The Role of Nutrients in Bone Health, from A to Z

Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition (Impact Factor: 5.18). 02/2006; 46(8):621-8. DOI: 10.1080/10408390500466174
Source: PubMed


Osteoporosis is a major public health problem, affecting millions of individuals. Dietary intake is an important modifiable factor for bone health. Inadequate intake of nutrients important to bone increases the risk for bone loss and subsequent osteoporosis. The process of bone formation requires an adequate and constant supply of nutrients, such as calcium, protein, magnesium, phosphorus, vitamin D, potassium, and fluoride. However, there are several other vitamins and minerals needed for metabolic processes related to bone, including manganese, copper, boron, iron, zinc, vitamin A, vitamin K, vitamin C, and the B vitamins. Although the recommended levels of nutrients traditionally related to bone were aimed to promote bone mass and strength, the recommended levels of the other nutrients that also influence bone were set on different parameters, and may not be optimal for bone health, in view of recent epidemiological studies and clinical trials.

Download full-text


Available from: Cristina Palacios, Dec 12, 2013
  • Source
    • "Adequate diet and physical activity throughout life could help achieve one's full genetic potential in peak bone mass, and reduce the risk of developing osteoporosis later in life [7] [8] [9]. Calcium and other minerals, such as magnesium, copper, zinc, iron and manganese are important components of an adequate diet. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Norwegian population has among the highest hip fracture rates in the world. The incidence varies geographically, also within Norway. Calcium in drinking water has been found to be beneficially associated with bone health in some studies, but not in all. In most previous studies, other minerals in water have not been taken into account. Trace minerals, for which drinking water can be an important source and even fulfill the daily nutritional requirement, could act as effect-modifiers in the association between calcium and hip fracture risk. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between calcium in drinking water and hip fracture, and whether other water minerals modified this association.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Bone
  • Source
    • "Beyond an evident significance of calcium-phosphate in bone turnover, the role of micronutrients and elements, i.e., iron, magnesium, manganese, selenium, zinc, and copper is also well known in bone metabolism [34–38]. Trace elements, in particular zinc and copper, are actively participating in enzymatic systems responsible for bone matrix turnover [39]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The study evaluated if men and women with severe tooth wear were at increased risk of general bone loss. Enamel biopsies obtained from 50 subjects aged 47.5 ± 5 years showed decreased copper content, which was associated with reduced spine bone mineral density, suggesting deficits of this trace element contributing to bone demineralization, enamel attrition, and deteriorated quality of mineralized tissues. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to assess associations between enamel trace minerals and bone mineral density (BMD) in severe tooth wear. We hypothesized that similar factors contributed to both the excessive abrasion of dental enamel and reduced BMD in subjects with tooth wear. Fifty patients aged 47.5 ± 5 years with severe tooth wear and 20 age-, sex-, and body mass index (BMI)-matched healthy volunteers with normal dental status were studied regarding dietary intakes of trace elements, serum and salivary copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and calcium (Ca) concentrations, and serum PTH, osteocalcin, and hydroxyvitamin D levels. Tooth wear was determined using clinical examination based on standard protocol according to Smith and Knight. In all subjects, acid biopsies of the maxillary central incisors were carried out to assess mineral composition of the enamel. Atomic absorption spectroscopy with an air/acetylene flame was used to measure Ca and Zn, and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to analyze Cu content. BMD was examined using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Tooth wear patients had reduced lumbar spine, but not femoral, BMD relative to controls (p < 0.001). No differences were found in enamel Ca concentration and Zn content was slightly higher in tooth wear patients than in controls whereas Cu content was significantly decreased in the patients: 19.59 ± 16.4 vs 36.86 ± 26.1 μg/l (p = 0.01) despite similar levels of Cu in serum and saliva. The differences were independent of serum 25-OH-D, osteocalcin concentrations or PTH either. Severe tooth wear is associated with reduced spinal BMD. Enamel in adult individuals with severe tooth wear is low in copper content. Therefore, further work is needed to determine whether copper plays a role in bone pathophysiology in these patients.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · Osteoporosis International
  • Source
    • "But bone stiffness also depends on intrinsic material properties (i.e., those independent of size and shape) such as porosity, level of mineralization, crystal size, and properties derived from the organic phase of bone [3], [4]. The most widely studied intrinsic mechanical properties include: Young’s modulus of elasticity or stiffness (E), bending strength (force required to break a sample of bone), and work to fracture (the work required to produce such break) [4], [5]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Few studies in wild animals have assessed changes in mineral profile in long bones and their implications for mechanical properties. We examined the effect of two diets differing in mineral content on the composition and mechanical properties of femora from two groups each with 13 free-ranging red deer hinds. Contents of Ca, P, Mg, K, Na, S, Cu, Fe, Mn, Se, Zn, B and Sr, Young's modulus of elasticity (E), bending strength and work of fracture were assessed in the proximal part of the diaphysis (PD) and the mid-diaphysis (MD). Whole body measures were also recorded on the hinds. Compared to animals on control diets, those on supplemented diets increased live weight by 6.5 kg and their kidney fat index (KFI), but not carcass weight, body or organ size, femur size or cortical thickness. Supplemental feeding increased Mn content of bone by 23%, Cu by 9% and Zn by 6%. These differences showed a mean fourfold greater content of these minerals in supplemental diet, whereas femora did not reflect a 5.4 times greater content of major minerals (Na and P) in the diet. Lower content of B and Sr in supplemented diet also reduced femur B by 14% and Sr by 5%. There was a subtle effect of diet only on E and none on other mechanical properties. Thus, greater availability of microminerals but not major minerals in the diet is reflected in bone composition even before marked body effects, bone macro-structure or its mechanical properties are affected.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · PLoS ONE
Show more