practitioners in real-world applications to optimize performance.
... The effects of auditory properties such as tempo on temporal behavior have been widely studied. As an example, people unconsciously align their running and exercising pace with the music beats [9]. Compared to slow tempo music, fast music can decrease drinking time [24]. ...
... Synchronization of bodily rhythmic patterns to external auditory stimuli. Research consistently indicates that music tempo affects time-related activities such as drinking [24] and running [9].For example, athletes tend to choose specific music with a certain beat to accompany their running pace [5,39]. Therefore, a slower eating rate may be associated with the fact that participants unconsciously align their chewing rhythm with the modified chewing rate. ...
... No strengthrelated studies have assessed the effects of music or music tempo on HR. However, the results from studies examining the relationship among music tempo, HR, and performance of aerobic tasks suggest that observed changes in HR are driven by changes in performance rather than by the music tempo alone (Copeland & Franks, 1991;Edworthy & Waring, 2006). Similarly, the effects of music tempo on attention have not been studied using strength exercises. ...
... Lastly, in the present study, music of both tempi failed to influence participants' HR. These results are consistent with previous findings for aerobic exercise showing no effect of music on HR (Boutcher & Trenske, 1990;Brownley et al., 1995), and that HR effects mirror performance effects (Copeland & Franks, 1991;Edworthy & Waring, 2006). The presence of music and the tempo of the music did not appear to affect HR during isometric strength exercises. ...
Article
This study examined the effects of slow and fast music tempi on effort-related thoughts, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), affect, heart rate, and performance during isometric strength exercises. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions (no-music control, fast-tempo music, and slow-tempo music) and performed two isometric strength exercises (wall-sit and plank). RPE, attention allocation, and affect were measured during each exercise task. Participants in both the fast- and slow-tempo music conditions maintained a dissociative state for longer than those in the no-music control condition during the wall-sit exercise; however, this effect did not manifest during the plank exercise. Neither music condition influenced HR, RPE, time to volitional exhaustion, or affect. Within the first few minutes of exercise, participants exhibited an increase in HR and perceived exertion, as well as a corresponding shift towards associative attention and a high arousal state. The results are discussed with reference to potential underlying mechanisms and current theories pertaining to RPE, attention allocation, and affect.
... A simple example would be an alarm) of biomedical data, can encourage good form in strength and conditioning activities [9]. • Music can improve athletic performance, and reduce the perceived effort involved [10,11]. • Appropriate music selection is not trivial [12,13]. ...
... In brief terms, when performance is suboptimal it is possible that music may have led to over or under stimulation. Musical amplitude and tempo have both been previously evaluated in the context of improvement in running performance [10], whereby louder, faster music resulted in a quicker running pace. Previous research investigating the effect of synchronous music on movement found a marked ergogenic influence on running shorter distances [42], with a significant increase in work output (faster sprint times) and endurance capacity [31]. ...
Article
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Music has been shown to be capable of improving runners’ performance in treadmill and laboratory-based experiments. This paper evaluates a generative music system, namely HEARTBEATS, designed to create biosignal synchronous music in real-time according to an individual athlete’s heartrate or cadence (steps per minute). The tempo, melody, and timbral features of the generated music are modulated according to biosensor input from each runner using a combination of PPG (Photoplethysmography) and GPS (Global Positioning System) from a wearable sensor, synchronized via Bluetooth. We compare the relative performance of athletes listening to music with heartrate and cadence synchronous tempos, across a randomized trial (N = 54) on a trail course with 76 ft of elevation. Participants were instructed to continue until their self-reported perceived effort went beyond an 18 using the Borg rating of perceived exertion. We found that cadence-synchronous music improved performance and decreased perceived effort in male runners. For female runners, cadence synchronous music improved performance but it was heartrate synchronous music which significantly reduced perceived effort and allowed them to run the longest of all groups tested. This work has implications for the future design and implementation of novel portable music systems and in music-assisted coaching.
... Research personnel allowed participants to self-select the type of music they wanted to listen to. Research personnel allowed participants to selfselect the type of music they wanted to listen to because it was believed that if participants were "forced" to listen to a specific type of music this could have possibly affected their liking (i.e., enjoyment) in a negative way due to them possibly not liking that specific type of music [10,11,12] . ...
... Another limitation was that the participants were allowed to self-select the type of music they wanted to listen to. This decision best mimics a real-world exercise environment, but the type of music (genre, tempo, and loudness) participants listened to may have had an affect on exercise intensity [10,11,12] . The above-mentioned limitations were known while going into this study, however, the researchers in the current study wanted to replicate Rebold and colleagues [5] previous treadmill study so comparisons could be made between two common modes of aerobic exercise (treadmill and bike). ...
Article
This study assessed the effect of cell phone use (e.g., texting, talking, and listening to music) during 30-minute bouts of bike exercise and its affects on intensity (e.g., heart rate and ratings of perceived exertion) and liking (e.g., enjoyment). Thirty college-age students participated in four, separate, 30-minute exercise conditions (texting, talking, music, and control) on a bike in a randomized order. Heart rate was significantly (t  4.54, p  0.004) higher when comparing the music (147.58  4.19 beatsmin-1 ) to the texting (117.79  3.42 beatsmin-1 ) and talking (122.89  3.89 beatsmin-1 ) conditions. Ratings of perceived exertion was significantly (t = 2.1, p = 0.05) higher when comparing the texting (11.4  0.45) to the control (10.06  0.52) condition. Liking was significantly (t = 3.85, p = 0.01) higher when comparing the talking (7.64  0.63) to the control (6.2  0.71) condition. Liking was also significantly (t = 3.09, p = 0.01) higher when comparing the music (8.27  0.38) to the control condition. In conclusion, using your cell phone for texting and talking instead of listening to music can interfere with bike exercise, resulting in reduced exercise intensity and enjoyment, and perceiving exercise to be more difficult than what it really is.
... Nylander and colleagues [37] explored metronome beeps to drive step rate and train step rate variability. Also the effects of sound and music on running have been evaluated [3,9,28,49]. ...
... Analysis. HX data was processed using a custom-built algorithm in MATLAB 9 . Algorithm parameters were based on recommendations by Vanegas et al. [51] and preliminary signal analysis of pre-existing HX data sets. ...
... This result was in line with a previous study where participants reported a high mean importance rating (4.42) of music in sports and exercise (Laukka & Quick, 2013). According to the same study that surveyed emotional use of music in sports and exercise, participants reported intentions for listening to music during exercise including enhancing motivation, positive effect, endurance, and flow to make training more pleasurable and efficient (Edworthy & Waring, 2006). ...
... This result was similar to another study that concluded hip hop, rock, pop, and country music were popular types of music to listen to during exercise among college students (Barney et al., 2012). Besides, prioritization of speed/ tempo/bpm when selecting music as exercise motivation showed a high percentage in the current study whereby tempo of a song shown to improve the physical level during exercise (Edworthy & Waring, 2006;Waterhouse et al., 2010;Hallett & Lamont, 2017). ...
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The current study aimed to examine the association between music and motivation to do exercise among university students in Nilai, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. The demographics data, use of music during exercise, preferred type of music, and criteria to select music were assessed by a validated self-administered questionnaire. The motivation towards exercises was evaluated using the Behavioural Regulations in Exercise Questionnaire (BREQ-3) while the level of physical activity was assessed by Godin-Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire (LTEQ). The demographics information, use of music during exercise, preferred type of music, and criteria to choose music were tabulated using descriptive statistics. A point-biserial correlation was used to analyze the relationship between music and motivation to do exercise while chi-square was utilized to determine the association between the use of music during exercise and physical activity level. The results of the current study showed that 80.3% of the participants listen to music during exercise. Energetic and rhythmic was the preferred type of music for exercise. Tempo/ speed/ bpm was the most popular factor to be considered during the exercise. Most of the participants prefer to listen to an individual music player during exercise rather than an open audio system.. Listening to music during exercise shown significant correlation with a motivation (p=0.006), external regulation (p=0.014), identified regulation (p=0.006), integrated regulation (p=0.002) and intrinsic regulation (p=0.015). There was a significant association between the use of music during exercise and physical activity level (p=0.003) in this study. Future research that involves the type of exercise performed with the music is encouraged to explore the significance of music as a motivational tool in exercise.
... Further studies have shown that exercise fatigue perception is influenced by both music tempo and exercise intensity. Different tempos stimulate different emotional states in listeners, resulting in different effects on runners' fatigue perception [17]. Exercise intensity is another frequently discussed influencing factor. ...
... This further led to a nonsignificant interaction effect between music tempo and exercise intensity (p > 0.05, 0 < effect size d < 0.5). However, there are studies that have come to similar conclusions as the present study, such as Edworthy and Waring and Dyck et al., who also did not find a link between music tempo changes and HR changes [17,55]. HR and music tempo can be considered as interacting oscillatory systems that will start at the same period, but this alignment strategy only works at the beginning of the experiment. ...
Article
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Background: This study aimed to clarify the effect of music tempo on runners' perception of fatigue at different exercise intensities and while listening to music of different tempos through running experiments. Methods: This study used a within-subject two-factor experimental design with music tempo (fast music, slow music, no music) and exercise intensity (high intensity, low intensity) as independent variables and the time to fatigue perception (TFP), the difference in heart rate (HR) and the difference in the median frequency (MF) of surface electromyography (sEMG) signals as observation indexes. Eighteen participants completed a total of 108 sets of running experiments. Results: (1) The main effect of music tempo on the TFP was significant (p < 0.001). (2) The main effect of exercise intensity on the TFP was significant (p < 0.001), and the main effect on the difference in HR was significant (p < 0.001). (3) The interaction effect of music tempo and exercise intensity on the TFP was significant (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Exercisers' subjective perception of fatigue was affected by music tempo and the interaction between music tempo and exercise intensity, and exercisers' objective fatigue perception was influenced mostly by exercise intensity. The findings of this study provide guidance for runners' choice of music at different intensities of exercise. Whether it is low-intensity exercise or high-intensity exercise, listening to fast music while exercising can help runners perform better mentally and physically during their runs.
... On the other hand, (Edworthy & Waring, 2006) showed the tempo of music determined the speed of running on treadmill in their research. The fast tempo of the music caused the higher speed run by the test subjects. ...
... Another study conducted on 30 volunteers aged from 18 to 63 years on a 10-minute treadmill showed that there was a relationship between music volume and tempo in general, had an impact on performance, HR, and perhaps some other variables. Loud music was principally helpful in improving the speed of running but it did not make faster speeds (Edworthy & Waring, 2006). ...
Article
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Music in this day has become one of the important ergogenic aids for athletes and sedentary people when performing exercise and sports competition where the athletes compete in. It is believed that music helps to improve both physically and psychologically to listeners to perform better in sports. The increasing trend in using the music as an ergogenic aid while doing exercise is the result of the existing products such as portable MP3 players, smartphones and smartwatches, that can store thousands of music, and not forgetting the ergonomic design of wireless headphones and earphones that make the users feel so comfortable when wearing it. This study will extract from the previous literatures and its outcomes to gain the elements of music that affecting the exercise performance and motivation the most. Four elements of music that potentially can improve exercise performance and motivation to sedentary people will be studied at: music tempo, music type, music preference, and music intensity (volume). However, there are also several studies that the music does not enhance exercise performance and motivation, especially to the athletes. The outcome from this study will be beneficial to sedentary people when using music during exercise, providing them better performance and also the motivation. The separation of study between athletes and sedentary people when determining whether the music has the effect on performance and motivation are required because athletes might have other ergogenic aids when it comes to performance and motivation other than music such as systematic training programs, scheduled food or supplements consumption, the usage of new technologies, and others.
... On monotonous routes, it can be useful to simply listen to the radio or use the telephone (hands-free) while driving to avoid fatigue [6]. There may also be an increase in walking speed with fast and loud music, and the effects of volume and speed on heart activity and physical performance [7]. Faster music can increase the speed of walking and increase the willingness to take risks [8]. ...
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The use of portable media has become an integral part of our increasingly mobile society. The use of digital audio books is also growing steadily in Germany. The connection between the psychological effect of music of different volumes and rhythms and the change in reaction in road traffic with a corresponding increase in risk behavior, especially when driving, has already been proven in previous studies. Only a few studies are available on the effects of listening to radio plays on reaction behavior and concentration in road traffic as well as on risk behavior among pedestrians and cyclists. In the present study, we have investigated the influences of pop music and a radio play on reaction behavior and thus driving ability during the execution of a traffic psychological test series from the “Wiener Test System”. The central topic deals with the performance of the test subjects in the individual tests. Conclusions are drawn on the reaction behavior and concentration during participation in road traffic and thus the risk of distraction and possible increased risk of accidents. Studies on the influence of auditory stimuli and their effects on concentration and reaction during participation in traffic are of great interest from the point of view of traffic psychology and occupational medicine, since a reduction in the risk of accidents can increase general traffic safety and lead to a decrease in sick leave and therefore fewer absences from work.
... Eliakim et al. also revealed higher mean heart rate in music group during warm up [5]. This also accords with our earlier observations, which showed that there were significant interactions for heart rate across different music tempos [19]. Previous researchers showed that fast tempo music does not significantly influence the heart rate in 75% VO2 max exercise intensity [20]. ...
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Music has been used generally as a powerful tool to enhance an athlete's performance due to its psychological advantages. However, there has been a lack of data on the effects of music on anaerobic performance. This study aimed to investigate the effects of fast tempo music during warm up on short-term maximal performance of football players. This study involves twenty-four (n=24) football players of DRB Hicom FC 2 from Kuala Lumpur Division 1 League. They need to undergo both tests which were with and without music. Heart rate before and after warming up, RPE, peak power, mean power and fatigue index were measured for this study. Mixed ANOVA was used to investigate the effect of music on heart rate while independent t-test was used on RPE, peak power, mean power, and fatigue index variables. The results showed that there is significant interaction of music on heart rate and fatigue index. In conclusion, there are significant effects of fast tempo music during warm up on short-term maximal performance in football players.
... Evidence indicated that music is capable of inducing emotion in listeners (159,160) and can both increase positive affect and diminish negative affect (161), increase pre-task activation or relaxation (162), and decrease levels of perceived exertion especially during submaximal work intensities (163). In this context, loud, upbeat music increases arousal while soft and slow music reduces arousal (164,165). ...
Article
The novel pandemic called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), as a global public health emergency, seems to be having a major impact on physical activity (PA) behaviors. Older adults are at high risk of death from the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS CoV-2). Health authorities around the world have been implementing preventive health measures, including quarantine and self-isolation, to mitigate the COVID-19 outbreak. This period is characterized by cessation of outdoor exercising. During this period of lockdown, PA has been one of the rare reasons for going out in some countries. To avoid the harmful effects of periods of exercise cessation, PA could be prescribed to older adults, which is of great importance for breaking their sedentary lifestyle and improving their immunity. The present review discusses the potential impacts of COVID-19 pandemic on sedentary behavior and physical inactivity in older adults. The importance of performing PA to reduce the harmful effects of COVID-19 pandemic is discussed, and useful recommendations on home-based exercise for the older adults to maintain their level of independence, physical and mental health as well as their wellbeing are provided.
... Previous studies [6] have demonstrated that instructors and users believe that loud music stimulates physical activity and enhances performance. Furthermore, studies have also demonstrated that interacting with loud music with a fast beat and/or tempo plays a significant role in enhancing exercise performance and motivating those attending fitness classes [7][8][9]. ...
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People seek health and leisure in gyms and fitness halls. In this study, interior acoustics including reverberation time (T) and activity noise levels were studied in 20 indoor sports and gymnasium (IS & G) halls in Amman, Jordan. Interviews and questionnaires were also applied to assess the subjective comfort levels of the acoustic environment in these IS & G halls. The measured values were correlated with the subjective evaluations. The range of measured T values was 1.09–5.38 s. The activity noise level, which was measured with LA,eq over 50 min of activity, ranged between 80.0 and 110.0 dB(A). The average personal noise exposure for instructors was 92.6 dB(A), ranging from 81.0 to 108.0 dB(A), whereas 90% of the measurement results were above the occupational exposure limit (OEL) of 85.0 dB(A), and 40% of instructors were potentially exposed to excessive noise levels. The subjective rating of listening conditions correlated significantly with the reverberation time rather than noise level (p < 0.01). In conclusion, the results from this study show that noise levels generated in the studied IS & G halls present a possible workplace noise hazard. Raising awareness of the risk of hearing problems among instructors working in IS & G halls is highly recommended.
... The benefits elicited here however, appear to be mediated by the tempo of music chosen within the study, with higher tempo music tending to elicit more positive implications for performance, opposed to slower tempo music (Bhavsar, Abbange & Afroz, 2014;Copeland & Franks, 1991;Karageorghis & Jones, 2014;Terry et al., 2012). For example, during exercise heart rate has been shown to increase whilst listening to high-tempo music (Ooishi, Mukai, Watanabe, Kawato & Kashino, 2017), and similarly decrease whilst listening to slow-tempo music (Edworthy & Waring, 2006), in comparison to those not listening to music. Furthermore, cycling work rate, measured through power output, has also shown to increase when influenced by fast tempo music 7 (Atkinson et al., 2004). ...
... A second practical variable that may influence intrinsic motivation to exercise is music (Edworthy & Waring, 2006). Music is present in most individuals' lives daily, and it can help people express themselves and relieve stress. ...
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The purpose of this study was to determine if the presence of social support and music affected exercise performance and enjoyment among school-aged children. Fifteen children ages 6-13 years participated in the study. Enjoyment and performance were measured while the children performed four different exercises including wall sits, planks, squats, and bunny hops. During each exercise, four different genres of music were played in the lab (classical, classic rock, folk/zydeco, and kidz bop). The effects of these two factors were examined on heart rate, time spent performing each exercise, and responses to an enjoyment scale completed after each session. The results indicated that the presence of social support and upbeat music promoted better exercise enjoyment and performance.
... Given the ubiquity of auditory stimuli, researchers in psychology have taken a keen interest in the study of auditory loudness from a broad range of perspectives. To date, there has been extensive research on the effects of loudness in music psychology (e.g., the effect of music volume on exercise exertion; Edworthy & Waring, 2006), clinical psychology (e.g., the relationship between loudness perceptions and annoyance levels in individuals with Tinnitus; Hiller & Goebel, 2007), biological psychology (e.g., effects of noise exposure on individuals' hormonal levels and cardiovascular activity; Evans et al., 1995), and cognitive psychology (e.g., effects of background noise loudness on individuals' ability to concentrate, and general cognitive performance; Hygge et al., 2002;Kou et al., 2018). There is also related research on the effects of auditory loudness on people's preferences for loudness levels in various contexts. ...
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We propose that perceptions of auditory loudness and interpersonal closeness are bidirectionally related. Across 12 experiments (total N = 2219; 10 preregistered; with Singaporean, British, U.S. American, Indian, and Australian participants), we demonstrated that louder audio made people feel physically (Study 1a) and socially (Study 1b) closer to others, presumably because of loudness activates interpersonal closeness-related concepts implicitly (Studies 1c, 1d). This loudness-interpersonal closeness effect was observed across diverse samples (Studies 2a, 3a, S1), for longer listening intervals (Study 2b), and in natural settings (Studies 3a, 3b). Conversely, individuals made to feel socially excluded rated their surroundings as quieter (Study 4). Furthermore, following social exclusion, individuals showed a preference for louder volume (Study 5). Finally, exposure to loud stimuli mitigated detrimental psychological effects of social exclusion (Study 6). Theoretical implications for the social cognition of loudness, social exclusion and compensatory strategies, and practical implications for ameliorating loneliness are discussed.
... This is in line with the idea that music is capable of increasing exercise intensity and endurance. [1][2][3][4][5] Although the precise mechanisms through which music can boost performance still require further investigation, this effect might be (partly) explained by the propensity of music to heighten arousal. 34,50,51 In the instructed condition, a similar increase in cadence occurred. ...
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Matching exercise behavior to musical beats has been shown to favorably affect repetitive endurance tasks. In this study, our aim was to explore the role of spontaneous versus instructed entrainment, focusing on self-paced exercise of healthy, recreational runners. For three 4-min running tasks, 33 recreational participants were either running in silence or with music; when running with music, either no instructions were given to entrain to the music, or participants were instructed to match their running cadence with the tempo of the music. The results indicated that less entrainment occurred when no instruction to match the exercise with the musical tempo was provided. In addition, similar to the condition without music, lower speeds and shorter step lengths were observed when runners were instructed to match their running behavior to the musical tempo when compared with the condition without such instruction. Our findings demonstrate the impact of instruction on running performance and stress the importance of intention to entrain running behavior to musical beats.
... The influence of music on human behavior has been studied since the dawn of time. Although a vast amount of studies analyzed the influence on several kinds of performances, among which physical tasks (Edworthy and Waring, 2006), work performance (Lesiuk, 2005), text and verbal memory (Taylor and Dewhurst, 2017), and learning (Lehmann and Seufert, 2017), the vast majority of the studies, starting from the 1980s, focused on marketing, shopping, and advertising (Bruner, 1990). Nowadays, this tradition continues, although several modifications have been made within the experimental paradigms to involve new contemporary scenarios such as online shopping, website atmospherics, and driving game performance (Brodsky, 2001). ...
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This article presents two studies that deepen the theme of how soundtracks shape our interpretation of audiovisuals. Embracing a multivariate perspective, Study 1 (N = 118) demonstrated, through an online between-subjects experiment, that two different music scores (melancholic vs. anxious) deeply affected the interpretations of an unknown movie scene in terms of empathy felt toward the main character, impressions of his personality, plot anticipations, and perception of the environment of the scene. With the melancholic music, participants felt empathy toward the character, viewing him as more agreeable and introverted, more oriented to memories than to decisions, while perceiving the environment as cozier. An almost opposite pattern emerged with the anxious music. In Study 2 (N = 92), we replicated the experiment in our lab but with the addition of eye-tracking and pupillometric measurements. Results of Study 1 were largely replicated; moreover, we proved that the anxious score, by increasing the participants' vigilance and state of alert (wider pupil dilation), favored greater attention to minor details, as in the case of another character who was very hard to be noticed (more time spent on his figure). Results highlight the pervasive nature of the influence of music within the process of interpretation of visual scenes.
... Based on the evidence, it is reasonable that exercise with music could bring more beneficial effects on executive function. Tempo, measured in bpm, is a major determinant of one's aesthetic and psychophysical response to a piece of music (Bishop et al., 2009), and it is the musical quality that is easiest to manipulate (Edworthy and Waring, 2006). Meanwhile, HR is also measured in bpm in the study of exercise and sports-related fields (Camm et al., 1996). ...
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Objective: The beneficial effects of music on executive function during exercise have been widely reported. However, little is known about the cause of the more beneficial effects. This study aims to investigate whether tempo matching is one of the reasons for the beneficial effects. Methods: 90 young adults (aged 21.54 ± 2.26 years) were randomly assigned to three groups: the slower mismatched exercise heart rate group (SMG, with music at 60–65 bpm), the matched exercise heart rate group (MG, with music at 120–140 bpm), and the faster mismatched exercise heart rate group (FMG, with music at 155–165 bpm). Then, they completed a 20-minute bout of moderate-intensity (60%–70% of maximum heart rate) aerobic exercise respectively, with corresponding musical contains. The exercise states (heart rate and rating of perceived exertion) were measured throughout experimental procedures, and emotional states, as well as the executive function (inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, and working memory), were assessed pre- and post-exercise. Results: Greater exercise states and more positive emotional states were noted in MG. Additionally, the MG gained increased executive function performance (i.e., inhibitory control and working memory). Conclusions: Tempo matching is an important element for the beneficial effects of exercise with music on executive function. People could choose music in tempo which matches heart rate during exercise to get better effects both physically and psychologically.
... There has been a considerable development of this construct, which is relevant also in the context of mind wandering during music listening (Christoff et al., 2018;Seli, Kane, Metzinger et al., 2018;. In contrast to studies on tempo effects in sports and driving, where fast music has been shown to speed up behavior (Edworthy & Waring, 2006;Rendi et al., 2008), we did not find an effect of musical tempo on motor responses. These studies showed speeding in tasks where the motor behavior was more or less unrelated to the external environment, taking place in an autonomous fashion (e.g., running or rowing). ...
Article
In three experiments, we investigated the behavioral consequences of being absorbed into music on performance in a concurrent task. We tested two competing hypotheses: Based on a cognitive load account, captivation of attention by the music and state absorption might slow down reactions in the decisional task. Alternatively, music could induce spontaneous motor activity, and being absorbed in music might result in a more autonomous, flow-driven behavior with quicker motor reactions. Participants performed a simple, visual, two-alternative forced-choice task while listening to popular musical excerpts. Subsequently, they rated their subjective experience using a short questionnaire. We presented music in four tempo categories (between 80 and 140 BPM) to account for a potential effect of tempo and an interaction between tempo and absorption. In Experiment 1, absorption was related to decreased reaction times (RTs) in the visual task. This effect was small, as expected in this setting, but replicable in Experiment 2. There was no effect of the music’s tempo on RTs but a tendency of mind wandering to relate to task performance. After slightly changing the study setting in Experiment 3, flow predicted decreased RTs, but absorption alone — as part of the flow construct — did not predict RTs. To sum up, we demonstrated that being absorbed in music can have the behavioral consequence of speeded manual reactions in specific task contexts, and people seem to integrate the music into an active, flow-driven and therefore enhanced performance. However, shown relations depend on task settings, and a systematic study of context is necessary to understand how induced states and their measurement contribute to the findings. Share Link: https://authors.elsevier.com/a/1cd%7E43lcz3zcFF
... The making of music in aerobic dance has 2 types of tempo, namely fast and slow tempo. Birnbaum et al described in their research the use of fast music, slow music and no-music protocols during good dance conditions and showed that fast music increased several indexes related to heart and lung function [4]. We understand this because the tempo of the music is fast so that the steps carried out follow those that are in danger of a continuous beat. ...
... Numerous studies have examined the psychological influence of vision and sound on participants while they exercise [8,[37][38][39]. For example, when a person warms up, works out, and cools down with music they like, it helps them psychologically [40]. ...
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We analyzed participants’ feelings and arousal before, during, and after exercise as per whether they receive aromatherapy. Twenty university students who regularly took part in health exercises were selected through purposive sampling. Changes in feelings were measured through a 2D circumplex model and an in-depth interview. The effects on exercisers who received aromatherapy were more positive than for those who did not receive any treatment. Specifically, it induced positive feelings during exercise, reduced fatigue during exercise, and improved participants’ feelings during the recovery period. Aroma has a key influence on exercisers’ feelings, and it can positively influence exercise satisfaction and persistence.
... On the other hand, from a psychophysical perspective, music also helps to reduce or delete perceived exertion and physical pain (Edworthy & Waring, 2006;Karageorghis & Priest, 2012;Nethery, 2002), with the consequence of larger exertion capacity and enhanced work outputs (Karageorghis & Priest, 2012). Any of the previously cited elements of music may influence the neural drive and neural mechanisms of perceiving fatigue while making physical exercise, with the result of changes in heart rate and/or lactate production, skin conductance, neuroendocrine response or even immunological function (Terry et al., 2020). ...
Article
The present study aimed to analyse the influence of the music level of motivation, compared to the absence of music, on intermittent fitness and agility, in a group of young well-trained basketball players. On alternate days, thirteen players (14.85 ± 0.68 years, 188 ± 0.05 cm, 75.89 ± 8.02 kg) were assessed of the V-Cut test (agility test including changes of direction) and the 30–15 Intermittent Fitness Test (30-15IFT; maximal running speed under fatigue). There were six testing sessions over three consecutive weeks, with three different randomized conditions: team-selected High Motivating Music (HMM), Low Motivating Music (LMM), and the No-Music condition (NM). Arterial oxygen saturation, Heart Rate, Lactate (BLa), Perceived Readiness, and the Rating of Perceived Effort of the session (RPE30) were registered. As a main finding, HMM largely enhanced performance in the 30-15IFT (p < .01) compared to LMM (d = 1.39) and NM (d = 1.29), with non-significant differences between them (d = .35). This resulted in a larger and significant estimated VO2max (p < .005, different from LMM & NM), with a similar HR, a bit lower – although non-significant – BLapost, and no psychophysical differences. Conversely, asynchronous music did not affect the V-Cut test, despite the reduction of time in HMM, followed by LMM. Motivational music confirmed helping well-trained developing youngsters to display larger performances with similar internal responses (i.e., higher efficiency). Noteworthy, musical preferences were important even in a group approach (basketball). Very short and sub-maximal complex agility tasks, including changes of direction, like the V-Cut do not benefit from the influence of asynchronous music.
... heart rate across different music tempo were found, the perceived exertion was no different with the use of music in treadmill running in adults (Edworthy & Waring, 2006). Differences between our findings and the results of previous studies could be explained by the different characteristics of the study sample (adolescents vs. adults) and the different exercise performance (fitness field test vs. cycle test, treadmill exercise). ...
Article
The purpose was to examine the feasibility of the 20m shuttle run test with music and to test its concurrent validity with the original 20m shuttle run test. A total of 386 adolescents (14.5±1.6 years old, 48.9% boys) participated in our study. A self-reported questionnaire was used to assess student’s perception about the 20m shuttle run test with music and the original and to assess perceived exertion. Participants performed randomly the 20m shuttle run test with music and original two weeks apart. Average and maximum heart rate were monitored with heart rate monitors. The 20m shuttle run with music was a feasible test for measuring cardiorespiratory fitness in adolescents. The concurrent validity showed mean differences of 5.1±14.6 for shuttles, 0.3±0.8 km/h for speed, 0.5±4.1 for stages, and 1.5±4.1 for VO2max (all p<0.001) in favour of the 20m shuttle run with music vs. the original 20m shuttle run test. Mean difference for the rating of perceived exertion was 0.4±2.5 points (p=0.003). No significant difference was found between boys and girls. In conclusion, the 20mSRT-music is feasible and presents a good concurrent validity in adolescents, independently of the sex and it will be an alternative and good approach to assess cardiorespiratory fitness.
... Given the ubiquity of auditory stimuli, researchers in psychology have taken a keen interest in the study of auditory loudness from a broad range of perspectives. To date, there has been extensive research on the effects of loudness in music psychology (e.g., the effect of music volume on exercise exertion; Edworthy & Waring, 2006), clinical psychology (e.g., the relationship between loudness perceptions and annoyance levels in individuals with Tinnitus; Hiller & Goebel, 2007), biological psychology (e.g., effects of noise exposure on individuals' hormonal levels and cardiovascular activity; Evans et al., 1995), and cognitive psychology (e.g., effects of background noise loudness on individuals' ability to concentrate, and general cognitive performance; Hygge et al., 2002;Kou et al., 2018). There is also related research on the effects of auditory loudness on people's preferences for loudness levels in various contexts. ...
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We propose that perceptions of auditory loudness and interpersonal closeness are bidirectionally related. Across 12 experiments (total N = 2,219; 10 preregistered; with Singaporean, British, U.S. American, and Australian participants), we demonstrated that louder audio made people feel physically (Study 1a) and socially (Study 1b) closer to others, presumably because loudness activates interpersonal closeness-related concepts implicitly (Studies 1c and 1d). This loudness–interpersonal closeness effect was observed across diverse samples (Studies 2a, 3a, and S1), for longer listening intervals (Study 2b), and in natural settings (Studies 3a and 3b). Conversely, individuals made to feel socially excluded rated their surroundings as quieter (Study 4). Furthermore, following social exclusion, individuals showed a preference for louder volume (Study 5). Finally, exposure to loud stimuli mitigated detrimental psychological effects of social exclusion (Study 6). Theoretical implications for the social cognition of loudness, social exclusion and compensatory strategies, and practical implications for ameliorating loneliness are discussed.
... Studies have indicated that both auditory reaction time and visual reaction time decrease in the presence of background music due to the facilitation of processing the stimuli in the somatosensory cortex. One particular study investigated the effect that music genre has on reaction time, and proved that vocal music is significantly more disruptive [4]. ...
Article
The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact that music volume has on reaction time. The significance of this study is that music volume is often suggested to be one of the factors and/or distractions that lead young drivers under the age of 25 to experience a high rate of vehicular accidents, and the goal of this study was to quantitatively assess the effect of increasing music volume on the reaction time of subjects in this demographic. Tactile reaction time, using the Brain Gauge, was used to record simple reaction time and choice reaction time data for 20 college students while the Neil Diamond classic “Sweet Caroline” was played at approximately 0dB, 20dB, 40dB, and 80dB. The results demonstrate a significant increase in simple reaction time with increased music volume and shows that louder music impacts an individual’s capacity to react to a stimulus. Although the study was not conducted while the individual was driving, the results strongly suggest that high music volume could significantly impair a driver’s response time.
... Similar autonomic responses to music have been examined in research, especially pertaining to exercise and sport where athletes utilise music motivationally during performance, e.g. choose music of a certain bpm count to stimulate a certain running pace (Anshel & Marisi, 1978;Edworthy & Waring, 2007). Evidence has also shown that cardiovascular and respiratory responses can be closely modulated by musical features. ...
Article
Recent research has shown that eating behaviour is not only influenced by factors associated with the individual alone (e.g. psychological/physiological states) but also by the external factors determining the surrounding environment in which one eats (e.g. lighting, colour, temperature, or music). The present research examines the extent to which specific musical properties, namely tempo and articulation, influence eating duration. Two experiments were conducted in which participants tasted and evaluated pieces of chocolate under the influence of different sound conditions. The participants were not aware that they were being timed while eating. For Experiment 1, two versions of the same composition were created with contrasting tempo and articulation. The results showed that eating time was significantly longer in the slow + legato music condition, compared to the fast + staccato music condition. In Experiment 2, we extended the scope of the research question to investigate the relative influence of tempo and articulation, and thus included three additional sound conditions: silence, slow + staccato, and fast + legato music. Overall results revealed a significant main effect of tempo on eating duration as well as an interaction effect between music tempo and articulation. Eating duration was longer with slower tempo, and legato articulation further increased eating time but only when the music had slower tempo. In addition, the presence of music, regardless of style, significantly increased participants’ eating duration compared to eating in silence. Combined, the results from these experiments confirm that music could be employed as a contextual cue to modulate eating speed contributing to healthier eating behaviours such as eating more slowly and consuming less food.
... Diversos estudos têm observado a importância do exercício físico para a melhora da qualidade de vida e principalmente no estado de humor de seus praticantes, em diferentes modalidades (PELUSO; ANDRADE, 2005;NAVARRO, 2011;WANG et al., 2010). Sabe-se ainda que, realização de exercícios físicos de intensidade moderadas (50% a 75% da frequência cardíaca máxima) acompanhadas de músicas, são capazes de melhorar os estados de anino e desempenho de praticantes (EDWORTHY et al., 2006). Esses indícios apontam benefícios no estado de humor em praticantes de dança, porém ainda pouco investigado na literatura a ligação direta entre dança de ritmos e estado de humor. ...
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RESUMO A prática de exercício físico promove uma melhor qualidade de vida e apresenta benefícios físicos, psicológicos e cognitivos. Neste sentido, por meio desse estudo se propõe analisar o efeito agudo de uma sessão de 45 minutos de prática de dança no estado de humor de mulheres. Participaram 24 mulheres, com idade de 34,50±10,64 anos, praticantes de exercício físico regular, na frequência mínima de duas vezes por semana. Para a avaliação do estado de humor foi utilizada a Escala de Brunel (BRUMS) antes e após a intervenção de dança. A intervenção foi uma aula de dança de ritmos, com duração de 45 minutos, realizando-se 5 minutos de aquecimento, 35 minutos de aula, no qual tocou diversos estilos de músicas e finalizou-se com 5 minutos de alongamento. Para a análise dos dados, utilizou-se o SPSS, versão 22.0, a estatística descritiva foi utilizada para os dados de caracterização da amostra e test t para verificar os diferentes momentos, com nível de significância de p≤0,05. Os principais resultados demonstram que após a intervenção da dança, os níveis de raiva (p=0,380) e fadiga (p=0,605) não tiveram alterações significativas, porém, as variáveis de vigor (p=0,000), depressão (p=0,037) e confusão mental (p=0,000) apresentaram diminuição nas médias e diferença significativa. Em relação ao estado de tensão (p=0,000), observou-se uma diferença significativa entre os dois momentos, aumentando os seus valores após a intervenção. Isso pode estar relacionado ao momento pandêmico em que estamos vivendo, visto a preocupação dos sujeitos em relação à disseminação do contagio da Covid-19. Conclui-se que, a prática da dança é capaz de alterar positivamente depressão, vigor e confusão mental, e negativamente os níveis de tensão. Palavras-chave: Exercício. Transtornos do Humor. Dança. Mulheres. ABSTRACT The practice of physical exercise promotes a better quality of life and has physical, psychological and cognitive benefits. In this sense, this study proposes to analyze the acute effect of a 45-minute session of dance practice on the mood of women. 24 women participated, aged 34.50 ± 10.64 years, who practice regular physical exercise, at least twice a week. To assess the state of mood, the Brunel Scale (BRUMS) was used before and after the dance intervention. The intervention was a rhythm dance class, lasting 45 minutes, with 5 minutes of warm-up, 35 minutes of class, in which he played several styles of music and ended with 5 minutes of stretching. For data analysis, SPSS, version 22.0 was used, descriptive statistics was used for the sample characterization data and t test to verify the different moments, with a significance level of p≤0.05. The main results demonstrate that after the dance intervention, the levels of anger (p = 0.380) and fatigue (p = 0.605) did not have significant changes, however, the variables of vigor (p = 0.000), depression (p = 0.037) and mental confusion (p = 0.000) showed a decrease in means and a significant difference. Regarding the state of tension (p = 0.000), there was a significant difference between the two moments, increasing their values after the intervention. This may be related to the pandemic moment in which we are living, given the concern of the subjects in relation to the spread of the contagion of Covid-19. It is concluded that the practice of dance is capable of positively aletering depression, vigor and mental confusion, and negatively the levels of tension.
... The self-selected motivational music was compiled into playlists for each individual participant and played through two speakers (Mission, United Kingdom) connected to an integrated stereo amplifier (Sony, TA-FE230), placed directly in front of the arm-bike rig (1.2-m from the participants head). Music was played at a standardized noise level of 80-dBA (at participant's ears) monitored using a sound level meter (Model: LxT 831, Larson Davis Inc., United States) as per previous research indicating that 80-dBA enhances exercise performance (Edworthy and Waring, 2006;Karageorghis et al., 2018). Selected music ranged from slow-paced church music to faster-paced hip hop and heavy metal. ...
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Humans exposed to hypoxia are susceptible to physiological and psychological impairment. Music has ergogenic effects through enhancing psychological factors such as mood, emotion, and cognition. This study aimed to investigate music as a tool for mitigating the performance decrements observed in hypoxia. Thirteen males (mean ± SD; 24 ± 4 years) completed one familiarization session and four experimental trials; (1) normoxia (sea level, 0.209 FiO2) and no music; (2) normoxia (0.209 FiO2) with music; (3) normobaric hypoxia (∼3800 m, 0.13 FiO2) and no music; and (4) normobaric hypoxia (0.13 FiO2) with music. Experimental trials were completed at 21°C with 50% relative humidity. Music was self-selected prior to the familiarization session. Each experimental trial included a 15-min time trial on an arm bike, followed by a 60-s isometric maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of the biceps brachii. Supramaximal nerve stimulation quantified central and peripheral fatigue with voluntary activation (VA%) calculated using the doublet interpolation method. Average power output (W) was reduced with a main effect of hypoxia (p = 0.02) and significantly increased with a main effect of music (p = 0.001). When combined the interaction was additive (p = 0.87). Average MVC force (N) was reduced in hypoxia (p = 0.03) but VA% of the biceps brachii was increased with music (p = 0.02). Music reduced subjective scores of mental effort, breathing discomfort, and arm discomfort in hypoxia (p < 0.001). Music increased maximal physical exertion through enhancing neural drive and diminishing detrimental mental processes, enhancing performance in normoxia (6.3%) and hypoxia (6.4%).
... However, they not only worked harder with faster music but also chose to do so and enjoyed the music more when it was played at a faster tempo. Similar effects of increases in music tempo and, to a lesser extent, of boosts in the loudness of the stimulus on work output have been demonstrated for running behaviour (Edworthy & Waring, 2006;Van Dyck et al., 2015). ...
... Moderate-intensity physical training established is recommended to be applied as an essential model to enhance lipid oxidation within the mitochondria [49]. Even though loud music was able to enhance the optimal performance of physical exercise during treadmill administration at a younger age [50], the highintensity exercise combined with fast music results in a higher level of stress hormone (cortisol) and induces catabolism in skeletal muscle. Music has a different impact on metabolic performance, depending on the training level [43]. ...
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Introduction. In general, the significant contribution of lack of physical activity is strongly correlated with lipid metabolism and metabolic disorder. Hitherto, betatrophin is a potential hormone that regulates the lipid profile in the body circulation-associated triglyceride level. This study was designed to evaluate the alteration of betatrophin levels in subject-onset hypertriglyceridemia with exercise intervention co-treated with music. Materials and Methods. A total of 60 nonprofessional athletes were enrolled in this study and given moderate-intensity exercise (MIE) combined with middle rhythm musical co-treatment. The ELISA method was applied to quantify the serum level of betatrophin in all samples. The statistical analysis was performed by applying the Kolmogorov–Smirnov normality test, one-way ANOVA, and parametric linear correlation and regression. Results. Interestingly, our data show that MIE decreased the circulating level of betatrophin combined with music (12.47 ± 0.40 ng/mL) compared with that without musical co-treatment (20.81 ± 1.16 ng/mL) and high-intensity exercise (26.91 ± 2.23 ng/mL). The plasma level of betatrophin was positively correlated with triglycerides (r = 0.316, p≤0.05), systolic blood pressure (r = 0.428, p≤0.01), HDL (r = 0.366, p≤0.05), energy expenditure (r = 0.586, p≤0.001), PGC-1α (r = 0.573, p≤0.001), and irisin (r = 0.863, p≤0.001). By contrast, the plasma level of betatrophin was negatively associated with age (r = −0.298, p≤0.05) and LDL cholesterol (r = −0.372, p≤0.05). Importantly, betatrophin is a significant predictor for energy expenditure (p≤0.001) and plasma triglyceride levels (p≤0.05). Conclusions. Our data demonstrate that betatrophin levels decreased the post-MIE and musical therapeutical combination. Therefore, betatrophin may provide a benefit as the potential biomarker of physiological performance-associated physical training.
... First, different types of music have different effects on the brain. For example, funk music may make people active, and up-tempo beats make people passionate for working out [22][23][24]. The tone of the music is connected with certain emotions in the music field. ...
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Music can generate a positive effect in runners’ performance and motivation. However, the practical implementation of music intervention during exercise is mostly absent from the literature. Therefore, this paper designs a playback sequence system for joggers by considering music emotion and physiological signals. This playback sequence is implemented by a music selection module that combines artificial intelligence techniques with physiological data and emotional music. In order to make the system operate for a long time, this paper improves the model and selection music module to achieve lower energy consumption. The proposed model obtains fewer FLOPs and parameters by using logarithm scaled Mel-spectrogram as input features. The accuracy, computational complexity, trainable parameters, and inference time are evaluated on the Bi-modal, 4Q emotion, and Soundtrack datasets. The experimental results show that the proposed model is better than that of Sarkar et al. and achieves competitive performance on Bi-modal (84.91%), 4Q emotion (92.04%), and Soundtrack (87.24%) datasets. More specifically, the proposed model reduces the computational complexity and inference time while maintaining the classification accuracy, compared to other models. Moreover, the size of the proposed model for network training is small, which can be applied to mobiles and other devices with limited computing resources. This study designed the overall playback sequence system by considering the relationship between music emotion and physiological situation during exercise. The playback sequence system can be adopted directly during exercise to improve users’ exercise efficiency.
... As mentioned above, the influence of music on human behavior has been studied since the dawn of time (interesting treatises may be found in Hargreaves et al., 2005 andBrown &Volgsten, 2005). Although a vast number of studies analyzed the influence on several kinds of performances, among which physical tasks (Edworthy and Waring, 2006), work performance (Lesiuk, 2005), text and verbal memory , spatial reasoning (Padulo et al., 2019), learning Seufert, 2017-2018), and driving behavior (Navarro et al., 2019), the vast majority of the studies, starting from the 1980s, focused on marketing, shopping, and advertising (Gorn, 1982;Milliman, 1982;Bruner, 1990;Yalch & Spangenberg, 1990;Areni & Kim, 1993). ...
Thesis
In the last decades, an increasing number of psychological studies tackled numerous phenomena related to the influence that film music exerts on the perception of audiovisuals. Soundtracks proved to be effective in shaping the viewers' interpretations, attitude toward the characters, plot anticipations, recall of the scenes, and other processes. However, the most recent review on the issue (Herget, 2019) indicates a few criticalities: First, due to the lack of an interconnected research discourse, several of the existent studies stand side by side rather than building on each other. Secondly, in most cases, established instruments were not used for the assessments, thus jeopardizing the external validity. As a third key point, the number of ecologically valid studies is limited and needs to be increased. Lastly, the methodological necessity exists to decrease the complexity of certain experimental paradigms and encourage between-subjects designs that could avoid the risk of automatically drawing attention to musical manipulation. In the present research, four studies are presented on a variety of psychological constructs, processes, and mechanisms that are influenced by film music: impressions of the characters’ personality, plot anticipations, and environment perception (Study 1a-1b); gaze direction, gaze dispersion, and pupillometry (Study 1b); empathy toward the filmed characters (Study 1a-1b-2); affective state attributed to on-screen characters, affective state of the viewers (Study 2); time perception (Study 3); and recall (Study 4). An effort was made to employ validated measurement tools whenever possible, together with easily digestible and entertaining experimental tasks, without compromising on experimental control and data quality. Aiming at a high ecological validity, all the studies (except Study 1b) implicated an online administration; in doing so, the viewers watched the videos directly from home, through their smartphones, tablets, and laptops, as if they were watching everyday YouTube videos or Netflix series. The general finding is that the influence of music is truly pervasive; namely, virtually every analyzed variable was affected by it predictably. Thanks to the music’s tonal and expressive cues, the viewers manage to create a network of coherent and interconnected inferences, which end up constituting their interpretation of the scene. The results are discussed in terms of diverse theoretical frameworks depending on the constructs at hand. Particular attention is lastly given to the future paths that the research could go down to fill a wide number of unsolved theoretical gaps. In conclusion, a coda about the ethical relevance of such research is provided.
... Η μουσική μπορεί να χαρακτηρίζεται ως παρακινητική, όταν ενισχύει το άτομο προς μία δραστηριότητα και του δίνει κίνητρο να συνεχίσει ή ως χαλαρωτική, όταν μειώνει την ενεργοποίηση των ατόμων και τα βοηθάει να κρατούν χαμηλούς και ήρεμους ρυθμούς (Elliott et al., 2005). Επίσης, η μουσική μπορεί να είναι είτε δυνατή είτε χαμηλή σε ένταση, στοιχείο το οποίο χαρακτηρίζεται από το πόσο δυνατά (volume) αναπαράγεται (Edworthy & Waring, 2006). Τέλος δύναται να είναι σε συγχρονισμό ή μη σε σχέση με την άσκηση, ανάλογα με το αν ο ρυθμός και το tempo της ανταποκρίνονται στην ένταση (% VO2max ή % μέγιστης καρδιακής συχνότητας) εκτέλεσης της άσκησης (Karageorghis et al., 2009). ...
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Research findings have supported the notion that music positively affects hitting accuracy of young tennis players. The purpose of this study was twofold: first, to examine during a training session the effect of athletes’ music preference on tennis shot accuracy; second, to investigate the relationship between tennis performance on specific tennis shots (Forehand Drive-“FD”, Backhand Drive-“BD”, Forehand Volley-“FV”, Backhand Volley- “BV”, Overhead Smash-“OS”, Serve on Deuce court-“SD”, Serve on Advantage court-“SA”) and self-confidence, anxiety, flow and goal orientation. 11 right-handed tennis players (three boys, eight girls), aged 14-17 years old (M = 13.91, SD = 1.81) voluntarily participated in this study. Initially, the athletes completed the following questionnaires: Brunel Music Rating Inventory–2 (Karageorghis et al., 1999), State-Trait Sport Self-Confidence Inventory for Children (Psychountaki & Zervas, 1998), Sport Anxiety Scale-2 (Smith et al., 2006), Flow State Scale-Short Form (Jackson et al., 2008; Stavrou, 2016) and Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire; TEOSQ (Duda & Nicholls, 1992). Afterwards, their performance on the main tennis shots was evaluated under three field conditions. 1st condition: Without music they were fed by the coach ten balls per each shot type, whose performance was measured with an out-of-ten scoring system, according to which the athletes should guide the ball to bounce beyond the service line (no music condition). 2nd condition: Τhe athletes executed in the same order the main shots after having listened to one of their selected favorite songs wherever in the court they wanted to (music before condition). 3rd condition: Participants practiced the same tennis shots in the same order while their favorite songs were playing on court in the order of their preference on speakers (music on court condition). The results indicated statistically significant correlations between sport-confidence, goal orientation, anxiety and flow with some of the main tennis shots (“FD”, “BV”, “OS”, “SA”, “BD”). Statistically significant difference was found between the “no music” and the “music before” condition in “FD”. Moreover, statistically significant was the difference in performance at “FV” between the “no music” and “music on court” condition. The results indicate the importance of athletes’ emotional state and the way it affects their performance on the tennis shots as well as music’s positive effect on the way young tennis athletes perform on court. Those findings may seem valuable in a theoretical and a practical manner for both coaches and athletes. Keywords: music, performance, teenagers, tennis, anxiety, sport confidence, flow, goal orientation
... As predicted, our findings showed that meal duration differed significantly between slow and fast music conditions (H 1 ), thus supporting the prevailing theory that more arousing stimuli increases physiological and energetic activity (Yerkes & Dodson, 1908) and (temporarily) influences performance on concurrent tasks such as the shopping pace through a supermarket (Smith & Curnow, 1966), timing of motor actions (Repp, 2006), or running pace on a treadmill (Edworthy & Waring, 2006). Furthermore, our results replicate earlier evidence that fast music tempo decreases, whereas slow music increases consumption time (McElrea & Standing, 1992;Roballey et al., 1985), and validates a previously employed time measurement methodology in a more ecologically valid setting (Mathiesen et al., 2020). ...
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... Different music based on a variation in the tempo or beats per minute can have different physiological effects on the body. Music of fast tempo of 120-130 beats per minute have been found to simulate anxiety as evidenced from an increase in the blood pressure and heart rate while slow tempo music of 50-60 beats perminute have an opposite effect [4] . Parasympathetic nervous system is stimulated to slow beat music and thus the heart rate decreases. ...
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Σήμερα υπάρχει μια ποικιλία επιστημονικών ερευνών που έχουν πραγματοποιηθεί και έχουν ως κεντρικό θέμα την επίδραση της μουσικής στον ανθρώπινο οργανισμό και γενικότερα, σε κάθε πτυχή της ζωής του. Με αφορμή το ενδιαφέρον μας για την λειτουργία του ανθρώπινου οργανισμού και την ιδιαίτερη αγάπη μας για την Μουσική, επιλέξαμε να ερευνήσουμε πώς επιδρούν τα διαφορετικά είδη μουσικής στους καρδιακούς παλμούς του ανθρώπου, κατά την διάρκεια ήπιας άσκησης; Το ερευνητικό μέρος περιλαμβάνει την οργάνωση και την πραγματοποίηση του πειράματος πάνω στο οποίο βασίζεται η έρευνά μας, καθώς και στην ανάλυση των αποτελεσμάτων του πειράματος. Για κάθε συμμετέχοντα έγιναν τρεις διαφορετικές μετρήσεις των παλμών του, σε κατάσταση ηρεμίας, σε ηρεμία ακούγοντας διαφορετικά είδη μουσικής και σε ήπια άσκηση ακούγοντας τα ίδια είδη μουσικής. Από την επεξεργασία των δεδομένων της εργασίας μας, προκύπτει ότι οι καρδιακοί παλμοί τουανθρώπου αυξάνονται, όταν αυτός ακούει Metal μουσική, τόσο σε κατάσταση ηρεμίας όσο και στη διάρκεια ήπιας άσκησης.
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The effect of synchronized and asynchronized movement to music on the ability to endure a physical task was examined. The relative work loads for 32 male and female subjects (ranging in age from 19 to 22 years) on the PWC170 test (physical work capacity, 170 bpm) were calculated and used as the criterion for exercise intensity. Subjects were then assigned in counterbalanced order to each of three conditions: synchronous movement to music, asynchronous movement to music, and a control condition. A Sex by Conditions repeated-measures ANOVA indicated that music, particularly if synchronized to physical movement, had a positive effect on the ability to endure the task and that male subjects endured longer than female subjects.
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Previous research has yielded an inconclusive picture of the effects of music and scent on walking. Few laboratory studies have detected a beneficial effect of music; olfactory research has shown performance is positively affected for repetitive tasks but not yet on walking. The influence of these two types of stimuli in efficiency of exercise among seniors was assessed by measuring distance walked on an indoor course. Using a 3 x 3 factorial design [mellow music in 4:4 time, frenetic music in 2:8 time, and white noise by stimulating, relaxing, and control scent conditions], each of 20 volunteers from a senior center received nine randomized, 90-sec. exercise trials. Walking distance was reduced by mellow music but unaffected by stimulating music; there was no effect of scent.
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We tested the hypothesis that a distractive stimulus, such as music, introduced during exercise can reduce perception of respiratory effort at any given level of exercise, whereas sensory deprivation increases effort perception. Thirty-six patients with moderate COPD participated in four sessions of symptom-limited exercise. The first session familiarized the subject with the protocol. The other sessions were performed under partial visual isolation while listening to music (M), or to grey noise (GN), or in silence (SIL), presented in randomized order. Subjects graded their respiratory effort using the Borg rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scale. Total exercise time (EXT) and external work (WT) were objective indices of exercise tolerance. EXT was 22% longer with M than with either GN or SIL (p < 0.001), and WT was 44% and 53% greater with M than with GN or SIL, respectively (p < 0.001). These increases occurred at a heart rate that was only a few beats higher than during GN or SIL (104 +/- 3 bpm for M and 101 +/- 3 bpm for GN and SIL), a minimal difference that was statistically significant (p < 0.001). At every level of exercise, perceived exertion with M was lower than for either GN or SIL (p < 0.001). Although the respective RPE was higher for SIL than for GN (p < 0.01) at every level of exercise, WT and EXT were no different. These data indicate that perceived effort can be significantly influenced by external factors. This in turn suggests that the use of distractive stimuli during exercise training programs with patients with COPD may significantly decrease perceived symptoms of respiratory discomfort, thus allowing the patient to exercise to a higher intensity, and potentially achieving more effective exercise reconditioning training.
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Equivocal results of the psychophysical effects of music have been explained in part by the insensitivity of researchers to important personal and situational variables when selecting music. The aim of the present study was to operationalize a conceptual framework for the prediction of psychophysical responses to music into a music rating inventory to assess the motivational qualities of music in exercise and sport environments. An initial item pool was developed and administered to 334 aerobics instructors. Exploratory factor analysis produced a 13-item, four-factor structure (association, musicality, cultural impact and rhythm response), which accounted for 59.2% of the variance. This model demonstrated acceptable fit indices when tested using confirmatory factor analysis on 314 exercise-to-music participants, and was better than an alternative two-factor model. When cross-validated using multisample confirmatory factor analysis, the model also showed an acceptable fit overall, although some invariance in the rhythm response factor was evident that can be attributed to the exclusive use of synchronous music by aerobics instructors. The Brunel Music Rating Inventory appears to be a valid and reliable tool for both researchers and practitioners to assess the motivational qualities of music in exercise and sport environments.
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To investigate, based on the parallel information processing model and arousal hypothesis, whether musical tempo and its manipulation during exercise affect the maximal workload (watts) achieved during progressive cycling. Design: repeated measures experiment that involved one control and four treatment conditions. Settings: the experiment was performed in a controlled laboratory environment. Participants: twenty-four male and female volunteers, recruited from among a University population, were tested. Intervention: the data collection proceeded in five counterbalanced test-sessions that included control (C), slow music (SM), fast music (FM) slow to fast music (SFM) and fast to slow music (FSM) interventions. In the last two conditions, musical tempo was changed when the participant's maximal HR reserve has reached 70%. In all test-sessions, participants started to cycle at 50 watts and then the workload was increased in increments of 25 watts every minute until self-declared exhaustion. Maximal ergometer cycling was defined as the workload at the last completed minute of exercise. Measures: workload, HR, and postexperimental ratings of test-session preferences were the dependent measures. Significantly higher workload was accomplished in the SFM condition. No between-session differences were seen in HR. The results also yielded significantly better "efficiency", in terms of workload/HR reserve ratio, in the SFM session. Participants preferred the FM and SFM sessions more than the other sessions. Switching to FM during progressive exercise results in the accomplishment of more work without proportional changes in HR. These effects may be due to distraction from fatigue and are, apparently, dependent on the attention capturing strength of the distracting stimulus.
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Effects of the listening context on responses to music largely have been neglected despite the prevalence of music listening in our everyday lives. This article reports 2 studies in which participants chose music of high or low arousal potential during (Experiment 1) or immediately after (Experiment 2) exercise or relaxation. In Experiment 1, participants preferred appropriate arousal-polarizing music over arousal-moderating music. In Experiment 2, participants preferred arousal-moderating music over arousal-polarizing music, such that their listening times contrasted clearly with those in the first study even though the same music and methods were used. Thus musical preferences interact with the listening situation, and participants' music selections represent an attempt to optimize their responses to that situation. When motivated to maintain a state of polarized arousal, listeners use music to achieve this; when they have no such goal, they use music to moderate arousal.
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24 female undergraduates performed 3 18-min sessions on a cycle ergometer at light, moderate, and heavy workloads during which perceived exertion, affect, and heart rate were monitored. Each S participated in a control, deprivation, and music condition. No significant differences were found in heart rate between conditions. Significantly lower perceived exertion existed during the music compared with the deprived condition at the low workload. There was lower perceived exertion during the music compared with the control condition at the moderate workload. Significantly greater levels of affect were observed during the music compared with the deprived condition at the moderate and heavy workloads. The influence of music and deprivation on perceived exertion and affect appears to be load dependent. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Describes (in English) several studies in this field. Using a bicycle ergometer for both short and longer time (6 min.) periods, Ss worked at a standard and then adjusted the power by halving or doubling the setting, as the case may be. In some studies they worked shorter times at the lower settings. Ss for the studies were physicians, students, nurses, and forestry workers. A chapter deals with perception of exertion and factors such as pulse-rate and lactic acid in the blood. Another chapter is entitled "The Psychophysics of Muscular Work and Adjacent Fields." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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232 undergraduates participated in 3 experiments that evaluated the feeling scale (FS) by W. J. Rejeski et al (1987) as a measure of affect during exercise. In Exp 1, Ss were instructed to check adjectives on the Multiple Affective Adjective Checklist—Revised that they would associate with either a "good" or a "bad" feeling during exercise. As predicted, discriminant function analysis indicated that the good/bad dimension of the FS appears to represent a core of emotional expression. In Exp 2, Ss rated how they felt during exercise at 3 rates of perceived exertion (RPE). Exp 3 involved 3 4-min bouts of exercise at 30, 60, and 90% of maximum oxygen consumption. RPE and the FS were moderately related, but only at easy and hard workloads. FS ratings evidenced greater variability as metabolic demands increased, and RPEs consistently had stronger ties to physiologic cues than responses to the FS. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The topics that are to be treated in this book were unduly neglected by psychology for many years but are now beginning to come to the fore. My own researches into attention and exploratory behavior began in 1947, and at about the same time several other psychologists became independently impressed with the importance of these matters and started to study them experimentally. It is interesting that those were also the years when information theory was making its appearance and when the reticular formation of the brain stem was first attracting the notice of neurophysiologists. During the last ten years, the tempo of research into exploratory behavior and related phenomena has been steadily quickening. The book is prompted by the feeling that it is now time to pause and take stock: to review relevant data contributed by several different specialties, to consider what conclusions, whether firm or tentative, are justified at the present juncture, and to clarify what remains to be done. The primary aim of the book is, in fact, to raise problems. The book is intended as a contribution to behavior theory, i.e., to psychology conceived as a branch of science with the circumscribed objective of explaining and predicting behavior. But interest in attention and exploratory behavior and in other topics indissociably bound up with them, such as art, humor and thinking, has by no means been confined to professional psychologists. The book has two features that would have surprised me when I first set out to plan it. One is that it ends up sketching a highly modified form of drive-reduction theory. Drive-reduction theory has appeared more and more to be full of shortcomings, even for the phenomena that it was originally designed to handle. The second surprising feature is the prominence of neurophysiology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This article reports an experiment in which the effects of the pitch, speed and the loudness of auditory signals on both subjective perceived urgency and response time are explored. The results show that the signals producing the highest ratings of perceived urgency, as well as the fastest response times, are those with a high frequency, a fast speed and a high level of loudness. Increases in all three parameters produced increases in perceived urgency ratings individually, and increases in pitch and loudness also decreased response time, A modelling approach to perceived urgency is proposed which should enable prescribed levels of urgency to be built into auditory alarms and warnings.
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This paper presents an experimental study of the effects of individual sound parameters on perceived (psychoacoustic) urgency. Experimental Series 1 showed that fundamental frequency, harmonic series, amplitude envelope shape, and delayed harmonics all have clear and consistent effects on perceived urgency. Experimental Series 2 showed that temporal and melodic parameters such as speed, rhythm, pitch range, and melodic structure also have clear and consistent effects on perceived urgency. The final experiment tested a set of 13 auditory warnings generated by an application of the earlier experimental findings. The urgency rank ordering of this warning set was predicted, and the correlation between the predicted and the obtained order was highly significant. The results of these experiments have a widespread application in the improvement of existing auditory warning systems and the design of new systems, where the psychoacoustic and psychological appropriateness of warnings could be enhanced.
Article
The effects of different types of music on heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and time to exhaustion during treadmill work were determined on 24 volunteer college students (Ss). The Ss participated in three randomly assigned multistaged treadmill walk/run to exhaustion while wearing a head-set. The three treatments were: loud, fast, exciting, popular music (Type A); soft, slow, easy-listening, popular music (Type B); and no music (control). HR was recorded at 0:30 of each minute until voluntary exhaustion. RPE was obtained after the test for five different points during the test. Differences (p less than 0.10) among experimental treatments were determined by a one-way ANOVA and Newman-Keuls. HR was lower with Type B music in minutes one and six. The peak HR and the HR in the minute preceding max were higher with Type B music. Time to exhaustion was longer during the Type B music treatment than during the control treatment. RPE was lower for Type B music than control during moderate work. This study provided some support for the hypothesis that soft, slow music reduces physiological and psychological arousal during submaximal exercise and increases endurance performance.
Article
One significant concern that pilots have about cockpit auditory warnings is that the signals presently used lack a sense of priority. The relationship between auditory warning sound parameters and perceived urgency is, therefore, an important topic of enquiry in aviation psychology. The present investigation examined the relationship among subjective assessments of urgency, reaction time, and brainwave activity with three auditory warning signals. Subjects performed a tracking task involving automated and manual conditions, and were presented with auditory warnings having various levels of perceived and situational urgency. Subjective assessments revealed that subjects were able to rank warnings on an urgency scale, but rankings were altered after warnings were mapped to a situational urgency scale. Reaction times differed between automated and manual tracking task conditions, and physiological data showed attentional differences in response to perceived and situational warning urgency levels. This study shows that the use of physiological measures sensitive to attention and arousal, in conjunction with behavioural and subjective measures, may lead to the design of auditory warnings that produce a sense of urgency in an operator that matches the urgency of the situation.
Article
Several pulse parameters that were believed to affect the perceived urgency and response time to auditory warning signals were investigated in a factorial experiment. The independent variables included pulse format (sequential, simultaneous, and frequency-modulated pulses), pulse level (65 and 79 dBC), and inter-pulse interval (0, 150 and 300 ms). The applications environments of interest were those having steady-state broadband noise. A probability monitoring task from the Criterion Task Set was used as an operator loading task to impose additional attentional demands during the signal detection and response task. The psychophysical methods of free-modulus magnitude estimation and paired comparison were used to measure subjective perceived urgency. An objective measure of response time to the signal was also obtained. Multivariate statistical analyses indicated that response time decreased significantly as perceived urgency increased. Perceived urgency of the signal increased and response time decreased as pulse level increased. Sequential signals took longer to detect and were rated as less urgent than the other two signal types. Shorter inter-pulse interval was associated with greater perceived signal urgency.
Article
The influence of music on physiological and affective exercise responses was studied in 8 trained and 8 untrained runners under three music conditions ("no", "sedative", and "fast") during low, moderate, and high intensity exercise. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed increased respiratory frequency (FR) during fast music as compared to the no music and sedative music conditions (p < 0.01). Plasma cortisol levels did not differ at baseline across the music conditions; however, following high intensity exercise, higher cortisol levels were associated with fast music as compared to no music and sedative music (music x intensity interaction, p < 0.01). Affective measures during exercise (FEELING scale) showed no overall training group differences; however, there was a music x group x intensity interaction (p < 0.05) in which untrained subjects reported more positive affect compared to trained subjects while listening to fast music during low and high intensity exercise. Data collected at voluntary exhaustion revealed significantly more positive affect and higher skin temperature (p values < 0.01) in untrained compared to trained subjects. Collectively, these results suggest listening to fast, upbeat music during exercise may be beneficial for untrained runners but counterproductive for trained runners.
Article
Previous research has yielded a contradictory picture of the effects of music on athletic performance. While athletes frequently report using music while training or during or before an event, laboratory studies have generally not detected a beneficial effect of music. The influence of music, judged mellow and frenetic, played before exercise was assessed by measuring stationary bicycle mileage. 60 volunteers from three age groups (child, adult, and senior) and with two levels of prior activity (high and low) were subjects. Each participant received three randomized 2-min. exercise trials, each preceded by 1-min. exposure to mellow music, frenetic music, or white noise. Mileage in both music conditions was significantly higher than that during the white-noise control trial except among the senior subjects. No significant differences between frenetic and mellow music were noted.
Article
The effects of four parameters (speed, fundamental frequency, repetition units, and inharmonicity) on perceived urgency were scaled using an application of Stevens's power law. From the exponents obtained, equal units of urgency change were calculated for three parameters. The units were combined in a set of stimuli, and the order of urgency was predicted. The obtained and predicted orders of urgency were highly correlated. The results also showed that even when equalized by psychophysical techniques, some parameters contribute more to perceived urgency than do others. This may be attributable to the different types of parameters scaled or the proportion of the usable range of each parameter that represents a unit change in urgency. The implication of the work for the design and improvement of auditory warnings is discussed.
Article
The article reports an experiment in which the effects of the pitch, speed and the loudness of auditory signals on both subjective perceived urgency and response time are explored. The results show that the signals producing the highest ratings of perceived urgency, as well as the fastest response times, are those with a high frequency, a fast speed and a high level of loudness. Increases in all three parameters produced increases in perceived urgency ratings individually, and increases in pitch and loudness also decreased response time. A modelling approach to perceived urgency is proposed which should enable prescribed levels of urgency to be built into auditory alarms and warnings
Sensory mediation of perceived exertion during submaximal exercise
  • V M Nethery
  • P A Harmer
  • D R Taaffe
NETHERY, V.M., HARMER, P.A. and TAAFFE, D.R., 1991, Sensory mediation of perceived exertion during submaximal exercise. Journal of Human Movement Studies, 20, 201–211.
Mapping of psychoacoustic parameters to the perceived urgency of auditory warning signals. Unpublished Master's thesis Competition between internal and external sources of information during mental exercise: influence on RPE and the impact of the exercise load
  • K L Momtahan
MOMTAHAN, K.L., 1990, Mapping of psychoacoustic parameters to the perceived urgency of auditory warning signals. Unpublished Master's thesis, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. NETHERY, V.M., 2002, Competition between internal and external sources of information during mental exercise: influence on RPE and the impact of the exercise load. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 17, 172–178.