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Human hair growth enhancement in vitro by green tea epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG)

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Abstract

Green tea is a popular worldwide beverage, and its potential beneficial effects such as anti-cancer and anti-oxidant properties are believed to be mediated by epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major constituent of polyphenols. Recently, it was reported that EGCG might be useful in the prevention or treatment of androgenetic alopecia by selectively inhibiting 5alpha-reductase activity. However, no report has been issued to date on the effect of EGCG on human hair growth. This study was undertaken to measure the effect of EGCG on hair growth in vitro and to investigate its effect on human dermal papilla cells (DPCs) in vivo and in vitro. EGCG promoted hair growth in hair follicles ex vivo culture and the proliferation of cultured DPCs. The growth stimulation of DPCs by EGCG in vitro may be mediated through the upregulations of phosphorylated Erk and Akt and by an increase in the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Similar results were also obtained in in vivo dermal papillae of human scalps. Thus, we suggest that EGCG stimulates human hair growth through these dual proliferative and anti-apoptotic effects on DPCs.

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... This experiment notably explained the efficacy of using polyphenols of green tea aids to cure androgenic alopecia that has relevance mainly with the increased activity of enzymes, 5α-reductase and aromatase. Kwon et al. (2007) proved this mechanism by evaluating the efficacy of EGCG on the growth of human hairs. It was deduced that EGCG stimulates the growth of hairs by dual proliferative and anti-apoptotic effects (Kwon et al. 2007). ...
... Kwon et al. (2007) proved this mechanism by evaluating the efficacy of EGCG on the growth of human hairs. It was deduced that EGCG stimulates the growth of hairs by dual proliferative and anti-apoptotic effects (Kwon et al. 2007). ...
... These cells in small intestine absorb glucose and galactose by coupling with Na+-K+ATPase and are inhibited by EGCG thus improving glycaemic index (Johnston et al. 2005). The effect of it on Glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) was the same as the absorption gets inhibited by intake of catechins (Kwon et al. 2007). ...
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Due to its wide range of properties, green tea has extensively been turned out as an important substance to be examined experimentally by the analysts. Out of its various properties, the antineoplastic activity of green tea is exclusively acknowledged. Green tea shows therapeutic potential in case of cancers of cervical, lung, colon, liver, stomach, leukemia, prostate, breast, and many other organs. Green tea extract possesses some carcinoma preventive bioactive components such as polyphenols, proline, lysine, catechin, ascorbic acid, and epigallocatechin-3-gallate. Earlier investigations have favoured the relationship between the reasonable intake of green tea polyphenols and the decreased cancer possibility. Various mechanisms have been proposed to determine the application of green tea components as an anticancer agent. These mechanisms incorporate modulation of the immune system and cell signalling pathways, regulation of cell cycle, anti-oxidant activity, and inhibition of receptor tyrosine kinase pathway. Further, drug tolerance and several harmful side effects have long been a crucial complication in the treatment of tumor. The treatment by chemotherapy has also been transformed from single-drug remedy to multiple-drug remedy. Earlier research results indicated that the amalgam of green tea and chemo-remedial drugs could synergistically intensify the effectiveness of therapy and lessen the worse after-effects of antitumor agents in tumor sufferer. Therefore, we have focused on the use of green tea constituents either alone or in combination with other agents for the treatment of different types of cancers with upgraded life expectancy.
... With respect to androgen metabolism, EGCG inhibits 5α-reductase [31] and represses the expression of androgen receptor genes [32], and thereby exhibits a potential action for the prevention or treatment of androgen-dependent disorders. Kwon et al. [33] reported that EGCG stimulates human hair growth via proliferative and anti-apoptotic effects on dermal papilla cells. Similarly, topical EGCG was reported to reduce testosterone-induced apoptosis of hair follicles in a mouse model. ...
... Tannins have been reported to exert anticarcinogenic, antimutagenic, antimicrobial and astringent activities [54][55][56]. As described above, EGCG in green tea exhibits a potential action for the prevention or treatment of alopecia by inhibiting 5α-reductase [31][32][33]. Similarly, tannin was reported to have 5α-reductase inhibitory effect [57]. ...
... Nevertheless, the present study provides adequate preliminary data to establish a mechanism of action for this herbal complex with respect to hair regeneration. Here, we hypothesize that the multi-herbal formulation achieves its bioactivity with possible synergistic effects from each component: (1) most importantly, induction of anagen hair regrowth (modulation of IGF-1 and TGF-β1) by HC, (2) anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial actions [28,29] (possible protection of folliculitis) by PFVA, and (3) inhibition of 5α-reductase by GT [31,33]. ...
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Background Houttuynia cordata Thunb (HC) is a traditional herbal medicine widely used in Asia for the treatment of patients with alopecia, usually in combination with other two herbal medicines (Perilla frutescens var. acuta (PFVA) and green tea (GT)). However, the effect of this herbal complex has not been clearly demonstrated. We sought to determine the hair growth-promoting effect of this herbal complex (HC, PFVA, and GT) in the animal model. Methods Six-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into four groups (negative control, finasteride (1 mg/kg) as a positive control, and two (200 and 400 mg/kg) concentrations of the herbal complex as experimental groups) and were fed its corresponding medications orally for 25 days. Hair growth was evaluated visually and microscopically. Western blot analysis for insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 was performed. Results The herbal complex exhibited hair growth-promoting activity in C57BL/6 mice. Grossly, the area of hair regrowth was 55.1 (±3.8) %, 70.2 (±6.3) % and 83.5 (±5.7) % in negative control, herbal complex 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg group, respectively. In histologic examination, the hair follicle count in deep subcutis was 2.6 (±0.7), 5.8 (±0.7) and 8.6 (±1.2) and the diameter of hair follicles was 11.9 (±5.0) μm, 17.4 (±3.9) μm and 22.8 (±5.2) μm in negative control, herbal complex 200 and 400 mg/kg group, respectively. The expression of IGF-1 was 0.14 (±0.01), 0.23 (±0.02) and 0.24 (±0.01) and the expression of TGF-β1 was 0.26 (±0.01), 0.19 (±0.02) and 0.15 (±0.01) in negative control, the 200 and 400 mg/kg group, respectively. Conclusions This data provides adequate preliminary experimental evidence to support the hair regeneration effect of this herbal complex. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (10.1186/s12906-017-2003-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
... In addition, EGCG has been found to induce keratinocyte proliferation in human skin in vivo and in vitro (Chung et al., 2003). Importantly, Kwon et al. (2007) has reported that EGCG stimulates human hair growth via enhancing proliferation of DPCs. However, the detailed molecular mechanism of the pro-proliferative effect of EGCG has not been revealed. ...
... In our study, EGCG promoted the growth of mink hair follicles. This finding is consistent with the previous study in which EGCG promotes the growth in human hair follicles (Kwon et al., 2007). Our results confirm the growth-promoting effect of EGCG in mink hair follicles. ...
... These findings suggest that EGCG may modulate cell proliferation according to cell status. Consistent with our study, the report of Kwon et al also showed that EGCG promoted the proliferation of cultured human DPCs (Kwon et al., 2007). ...
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Background: Hair follicles play an essential role in the growth of hair. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a catechin polyphenol in green tea, has various bioactivities. The present study aims to evaluate the effect of EGCG on the growth of mink hair follicles and investigate the possible molecular mechanisms. Methods: The length of hair follicles was recorded up to 6 days in presence of 0.1–5 μM EGCG. Primary dermal papilla cells (DPCs) and outer root sheath cells (ORSCs) were treated with 0.25–4 μM EGCG, and their growth was evaluated by MTT assay and cell cycle detection. The levels of key molecules in sonic hedgehog (Shh) and protein kinase B (AKT) signaling pathways were further assessed by quantitative real-time PCR, western blot and immunofluorescence. To determine the involvement of Shh and AKT pathways in EGCG-mediated growth-promotion of ORSCs and DPCs, Shh pathway inhibitors cyclopamine and GANT61 or AKT pathway inhibitor LY294002 were employed, and then cell proliferation and cell cycle were analyzed. Results: Data from ex vivo culture showed that, in presence of 0.5–2.5 μM EGCG, the growth of mink hair follicles was promoted. In vitro, the proliferation of DPCs and ORSCs was enhanced by 0.5–4 μM EGCG treatment. More cells entered S phase upon treatment of EGCG, accompanied with upregulation of cyclin D1 and cyclin E1. Furthermore, when exposed to EGCG, the Shh and AKT signaling pathways were activated in both hair follicles and primary DPCs and ORSCs. Inhibiting either of these two pathways partly reversed the effect of EGCG on proliferation and cell cycle of DPCs and ORSCs. Conclusion: EGCG promotes the growth of mink hair follicles at concentrations of 0.5–2.5 μM. This growth-promoting effect of EGCG may be associated with the increased proliferation of DPCs and ORSCs through activating Shh and AKT signaling pathways.
... topical [32] Clinical and in vitro study androgenic in vivo 4 successive days EGCG stimulated hair growth / EGCG stimulates hair growth via its proliferative and antiapoptotic effects on DPCs, and may prolong the anagen stage [32], selective inhibition of 5α-reductase [31], antioxidant properties [29], and the stimulating effect on normal cell growth [ [41] androgenic 6 months stimulated hair growth, slowed down hair loss itching (in 1 out of 98 subjects) inhibition of 5α-reductase, germacrone acting anti-inflammatory [44] and antiandrogenic in vitro and in vivo [45], increases skin penetration of minoxidil [47] paradoxically promotes hair growth on male scalp and at the same time inhibits underarm (axillary) hair growth in females [42,46] Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer / Chinese red ginseng root extract topical traditionally [51] androgenic / prevented hair loss, improved hair growth. ...
... topical [32] Clinical and in vitro study androgenic in vivo 4 successive days EGCG stimulated hair growth / EGCG stimulates hair growth via its proliferative and antiapoptotic effects on DPCs, and may prolong the anagen stage [32], selective inhibition of 5α-reductase [31], antioxidant properties [29], and the stimulating effect on normal cell growth [ [41] androgenic 6 months stimulated hair growth, slowed down hair loss itching (in 1 out of 98 subjects) inhibition of 5α-reductase, germacrone acting anti-inflammatory [44] and antiandrogenic in vitro and in vivo [45], increases skin penetration of minoxidil [47] paradoxically promotes hair growth on male scalp and at the same time inhibits underarm (axillary) hair growth in females [42,46] Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer / Chinese red ginseng root extract topical traditionally [51] androgenic / prevented hair loss, improved hair growth. ...
... In this study, 10% EGCG in ethanol was applied to the patients' scalps. The results showed that EGCG prolongs the anagen phase and stimulates hair growth through proliferation and inhibition of apoptosis of dermal papillae, the protection of which prevents hair loss [32]. ...
Article
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Though hair does not serve any crucial physiological function in modern humans, it plays an important role in our self-esteem. Androgenic baldness (androgenic alopecia) and circular/spot baldness (alopecia areata) are the most common forms of hair loss. Many active ingredients of synthetic origin are available for treatment; however, they have a number of limitations. Their effectiveness and safety are questionable and the amount of time needed to achieve the effect is both long and unclear. This has increased interest in finding an alternative approach against hair loss using preparations containing plants and/or their isolated active ingredients. A number of studies (mostly randomized, placebo-controlled) of plants and preparations made of plants have been performed to confirm their effectiveness in treating hair loss. The plants with the most evidence-based effect against alopecia are Curcuma aeruginosa (pink and blue ginger), Serenoa repens (palmetto), Cucurbita pepo (pumpkin), Trifolium pratense (red clover), and Panax ginseng (Chinese red ginseng). The assumed mechanism of action is predominately inhibition of 5α-reductase, with enhanced nutritional support and scalp blood circulation playing a role as well.
... Among the intervention group, 5 patients (19.2%) remained stable, 19 (73.1%) had moderate improvement, and 2 (7.7%) had great improvement in terms of hair density. In contrast, all patients in the control group remained stable ( Figure 1). ...
... Epigallocatechin3-gallate (EGCG) is a major constituent of polyphenols found in green tea, with potential beneficial effects, such as anti-cancer and anti-oxidant properties. It was suggested it that might be useful in the prevention or treatment of AGA by selectively inhibiting 5α-reductase activity.19 A study has shown that EGCG promoted in vitro hair growth in hair follicles ex vivo culture and the proliferation of cultured dermal papilla cells.These dual proliferative and antiapototic effects on dermal papillacells may be mediated by the upregulation of phosphorylated Erk and Akt and by an increase in the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. ...
Article
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Introduction Αndrogenetic alopecia (AGA) is the most common hair disorder, affecting approximately 50% of men and women. A topical lotion that contains two patented formulas (Redensyl® and Sepicontrol A5®), has been introduced as an alternative approach to standard therapies for AGA. Methods Forty‐four patients with AGA were randomized either to apply the active lotion or the vehicle, twice daily for 24 weeks. Subjects were evaluated at 0, 12, and 24 weeks by clinical examination, photographic documentation, quality of life evaluation (DLQI), and trichogram (anagen to telogen ratio). Results Forty‐one patients, 18 males and 23 females, completed the study. Among patients receiving active treatment (n=26), 7.7% had great improvement, 73.1% had moderate improvement and 19.2% remained stable. The median self‐assessment score increased from 4 at baseline to 6 at 24 weeks (p<0.001), while the DLQI improved from 4 to 3, respectively (p<0.001). The median anagen to telogen ratio increased from 2.25 to 4.00 to 6.02 at week 0, 12 and 24, respectively. No significant adverse events were reported. Conclusion This new topical active blend is effective in the treatment of AGA, with high degree of patients’ satisfaction, improvement of quality of life, and an excellent safety profile. Thus, it may represent a useful alternative therapeutic approach for AGA. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... EGCG is scientifically proven to have activity against alpha reductase enzyme and thus offer great relief to alopecia. Further EGCG is water soluble and would get absorbed well through scalp epidermis [9,10]. ...
... EGCG has been proven to inhibit alpha reductase enzyme [10]. The hair growth promoting property what we have seen for Phyllanthus emblica, Hibiscus rosa sinensis and Eclipta prostrata along with the active constituent (s) identical to that of EGCG at the absorbance level suggests that the above plants either may possess some bio-similar molecules or some other bio-active constituent (s) other than EGCG also may have strong hair growth promoting property. ...
... e authors showed that one-third of the mice in the experimental group had significant hair regrowth (p � 0.014) compared to that in the control group [63]. Similarly, further investigation revealed that EGCG promotes hair growth in an ex vivo culture of hair follicles and the proliferation of cultured DPCs [64]. e authors suggested that growth stimulation of DPCs by EGCG in vitro was mediated by the upregulation of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinases and Akt, which are important for regulating cell growth, proliferation, survival, mobility, and invasion, as well as by the increased B-cell lymphoma 2/bcl-2-like protein 4 ratio, functioning like a rheostat to determine cell susceptibility to apoptosis. ...
... e authors suggested that growth stimulation of DPCs by EGCG in vitro was mediated by the upregulation of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinases and Akt, which are important for regulating cell growth, proliferation, survival, mobility, and invasion, as well as by the increased B-cell lymphoma 2/bcl-2-like protein 4 ratio, functioning like a rheostat to determine cell susceptibility to apoptosis. Notably, similar results were also obtained in vivo in dermal papillae of human scalps [64]. Finally, researchers used a micro-RNA (miRNA) microarray to identify miRNA expression levels in DPCs and determine the influence of this expression on the protective effects of EGCG against DHT-induced cell death, growth arrest, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, and senescence [65]. ...
Article
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Introduction. Current approved medications for hair loss, such as topical minoxidil and oral finasteride, may have suboptimal efficacy or side effects precluding continued use in some patients. Thus, we report an evaluation of the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of a new topical botanical formulation -GASHEE containing over 12 phytoactive ingredients that affect multiple targets in the cascade of pathophysiologic events that cause hair loss. Five patients with various hair-loss conditions, including cases of previous treatment failures, are presented. Case Presentation. This is a case series of four women and one man with hair loss due to various causes, four of whom had failed minoxidil treatment for over a year. All patients used the topical treatment as a sole therapy for at least 3 months before the documentation of outcomes, which involved interval changes noted through each patient’s account, direct observation, and photography. Discussion. In all patients, we observed significant improvements in hair regrowth in the nape, crown, vertex, and temple areas after 3–15 months of treatment. All patients were highly satisfied with their results and reported no adverse events. Although the use of botanicals in the treatment of hair loss is in an infant stage, the new formulation used in this study demonstrated a good efficacy related to hair growth, warranting further evaluation.
... Kwon et al stated that "it was reported the EGCG may be useful in the prevention or treatment of androgenetic alopecia by selectively inhibiting 5a-reductase activity (44)." 25 However, no report yet had been published on the effect of EGCG on human hair growth. A careful consideration of the Hiipakka et al paper revealed that it provided no evidence or written statement indicating that EGCG prevents or reverses androgenic alopecia by any means, including 5a-reductase inhibitors. ...
... 24 It, therefore, appears that Kwon et al provided the first report that EGCG enhanced hair growth in experimental systems. 25 Using 3 concentrations (0.01, 0.1, and 0.5 mM), they reported a dose-dependent increase in DPC proliferation using the MTT assay along with similar increases in the phosphorylation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase and protein kinase B (Akt). ...
Article
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Green tea, and its principal constituent (–)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), are commonly shown to induce biphasic concentration/dose responses in a broad range of cell types, including non-tumor cells, and tumor cell lines. The most active area of research dealt with an assessment of neural cells with application to neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease cell models, often using preconditioning experimental protocols. The general findings demonstrate EGCGinduced hormetic effects resulting in an enhanced acquired resilience within an adaptive and temporally dependent homeodynamic framework. The biphasic dose responses displayed the typical quantitative features of the hormetic dose response with respect to the amplitude and width of the stimulatory response. These findings provide further evidence for the general occurrence of hormetic dose responses with such responses being independent of the biological model, end point, inducing agent, and mechanism. The biphasic nature of these responses has important implications since it suggests optimal dose ranges for endpoints of public health and therapeutic applications. These findings indicate the need to assess the entire dose-response continuum in order to better define the nature of the dose response, especially in the low-dose zone where such exposures are common in human populations. This is an open-access publication and can be downloaded for free at: https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1559325820936170
... 20 Polyphenols (Dihydroquercetin-glycoside [DHQG] and Epigallocatechingallate-glucoside [EGCG2]) induced a stimulation of the metabolism of human fibroblast dermal papilla cells, proliferation and anti-apoptotic effect of the outer root sheath cells, and activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. [21][22][23] Combined with glycine as a constituent of the hair's keratin-associated protein composition 24 and zinc, which is crucial for the incorporation of cysteine into the keratin, 25 DHQG and EGCG2 stimulated the hair growth both in vitro and in vivo, where a 3 months treatment with a hair lotion containing 3% of polyphenols, zinc salt and glycine-complex increased the anagen rate, reduced the telogen, and lead to improved hair density as compared to placebo lotion in an open comparison. 23 The efficacy and safety of a combination of a shampoo and a lotion with the nano-encapsulated combination of the aforementioned ingredients was evaluated in a prospective, single-arm, open-label study with 35 women and 10 men with androgenic alopecia and telogenic effluvium, demonstrating, besides good tolerance, an increase in anagen rate, numbers of total follicular units, a total of hairs, and median hair number per follicle unit with corresponding decrease in hair shedding after 90 days. ...
... For the other ingredients present in verum, but not in vehicle(Table 1) no irritation potential is to be expected at their respective concentration in the formulations. For polyphenols and caffeine anti-inflammatory effects have been described.21,22,26 Besides topical minoxidil and oral finasteride drug therapy ofAGA 6 autologous biotechnologies represented by PRP and Human Follicle Stem Cells (HFSCs) as well as Low-Level Light therapy (LLLT) and microneedling have recently been in the focus of investigation for their potential to maintain improved hair growth instead of requiring permanent therapy. ...
Article
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Background: Considerable parts of the global population are affected by androgenetic alopecia (AGA). Aims: The efficacy of a foam containing nicotinic acid hexyl ester, polyphenols, zinc, glycine, and caffeine in comparison with a vehicle control foam was assessed in a double-blind vehicle-controlled study in men with AGA over 6 months. Patients/methods: Sixty-two men with AGA were assigned either to the active ingredients (verum) or the vehicle group. They applied the products twice daily on affected scalp areas over 6 months. Automated phototrichograms were obtained at baseline, after 3 and 6 months. In addition, a clinical rating by a dermatologist and by the subjects themselves was documented using standardized questionnaires. Results: The reduction of the telogen rate from T0 to T6 was significantly stronger in the verum group compared to the vehicle group. The reduction was significant from T0 to T3 and T6 in the verum group, but in the vehicle group only from T0 to T3, not to T6. Significantly increased hair density was noticed in both groups at all time points, but the change from T0 to T6 did not differ significantly between the groups. Cosmetic acceptance of the foam and its application regimen was generally good in both groups. Slight reddening and burning after application of verum in six cases was probably due to the presence of hexyl nicotinate. Conclusion: The study demonstrated a reduction of the telogen rate by a cosmetic foam in men affected by AGA, indicating a benefit for cosmetic intervention against male pattern hair loss.
... After EGCG application, 10% ethanol solution on human scalps, beneficial effects on the human dermal papilla cells were noted. These effects were consistent with the previously reported in vitro results (Kwon et al., 2007) (Figure 1). ...
Article
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The purpose of this review is to examine epigallocatechin‐3‐gallate (EGCG) regarding its stability in different conditions (pH‐value, concentration, temperature), its interactions with common cosmetic ingredients, and its application in the dermatological field. The literature research considered published journal articles (clinical trials and scientific reviews). Studies were identified by searching electronic databases (MEDLINE and PubMed) and reference lists of respective articles. Higher concentrations of EGCG were reported to correlate with better stability and the same can be said for low temperatures and pH values. The interaction between EGCG and hyaluronic acid strengthens its antioxidant activities. Titanium dioxide coated with EGCG proved a suitable ingredient in sunscreens. The polyphenol possesses antioxidant properties, which proved effective in the prevention of UV‐induced skin damage and to alleviate the symptoms of Imiquimod‐induced psoriasis. The three endpoints of this review not only showed interesting results but also highlighted some limitations of EGCG. Studies show that the molecule is unstable, which may hinder its dermatological and cosmetic applications. The reported interactions with cosmetic ingredients were limited. As the health aspects of EGCG are well‐reported, ECGC has become a focus of interest for health professionals trying to treat common dermatological diseases.
... Replacement of the gallate ester in EGCG with long-chain fatty acids produced potent 5α-R inhibitors that were active in both cell-free and whole-cell assay systems [90]. EGCG stimulates human HG via its proliferative and antiapoptotic effects on FDPC and may prolong anagen stage [91] Table 5. Schematic representation of in vitro cellular models used to test the role of Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze. ...
Article
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Abstract: Hair loss is a disorder in which the hair falls out from skin areas such as the scalp and the body. Several studies suggest the use of herbal medicine to treat related disorders, including alopecia. Dermal microcirculation is essential for hair maintenance, and an insu�cient blood supply can lead to hair follicles (HF) diseases. This work aims to provide an insight into the ethnohistorical records of some nutritional compounds containing flavonoids for their potential beneficial features in repairing or recovering from hair follicle disruption. We started from a query for “alopecia” OR “hair loss” AND “Panax ginseng C.A. Mey.“ (or other six botanicals) terms included in Pubmed and Web of Sciences articles. The activities of seven common botanicals introduced with diet (Panax ginseng C.A. Mey., Malus pumila Mill cultivar Annurca, Co�ea arabica, Allium sativum L., Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze, Rosmarinum o�cinalis L., Capsicum annum L.) are discussed, which are believed to reduce the rate of hair loss or stimulate new hair growth. In this review, we pay our attention on the molecular mechanisms underlying the bioactivity of the aforementioned nutritional compounds in vivo, ex vivo and in vitro studies. There is a need for systematic evaluation of the most commonly used plants to confirm their anti-hair loss power, identify possible mechanisms of action, and recommend their best adoption.
... During the transition between these phases, a group of specialized fibroblasts known as dermal papillae cells (DPCs) present in the hair follicle bulb plays an essential role in the regulation of the hair growth cycle [7]. Therefore, factors affecting the functions of DPCs are of great importance for the development of therapy for the treatment and/or prevention of hair loss [8]. These factors include, but not limited to, multiple signaling molecules, such as Wnts, Sonic hedgehog (Shh), and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), which contribute to the anagen initiation of multipotent epithelial stem cells [9]. ...
Article
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Inula helenium (IH) is known to possess antifungal, anti-bacterial, anti-helminthic, and anti-proliferation activities. Caesalpinia Sappan (CS) is known to reduce inflammation and improve blood circulation. Based on their folkloric use, these plants are expected to be promising candidates for promoting hair growth and preventing hair loss. Moreover, these plants are rich sources of certain phytochemicals, which have been reported to promote hair growth. In this clinical trial, we investigate the efficacy of a scalp shampoo formulated by mixing extracts of IH and CS in preventing hair loss and promoting hair growth in patients with androgenetic alopecia. Using a phototrichogram (Folliscope 2.8, LeadM, Korea), we compared the hair density and total hair counts in patients receiving the scalp shampoo at baseline, and at 8, 16, and 24 weeks after use of the shampoo. We found a statistically significant increase in the total hair count in the test group (n = 23) after 16 and 24 weeks of using the scalp shampoo (2.17 n/cm2 ± 5.72, p < 0.05; and 4.30 n/cm2 ± 6.37, p < 0.01, respectively) as compared to the control subjects. Based on the results of this clinical study, we conclude that the IH and CS extract complex is a promising remedy for preventing hair loss and promoting hair growth.
... Moreover, it was shown that epigallocatechin-3-gallate promoted hair growth in vivo dermal papillae of human scalps. It was concluded that EGCG stimulates hair growth through dual proliferative and anti-apoptotic effect [103]. ...
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Studies on the cosmetic applications of plant extracts are increasingly appearing in the scientific literature, which is due to the growing popularity of skincare products around the world. In the light of the observed changes, a return to natural treatment and skincare with cosmetics free of harmful substances or toxic preservatives is visible. Currently, tea extracts, due to their rich composition and various biological actions, play an important role among the dietary supplements and cosmetics. This review is intended to collect the reports on the properties of the tea plant, its extracts and preparations in cosmetology: for skin care products and for the treatment of selected dermatological diseases. Particular attention is paid to its antioxidant, anti-hyaluronidase, anti-inflammatory, slimming, hair-strengthening, photoprotective and sealing blood vessels properties.
... The health-promoting properties of tea have long been known because it was used to treat patients with infectious diseases (Weisburger, 1997). Recent studies suggested that green tea has, to some extent, beneficial effects on cardioprotection (Hodgson & Croft, 2010), cancer chemoprevention (Khan, Siddiqui, Adhami, & Mukhtar, 2013), adjusting the intestinal microflora (Okubo & Juneja, 1997), protecting the internal and other organs (such as kidneys, bone and muscle) (Bao & Peng, 2016;Buetler, Renard, Offord, Schneider, & Ruegg, 2002;Shen, Yeh, Cao, Chyu, & Wang, 2011), and strengthening the immune system (Bukowski, 2013), and if can be used as remedy for allergies (Maeda-Yamamoto et al., 2009), diarrhea (Ishihara & Akachi, 1997), and obesity/diabetes (Nagao et al., 2009) or in cosmetics for hair/oral care (Khurshid, Zafar, Zohaib, Najeeb, & Naseem, 2016;Kwon et al., 2007) and deodorizers (Yasuda & Arakawa, 1995). Epidemiological and intervention studies of green tea demonstrated that catechins are effective against certain types of cancer such as prostate, breast, lung, liver and digestive tract cancers (Khan et al., 2013). ...
Article
Background Green tea is produced from the tea plant Camellia sinensis without fermentation, and contains characteristic constituents, which are associated with health-promoting effects such as physiological, immunological, neurological and psychological effects, and protective effects against diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Catechins, such as catechin, epicatechin, epigallocatechin, epicatechin-3-O-gallate and epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate, and other green tea constituents, such as anthocyanidins, flavan-3-ols, flavonols, phenolic acids/depsides and caffeine/vitamins, are associated with many biological activities and cell signaling through interactions with specific proteins and signaling pathways. Scope and approach Among the activities and pathways induced or mediated by green tea constituents, estrogen action was focused on through a comprehensive literature search. Key findings and conclusions Estrogenic activity was evaluated by animal tests, cell assay, ligand-binding assay, protein assay, reporter-gene assay, transcription assay and yeast two-hybrid assay. Furthermore, health benefits, such as bone protection/bone regeneration, cardioprotection and neuroprotection, have been reported as the potential applications of the estrogenic activity of green tea constituents, whereas their anti-estrogenic activity has been discussed in association with cancer treatment and chemoprevention. Controversial results about their mixed estrogenic/anti-estrogenic/non-estrogenic and biphasic activity, and associated toxicity require further detailed studies to clarify the benefits and risks.
... This results in the formation of the three structural compartments of the hair fibre, medulla, cortex and cuticle and the follicle inner root sheath (IRS) that plays a role in the shaping of the hair fibre [5], and the companion layer [6]. The follicle is encased by the outer root sheath (ORS), which contains stem cells that play an active role in the initiation of the hair growth cycles [7,8]. Melanocytes are located in the bulb matrix overlying the DP, where they are actively producing melanin in hair growth, as well as being present in the ORS where they are inactive but contribute to the re-pigmentation of the follicle during a new hair growth cycle. ...
Article
It is known that hair growth disorders and hair loss can cause personal distress and affect well-being. Whilst clinical conditions remain a target for medical research, current research on hair follicle biology and hair growth control mechanisms also provides opportunities for a range of non-medical and cosmetic interventions that have a modulating effect on the scalp and follicle function. Furthermore, an improvement of the hair fibre characteristics (cuticle structure, cortex size and integrity) could add to the overall positive visual effect of the hair array. Since phytochemicals are a popular choice because of their traditional appeal, this review provides a critical evaluation of the available evidence of their activity for hair benefit, excluding data obtained from animal tests, and offers recommendations on improving study validity and the robustness of data collection in pre-clinical and clinical studies. © 2019 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.
... In in vitro stu dies on human fibroblasts, EGCG significantly limited cell aging [55]. In vitro and in vivo assays on human dermal papilla cells (tissue cultures and scalp in the occipital part) showed an increase in dose-dependent dermal cell proliferation, a three-fold increase in the expression of proteins involved in the proliferation of human epidermal keratinocytes and a 180% increase in hair follicle length after 10 days of EGCG administration [56]. In in vivo studies, using guinea pigs and hairless mice, the protective effect of EGCG (1%) and vitamin E (1%) has been demonstrated on the skin of animals under the conditions of UV-A and UV-B exposure. ...
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Polyphenolic compounds constitute a diverse group of natural components commonly occurring in various plant species. These include phenolic acids, tannins, flavonoids, anthocyanins, lignans and neolignans. Due to the chemical structure of the molecules (e.g. the presence of ortho­diphenol groups in aro­ matic rings), these compounds have antioxidant properties, which may delay the aging process. The mechanism of their antioxidant activity is mainly related to the scavenging of free radicals. Additionally, polyphenols possess antimi­ crobial and antiallergic, as well as vasoactive (sealing capillary walls) proper­ ties, which allows them to be used as ingredients of dermocosmetics for acne, sensitive and capillary skin. The use of creams containing natural antioxidants can effectively improve skin condition and prevent its aging. This paper reviews substances from the group of polyphenols utilized or potentially useful in the production of dermocosmetics as well as current scientific reports on their bio­ logical activity.
... Additionally, environmental stress increases apoptosis, a process whereby cells die in response to self-generated signals, in HDP cells. Excessive apoptosis in HDP cells increases the rate of hair loss [11,12]. Reducing HDP apoptosis and inhibiting the production of type I 5α-reductase is effective in preventing alopecia, and inducing HDP growth is critical for its treatment. ...
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Background: Despite advances in medical treatments, the proportion of the population suffering from alopecia is increasing, creating a need for new treatments to control hair loss and prevent balding. Treatments based on plant-derived compounds could potentially prevent hair loss. Human hair follicle dermal papilla (HDP) cells, a type of specialized fibroblast in the hair bulb, play an essential role in controlling hair growth and in conditions such as androgenic alopecia. We examined the effect of Bacillus/Trapa japonica fruit ferment filtrate extracts (TJFs) on HDP cells to determine whether activation of the Akt/ERK/GSK-3β signaling pathway improved HDP cell proliferation. Methods: We prepared TJFs using various methods. The extract properties were analyzed using WST-1, Lowry, and cell migration assays as well as immunofluorescence staining. We also determined the cell cycle stage and performed western blotting and an in ovo chick chorioallantoic membrane assay. Last, we constructed an organotypic three-dimensional cell culture model for immunohistochemical use. Results: Our study confirmed that the TJFs contained numerous peptides and five unknown fractions. The TJFs stimulated HDP cell proliferation and migration via the Akt/ERK/GSK-3β signaling pathway. To verify that the Akt/ERK/GSK-3β pathway affected HDP cell proliferation, we treated HDP cells with LY294002 (an Akt inhibitor), BIO (a GSK-3β inhibitor), and PD98059 (an ERK inhibitor). The TJFs also induced cell cycle progression, inhibited type І 5α-reductase, decreased apoptosis, and enhanced angiogenesis (vascular expansion). In addition to these signaling pathways, proteins including insulin-like growth factor-1 and keratinocyte growth factor, stimulating hair growth, were detected in the three-dimensional cell culture model. Conclusions: Our results confirmed that TJFs enhance HDP cell proliferation via the Akt/ERK/GSK-3β signaling pathway, suggesting a potential treatment for alopecia.
... The growth factors secreted from dermal papilla cells include basic fibroblast growth factor, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1), and keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) (Kwon et al. 2007;Philpott et al. 1994;Mitsul et al. 1997). Transforming growth factor beta 2 (TGFβ2) has been found to be a key factor for inducing a regression period, as it is expressed in follicles when the hair transitions from the growth period into the regression period. ...
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Abstract Purpose Angiogenesis is critical in various biological processes, such as blood vessel growth, fetal differentiation, wound healing, and organ regeneration. Various growth factors have been associated with vascular regeneration, including insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). One of the most important mediators of vascular regeneration is vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). VEGF is known to increase vascular permeability, induce the proliferation of endothelial cells, and stimulate capillary formation in vivo, which are core angiogenic functions. Methods The hydrolysates of lactic acid bacteria were produced by hydrolyzing Lactobacillus plantarum with proteases, treated with MG-63 osteoblasts, and screened to obtain samples with an excellent VEGF production effect. These samples were applied to human dermal papilla cells (hDPC) to examine the correlation between cell growth and VEGF secretion. Furthermore, the hair growth rate was measured in hair growth experiments using C57BL/6 male mice. Results The hydrolysates of the lactic acid bacteria produced in this study produced hair growth superior to the growth obtained with 5% minoxidil in hair growth experiments using C57BL/6 male mice. Conclusions This study aims to develop a material for application to the scalp that promotes angiogenesis in the scalp and facilitates the exchange of nutrients and wastes in the follicles to promote hair growth.
... Ginkgo biloba bitkisinin antiödem ve vazodilatör etkileri dolayısıyla alopesi tedavisinde kullanımı desteklenmiştir.35 Camellia sinensis bitkisi antioksidan, saç uzamasını artırıcı, saç kepeklenmesini önleyici, alopesiyi tedavi edici özellikler göstermektedir.[36][37][38][39] Aloe vera bitkisinin antiinflamatuar ve antimikrobiyal etkileri ortaya konarak saç gelişimini artırıcı ve seboreik dermatit tedavisinde kullanımını destekleyici sonuçları bulunmaktadır.40,41 ...
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Objective: Hair cosmetics are widely used by the public for various purposes. In order to avoid the possible damages and side effects when using products, the trend towards herbal products is increasing. The main purpose of this study is to determine the most common plants, which are existed in the hair products, and their using purposes by investigation of shampoos, hair care products and hair dyes contain plant parts. Material and Methods: 259 hair cosmetics products of 45 brands in pharmacies and personal care markets were searched, the plants in their content, parts of the plants used and their usage purposes were investigated. The data obtained are presented in tables and the plants and their families which are the most common in the hair products are given in graphics based on the number of plants' participation in the products. Results: As a result of research, 182 plants belonging to 70 families were determined in the hair products and the total number of participation of plants to products was found as 852. The 5 most widely used species in shampoos, hair care products and hair dyes are defined as; Rosmarinus officinalis L., Lawsonia inermis L., Olea europaea L., Urtica dioica L. and Matricaria chamomilla L. Conclusion: It is thought that this study will be a reference to the future scientific studies by detecting the most common plants in hair cosmetic products and will be a resource for health care workers to offer the appropriate product for the treatment of the patient.
... On the contrary, application of EGCG (10) promoted hair growth in normal human hair follicles ex vivo cultured, HHPDCs in vitro and on the scalps of nonbalding human volunteers (in vivo). Growth promotion was associated with upregulation of phosphorylated Erk and Akt (BAD proteins) and an increase in the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax (Kwon et al., 2007). Upregulation of phosphorylated BAD proteins prevents binding to Bcl-2. ...
Article
Abstract Ethnopharmacological relevance Research in the past half a century has gradually sketched the biological mechanism leading to androgenetic alopecia (AGA). Until recently the aetiological paradigm has been too limited to enable intelligent commentary on the use of folk remedies to treat or reduce the expression of this condition. However, our understanding is now at a point where we can describe how some folk remedies work, predict how effective they will be or why they fail. Results The new paradigm of AGA is that inheritance and androgens (dihydrotestosterone) are the primary contributors and a secondary pathology, microinflammation, reinforces the process at more advanced stages of follicular miniaturisation. The main protagonist to microinflammation is believed to be microbial or Demodex over-colonization of the infundibulum of the pilosebaceous unit, which can be ameliorated by antimicrobial/acaricidal or anti-inflammatory therapies that are used as adjuvants to androgen dependent treatments (either synthetic or natural). Furthermore, studies reveal that suboptimal androgen metabolism occurs in both AGA and insulin resistance (low SHBG or high DHT), suggesting comorbidity. Both can be ameliorated by dietary phytochemicals, such as specific classes of phenols (isoflavones, phenolic methoxy abietanes, hydroxylated anthraquinones) or polycyclic triterpenes (sterols, lupanes), by dual inhibition of key enzymes in AGA (5α-reductase) and insulin resistance (ie., DPP-4 or PTP1B) or agonism of nuclear receptors (PPARγ). Evidence strongly indicates that some plant-based folk remedies can ameliorate both primary and secondary aetiological factors in AGA and improve insulin resistance, or act merely as successful adjuvants to mainstream androgen dependent therapies. Conclusion Thus, if AGA is viewed as an outcome of primary and secondary factors, then it is better that a ‘multimodal’ or ‘umbrella’ approach, to achieve cessation and/or reversal, is put into practice, using complementation of chemical species (isoflavones, anthraquinones, procyanidins, triterpenes, saponins and hydrogen sulphide prodrugs), thereby targeting multiple ‘factors’.
... In a work of Esfandiari et al. the authors investigated the effectiveness of tea polyphenols on hair loss in mice concluding that the anti-inflammatory activity and the stress inhibitory properties of these natural compounds affect hair regrowth [39]. Therefore, Camellia Sinensis exerts a significant hair growth promoting activity mainly due to its phytoconstituent epigallocatechin 3-gallate, which acts via proliferative and anti-apoptotic effects on dermal papilla cells and is able to inhibit 5α-reductase [39][40][41][42][43]. ...
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Hair loss represents a condition that adversely affects the social life of patients. The most common cause is androgenetic alopecia (AGA), which is a genetically determined progressive hair-loss condition involving 5α-reductase. In this study, a novel anti-baldness agent based on Interconnected PolymerS TeChnology (IPSTiC), which is an effective strategy for the delivery of bioactive molecules, was developed. This product (IPSTiC patch hair) is based on a polymeric blend consisting of high molecular weight hyaluronic acid and soybean proteins and is able to improve efficacy and stability of bioactive ingredients such as Origanum vulgare leaf extract, Camellia Sinensis leaf extract, and Capsicum Annuum fruit extract. The efficacy of the developed anti-baldness agent was investigated by performing several tests including NO radical and 5α-reductase inhibition assays, stability studies under different conditions, and in vitro diffusion studies using Franz cells. The biocompatibility of IPSTiC patch hair was also evaluated by in vitro analysis of the pro-sensitising potential and EPISKIN model. The obtained results confirmed both the efficacy and safety of IPSTiC patch hair supporting the potential use of this product in the topical treatment of AGA.
... Previously, minoxidil was reported to have a concentration-dependent, biphasic effect on proliferation and differentiation, as well as on growth stimulation in low doses, and to be an anti-proliferative through the expression of cytokines (Kwon et al., 2007). In solution at less than 5%, Minoxidil can safely be applied to the human scalp; this equals a concentration of 1 mM (Han et al., 2004). ...
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Centella asiatica Linn. (C. asiatica) extract has been shown to possess high antioxidant activity due to its phenols and flavonoids. This study tested the efficacy of 70%-ethanol (EtOH) crude extracts of C. asiatica and its fractions (H2O, EtOAc, CH2Cl2, and hexane) to modulate human follicle dermal papilla cells. In addition, we analyzed the extracts for major phytochemicals as well as free radical scavenging activity. Our results from ABTS and DPPH assays showed that the amounts of phenolic and flavonoid compounds in the extracts were both related to its free radical scavenging activity. While the EtOAc fraction of C. asiatica demonstrated the highest free radical scavenging activity, it was toxic to human follicle dermal papilla cells. The cell viability test was positive when cells were treated with EtOH crude extract and H2O fraction. VEGF gene expression, quantified by real-time PCR analysis of the EtOH crude extract, showed a significant level of induction, indicating that the growth promotion effect in human follicle dermal papilla cells was related to VEGF gene expression, which has a positive hair growth stimulating effect. The EtOH crude extract of C. asiatica may offer potential in hair growth promoting products.
... Bioengineered scaffolds treated animals of both T1D and NonT1D groups show the presence of skin appendages such as hair follicle, sweat gland, and keratinized layer as seen in the H&E staining images. The effect of flavonoids such as procyanidin and catechin on the hair follicle growth was studied [58,59] and it is shown that the flavonoids assist in the development of new hair follicles by stimulating anagen induction in the hair growth cycle. The re-epithelialization effect of catechin may also help in the growth of hair follicles and sweat glands in the bioengineered scaffolds treated animals of both T1D and NonT1D groups. ...
Article
Management of burn wounds with diabetes and microbial infection is challenging in tissue engineering. The delayed wound healing further leads to scar formation in severe burn injury. Herein, a silver‐catechin nanocomposite tethered collagen scaffold with angiogenic and antibacterial properties is developed to enable scarless healing in chronic wounds infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa under diabetic conditions. Histological observations of the granulation tissues collected from an experimental rat model show characteristic structural organizations similar to normal skin, whereas the open wound and pristine collagen scaffold treated animals display elevated dermis with thick epidermal layer and lack of appendages. Epidermal thickness of the hybrid scaffold treated diabetic animals is lowered to 33 ± 2 µm compared to 90 ± 2 µm for pristine collagen scaffold treated groups. Further, the scar elevation index of 1.3 ± 0.1 estimated for the bioengineered scaffold treated diabetic animals is closer to the normal skin. Immunohistochemical analyses provide compelling evidence for the enhanced angiogenesis as well as downregulated transforming growth factor‐ β1 (TGF‐β1) and upregulated TGF‐β3 expressions in the hybrid scaffold treated animal groups. The insights from this study endorse the bioengineered collagen scaffolds for applications in tissue regeneration without scar in chronic burn wounds. Collagen based bioengineered scaffolds loaded with silver‐catechin nanocomposite elicit a significant increase in the angiogenesis and transforming growth factor‐β3 (TGF‐β3) expression and decrease in the TGF‐β1 expression. The scaffolds can heal infected burn wounds with low scarring surprisingly in type‐I diabetic animals and lead to a systematic skin reconstruction thereby demonstrating potential for application in chronic wound management.
... Baicalin enhanced DPCs proliferation and hair growth in mice [10]. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) stimulated DPCs proliferation in vitro [11]. It also protected human DPCs against Dihydrotestosterone by altering the miRNA expression [12]. ...
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Alopecia (hair loss) is a common and distressing condition. Therefore, it is important to develop new therapeutic agents to prevent the hair loss and maintain hair growth. Natural compounds, such as flavonoids are known to possess hair-growth promoting properties. The hair growth promoting effects of Naringenin and Hesperetin and their in vitro biological effects on human Dermal Papilla cells (DPCs) and keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) have not been reported yet to the best of our knowledge. In the present study, we have investigated the in vitro effects of Naringenin and Hesperetin on key constituent cells of hair; DPCs and keratinocytes. Cellular proliferation in DPCs and HaCaT cells was determined by MTT assay. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) levels were estimated by ELISA. Naringenin and Hesperetin significantly increased the proliferation of DPCs and HaCaT cells. Restoration of cell viability against Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induced cytotoxicity suggested protection against oxidative stress associated with hair. Stimulation of VEGF secretion was also observed. The preliminary results obtained here suggest the hair growth promoting properties of Naringenin and Hesperetin, presenting them as potential candidates for natural hair-growth promoting compositions. Further, the effect of compounds in ex vivo and in vivo models will substantiate their hair growth promoting properties.
... Further studies are in progress to explore the mechanisms and factors involved in hair regrowth in association with the polyphenols in green tea. 5,[19][20] Asthma: The word 'Asthma' is derived from the Greek word which means panting or breathless. The characteristics of asthma consist of inflammatory cell penetration, of neutrophills mainly during paroxysmal attack of asthma, asthmatic exposure, occupational asthma and patients with smoking and drinking habits. ...
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Green tea is obtained from the plant Camellia sinensis, belonging to family Theaceae. From ancient times tea is drunk worldwide as a beverage. Green tea with increasing interest with special reference to health benefits has led to the addition of green tea in the class of beverages with functional properties. Green tea has always been considered by the Chinese and the Japanese as a potent medicine for the maintenance of health, capable with the power to prolong life. The major components of Green tea which are responsible for the potential pharmacokinetic properties, Antioxidant and other Health benefits are Polyphenols. Present review article focus on Green tea as important beverage shows beneficial properties or which is useful for Weight loss, Stress, Cold and flu, Antiaging effect, Hair loss, Asthma, HIV, Immunity, Food Poisoning, Cardiovasuclar diseases, Liver Diseases, Arthritis, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s Disease, Glaucoma, Cancer, Diabetes, Oral Health, Gargling effect, Antioxidant, Antithyroid, Candidiasis, Antibacterial, Antiviral, Antiallergic, Synergism with Antibiotics.
... Regarding the hair care niche, epigallocatechin-3-gallate from green tea displayed great outcomes on human hair growth due to its proliferative and anti-apoptotic effects on dermal papilla cells [123]. Likewise, a procyanidinic extract of Malus pumila Miller cv Annurca stimulated the hair growth-promoting activity after chemotherapy-induced alopecia [124]. ...
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Experimental studies have provided convincing evidence that food bioactive compounds (FBCs) have a positive biological impact on human health, exerting protective effects against non-communicable diseases (NCD) including cancer and cardiovascular (CVDs), metabolic, and neurodegenerative disorders (NDDs). These benefits have been associated with the presence of secondary metabolites, namely polyphenols, glucosinolates, carotenoids, terpenoids, alkaloids, saponins, vitamins, and fibres, among others, derived from their antioxidant, antiatherogenic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antithrombotic, cardioprotective, and vasodilator properties. Polyphenols as one of the most abundant classes of bioactive compounds present in plant-based foods emerge as a promising approach for the development of efficacious preventive agents against NCDs with reduced side effects. The aim of this review is to present comprehensive and deep insights into the potential of polyphenols, from their chemical structure classification and biosynthesis to preventive effects on NCDs, namely cancer, CVDs, and NDDS. The challenge of polyphenols bioavailability and bioaccessibility will be explored in addition to useful industrial and environmental applications. Advanced and emerging extraction techniques will be highlighted and the high-resolution analytical techniques used for FBCs characterization, identification, and quantification will be considered.
... Studies evaluated that Lawsonia inermis compounds can slow hair loss and help nourish the scalp (25). Epicatechin gallate (ECG) and Epigallactocatechin gallate (EGCG) are extracted from Camellia sinensis leaves (26)(27)(28). Other compounds are β-sitosterol and stigmasterol isolated from Serenoa repens. ...
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Background: Dihydrotestosterone (DHT), the most critical pathogenic androgen in hair loss, is identified as an etiologic factor of androgenetic alopecia (AGA). The AGA is a genetically common disorder among men and is characterized by the progressive conversion of hair follicles into small vellus hair. Steroid 5 alpha-reductase type 1 (5AR1) is a crucial target responsible for this gradual replacement. The 5AR1 function is determined by converting testosterone to DHT. The inhibitors of 5AR1 play their role by blocking the DHT production pathway. Objectives: This study focused on the potent inhibitors of the 5AR1 enzyme to suggest effective synthetic drugs for restoring hair loss with fewer side effects. Methods: The three-dimensional structure of 5AR1 was created using homology modeling methods. Then, the inhibitory effects of some significant compounds from natural sources were examined on the 5AR1 protein using molecular docking approaches. Results: The obtained results suggest that two natural compounds isolated from Serenoa repens, including beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol, could inhibit the regular activity of 5AR1 and can be recommended as safe and novel AGA medicines for hair restoration.
... Several clinical findings recommend that the treatment is done through EGCG blocks cancer incidence and diversity in differentiated organ sites, including liver, skin, stomach, lungs, colon, and mammary glands present in the body (Kwon et al., 2007). The objectives of the clinical studies are to study the efficiency of EGCG in treating tumor patients. ...
Article
Epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG) possesses various biological functions, including anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties. EGCG is an abundant polyphenolic component originating from green tea extract that has exhibited versatile bioactivities in combating several cancers. This review highlights the pharmacological features of EGCG and its therapeutic implications in cancer and other metabolic diseases. It modulates numerous signalling pathways, regulating cells' undesired survival and proliferation, thus imparting strong tumor chemopreventive and therapeutic effects. EGCG initiates cell death through the intrinsic pathway and causes inhibition of EGFR, STAT3, and ERK pathways in several cancers. EGCG alters and inhibits ERK1/2, NF-κB, and Akt-mediated signaling, altering the Bcl-2 family proteins ratio and activating caspases in tumor cells. This review focuses on anti-cancer, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenesis, and apoptotic effects of EGCG. We further highlighted the potential of EGCG in various types of cancer, emphasizing clinical trials formulations that further improve our understanding of the therapeutic management of cancer and inflammatory diseases.
... The results of increasing in thickness and the darker color of eyebrows obtained in this work may confirm the in vitro pharmacological activities of C. ternatea and E. caryophyllus previously reported [10][11][12]16 . ...
Article
Clitoria ternatea (butterfly pea) flower and Eugenia caryophyllus (clove) oil have been traditionally used as hair growth stimulating herbal and exhibited hair growth effects in vitro. This work prepared liposome loading with butterfly pea flower extract and clove oil and studied the hair growth promoting effects on eyebrows in volunteers. The liposome of butterfly pea flower extract and clove oil was prepared by loading the extract and oil into a pro-liposome. The formation of liposome was examined using the microscopy and its physical stability was studied at 4°C, 45°C and ambient temperature (30-35°C) for 1 month. The liposome of butterfly pea flower extract and clove oil was macroscopically stable but microscopic examination showed that the liposome vesicles were larger overtime. The loaded liposome was used for eyebrow growth efficacy test in 15 volunteers. The product was applied on both sides of eyebrows twice daily for 60 days. The evaluation was based on the taken photos and the satisfaction assessment scoring from 1 to 5 (very poor-excellent). The eyebrows appeared darker and thicker after 30 day and progressively more obvious at 2 month use. Participants felt that the enhancement of eyebrow thickness and darkness was good (33.3%) to excellent (66.7%). In addition, there was no irritation present which ensure the product safety. Conclusively, this work reported a stable liposome loaded with butterfly pea flower extract and clove oil. The product was subjectively proven to intensify the thickness and darkness of eyebrows.
... The hair im-duction with great potential for use in skincare to improve skin health and protection and with beneficial effects on skin aging [20]. Since studies of polyphenols from green tea and Annurca Apples showed a beneficial effect on hair growth, the influence of OMWW extract on human follicle dermal papilla cells (HFDPC) and their secretion of growth factors (IGF-1 and VEGF) was investigated in this work [21] [22]. In addition, the protective function of the extract regarding the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cells was examined. ...
... Formulations with 6% G.T. have a prolonged moisturizing effect, improve microrelief, and reduce skin roughness [151]. Topical application of G.T. prevents UV-oxidative injury, reduces the matrix metalloproteinases, collagenase, and hyaluronidase production [152,153], and decreases UV-induced erythema [154]. Tea used orally and topically decreases sebum production, and prevents and treats acne vulgaris [155]. ...
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Nowadays, much attention is paid to issues such as ecology and sustainability. Many consumers choose "green cosmetics", which are environmentally friendly creams, makeup, and beauty products, hoping that they are not harmful to health and reduce pollution. Moreover, the repeated mini-lock downs during the COVID-19 pandemic have fueled the awareness that body beauty is linked to well-being, both external and internal. As a result, consumer preferences for makeup have declined, while those for skincare products have increased. Nutricosmetics, which combines the benefits derived from food supplementation with the advantages of cosmetic treatments to improve the beauty of our body, respond to the new market demands. Food chemistry and cosmetic chemistry come together to promote both inside and outside well-being. A nutricosmetic optimizes the intake of nutritional microelements to meet the needs of the skin and skin appendages, improving their conditions and delaying aging, thus helping to protect the skin from the aging action of environmental factors. Numerous studies in the literature show a significant correlation between the adequate intake of these supplements, improved skin quality (both aesthetic and histological), and the acceleration of wound-healing. This review revised the main foods and bioactive molecules used in nutricosmetic formulations, their cosmetic effects, and the analytical techniques that allow the dosage of the active ingredients in the food.
... Date seed oil contained a significant phenolic compound and showed diverse pharmacological effects, such as antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic, and anti-inflammatory activities [89,90]. Several phenolic and flavonoid compounds were found in date fruits [91][92][93][94][95][96][97][98][99][100]. Phenolic compounds act as natural antioxidants. ...
Article
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Abstract: Many recent studies in the field of cosmetics have focused on organically sourced substances. Products made from organic materials are safe, high quality, cruelty-free, and more effective than those made from synthetic materials. Many organic compounds are known to be physiologically active in humans and have an extended storage capacity and long-lasting environmental effects. Agro-industrial waste has recently increased substantially, and the disposal of date palm waste, often performed in primitive ways such as burning, is harmful to the environment. Fruit processing industries generate over 10% of the total date seed waste daily, which could be converted into useful food products. Date fruit and seed are rich in sugar, vitamins, fiber, minerals, and phenolic compounds with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that significantly promote human and animal health. This waste is rich in bioactive compounds and essential oils used in many kinds of food, medicine, and cosmetics. Most active cosmetic ingredients come from natural sources such as fruit, fish, and dairy, and recent research shows that date extract and seed oil help to reduce melanin, eczema, acne, and dry patches, while increasing skin moisture and elasticity. This review details the bioactive compounds and nutraceutical properties of date fruit and seed, and their use as cosmetic ingredients.
... Treatment of HHDPCs with cisplatin induces production of reactive oxygen species and decreases of Bcl-2/Bax ratios, leading to HHDPC apoptosis and massive hair loss (Luanpitpong et al., 2011). Tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate (Kwon et al., 2007) and MNX (Han et al., 2004) enhanced proliferation and inhibited apoptosis (by increasing Bcl-2/Bax ratios) of dermal papilla cells, thereby stimulating hair growth. In mice, 6-gingerol in ginger suppresses cultured human hair elongation and delays telogen-to-anagen transition of hair follicles by inhibitory and pro-apoptotic activities on dermal hair cells (Miao et al., 2013). ...
Article
This study aimed to investigate the underlying mechanisms of red ginseng extract (RGE) on regulating hair growth and hair follicle development. Results from in vitro studies showed that RGE treatment simultaneously enhanced viability and inhibited apoptosis in human hair dermal papilla cells. Moreover, RGE administration promoted telogen-to-anagen transition, prolonged anagen in hair follicular cycling, and increased the size of hair follicles and skin thickness in a C57BL/6 mouse model. Furthermore, RGE treatment significantly upregulated the expression of β-catenin, phospho-glycogen synthase kinase 3β, cyclin D1, cyclin E, and Bcl-2, phospho-extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase, and phospho-Akt, which are associated with promoting hair growth. In addition, RGE enhanced skin health by activation of antiox-idant defense systems. Our data demonstrates that hair regenerative mechanisms of RGE may be mediated by stimulating dermal papilla cell proliferation and enhancing skin functions.
... It is accounted for that the tea polyphenolic mixes have had an impact on male sample baldness amongst rodents and inferred that mitigating and stress inhibitory effects of these ordinary supplies may additionally affect hair regrowth amongst mice 74 . Epigallocatechin-3-gallate animates human hair improvement by way of the skill of its proliferative and antiapoptotic effects on dermal papilla cells 75 . ...
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This review presents an overview on plants identified to possess hair growth activity in various ethno-botanical studies and surveys of tradition medicinal plants. There are various causes for hair loss and the phenomenon is still not fully understood. The treatments offered include both natural or synthetic products to treat the condition of hair loss (alopecia), nonetheless natural products are continuously gaining popularity mainly due to their fewer side effects and better formulation strategies for natural product extracts. Plants have been widely used for hair growth promotion since ancient times as reported in Ayurveda, Chinese and Unani systems of medicine. This review covers information about different herbs and herbal formulation that are believed to be able to reduce the rate of hair loss and at the same time stimulate new hair growth. A focus is placed on their mechanism of action and the review also covers various isolated phytoconstituents possessing hair growth promoting effect. Keywords: Alopecia, ayurveda, hair, herbal formulation.
Chapter
Since an important commercial interest lies in the nutritional value of various vitamin and amino acid supplements, an important question that arises is whether increasing the content of an already adequate diet with specific amino acids, vitamins, and/or trace elements may further promote hair growth and pigmentation. Pharmacy aisles and Internet drugstores are full of nutritional supplements promising full, thick, luscious hair for prices that range from suspiciously cheap to dishearteningly exorbitant. It would appear that unless hair loss is due to a specific nutritional deficiency, there is only so much that nutritional therapies can do to enhance hair growth and quality. However, there are internal and external factors, such as aging and environmental stressors, that influence hair health to such a degree that nutritional therapy may boost hair that is suffering from these problems. Protein is the main component of hair with the primary component of the hair fiber being keratin that is made from amino acids. The most abundant of these is cysteine which gives the hair fiber much of its strength through the linking of the sulfur in cysteine molecules of adjacent keratin proteins together in disulfide bonds. Meanwhile, the hair follicle exhibits a high rate of metabolism. As a group, B complex vitamins are important for metabolic functions and therefore required to utilize other nutrients like carbohydrates and amino acids: biotin (vitamin H), calcium pantothenate (B5), niacinamide (B3), folic acid, and vitamins B6 (pyridoxal phosphate) and B12 (cobalamin). Further insights into the role of oxidative stress could open additional strategies for interventions into age-dependent hair and pigmentation loss. Specifically, the body possesses endogenous defense mechanisms, such as antioxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase) and nonenzymatic antioxidative molecules (vitamins E and C, glutathione, ubiquinone), protecting it from free radicals. With age, the production of free radicals increases, while the endogenous defense mechanisms decrease. This imbalance leads to the progressive damage of cellular structures, ultimately resulting in the aging phenotype.
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Hair is a deeply rooted component of identity and culture. Recent articles in this series have focused on scientific evidence relating to hair growth and new insights into the pathogenesis and mechanism of hair loss. This article reviews emerging evidence that has advanced our understanding of hair growth in both of these areas to provide a context for outlining current and emerging therapies. These include finasteride, minoxidil, topical prostaglandins, natural supplements, microneedling, low-level laser light, platelet-rich plasma, fractional lasers, cellular therapy, Wnt activators and SFRP1 antagonism.
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Burn is one of the major causes of death and disability in the world. It can cause by heat, chemicals, electricity, sunlight or radiation. More burns caused by fires in buildings, contact with boiling water, steam, liquids and flammable gases. Accelerating the process of healing has always been of interest to practitioners because these injuries are usually takes long time to be healed. Therefore, proper treatment and care of this type of wound required to accelerate healing, prevent infection and chronicity. In traditional medicine, due to the high vegetation diversity and breadth of our country, the use of herbs for burns healing and lesions of various etiologies, has been intesified. Various studies on burn wound healing properties of medicinal plants have been performed. In this article, we refered to reliable sites for evaluating of 10 plants including Amebia euchroma, Green Tea, Hypericum perforatum, Centella asiatica, Scrophularia striata, Aloe vera, Cydonia Oblongae seeed, Malva sylvestris, Calendula officinalis and Myrtus to compare the restorative properties of a number of important medicinal plant flora of Iran on accelerating the process of wounds healing of burn in order to provide effective medicinal plant sources are addressed.
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en Objective The human scalp harbours a vast community of microbiotal mutualists. Androgenetic alopecia (AGA), the most common form of hair loss in males, is a multifactorial condition involving genetic predisposition and hormonal changes. The role of microflora during hair loss remains to be understood. After having characterized the scalp microbiota of 12 healthy male subjects and 12 AGA male subjects (D0), the aim of this investigation was to evaluate the capacity of Lindera strychnifolia root extract (LsR) to restore a healthy bacterial and fungal scalp microflora after 83 days (D83) of treatment. Material and methods The strategy used was based on high‐throughput DNA sequencing targeting the encoding 16S ribosomal RNA for bacteria and Internal Transcribed Spacer 1 ribosomal DNA for fungi. Results Test analysis of relative abundance comparing healthy and AGA subjects showed a significant increase of Cutibacterim acnes (P < 0.05) and Stenotrophomonas geniculata (P < 0.01) in AGA subjects. AGA scalp condition was also associated with a significant (P < 0.05) decrease of Staphylococcus epidermidis relative abundance. A lower proportion of Malassezia genus in samples corresponding to AGA scalps and an increase of other bacterial genera (Wallemia, Eurotium) were also noted. At the species level, mean relative abundance of Malassezia restricta and Malassezia globosa were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in the AGA group. Eighty‐three days of treatment induced a significant decrease in the relative abundance of C. acnes (P < 0.05) and S. geniculata (P < 0.01). S. epidermidis increased significantly (P < 0.05). At the same time, LsR treatment induced a significant increase in the proportion of M. restricta and M. globosa (P < 0.05). Conclusion Data from sequencing profiling of the scalp microbiota strongly support a different microbial composition of scalp between control and AGA populations. Findings suggest that LsR extract may be a potential remedy for scalp microbiota re‐equilibrium. Resume Francais fr Objectif Le cuir chevelu humain abrite une vaste communauté microbienne. L'alopécie androgénétique (AGA), la forme la plus courante de perte de cheveux chez l'homme, est une pathologie multifactorielle impliquant une prédisposition génétique et des changements hormonaux. Le rôle de la microflore lors de la chute des cheveux reste à comprendre. Après avoir caractérisé le microbiote du cuir chevelu de 12 hommes sans alopecie et 12 hommes porteur d'une alopécie, (J0), l'objectif de cette étude était d'évaluer la capacité de l'extrait de racine de Lindera strychnifolia (LsR) à restaurer une microflore bactérienne et fongique saine du cuir chevelu après 83 jours (D83) de traitement. Matériel et méthodes La stratégie utilisée était basée sur un séquençage d'ADN à haut débit ciblant l'ARN ribosomal 16S codant pour les bactéries et l'ADN ribosomal de l'espaceur transcrit interne 1 pour les champignons. Résultats Une augmentation significative de Cutibacterim acnes (P < 0,05) et Stenotrophomonas geniculata (P < 0,01) chez les sujets AGA a ete note a J0 comparativement aux sujets non alopecique. L'état du cuir chevelu AGA était également associé à une diminution significative (P < 0,05) de l'abondance relative de Staphylococcus epidermidis. Une plus faible proportion du genre Malassezia dans les échantillons correspondant aux cuirs chevelus AGA et une augmentation d'autres genres bactériens (Wallemia, Eurotium) ont également été notées. Au niveau des espèces, l'abondance relative moyenne de Malassezia restricta et Malassezia globosa était significativement plus faible (P < 0,05) dans le groupe AGA. Quatre‐vingt‐trois jours de traitement ont induit une diminution significative de l'abondance relative de C. acnes (P < 0,05) et S. geniculata (P < 0,01). S. epidermidis a augmenté de manière significative (P < 0,05). Dans le même temps, le traitement LsR a induit une augmentation significative de la proportion de M. restricta et M. globosa (P < 0,05). Conclusion Les données de séquençage soutiennent fortement une composition microbienne différente du cuir chevelu entre les populations témoin et AGA. Les résultats suggèrent que l'extrait de LsR peut être un remède potentiel pour le rééquilibre du microbiote du cuir chevelu.
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Background: Dihydrotestosterone (DHT), the most critical pathogenic androgen in hair loss, is identified as an etiologic factor of androgenetic alopecia (AGA). The AGA is a genetically common disorder among men and is characterized by the progressive conversion of hair follicles into small vellus hair. Steroid 5 alpha-reductase type 1 (5AR1) is a crucial target responsible for this gradual replacement. The 5AR1 function is determined by converting testosterone to DHT. The inhibitors of 5AR1 play their role by blocking the DHT production pathway. Objectives: This study focused on the potent inhibitors of the 5AR1 enzyme to suggest effective synthetic drugs for restoring hair loss with fewer side effects. Methods: The three-dimensional structure of 5AR1 was created using homology modeling methods. Then, the inhibitory effects of some significant compounds from natural sources were examined on the 5AR1 protein using molecular docking approaches. Results: The obtained results suggest that two natural compounds isolated from Serenoa repens, including beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol, could inhibit the regular activity of 5AR1 and can be recommended as safe and novel AGA medicines for hair restoration.
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Hair loss is multifactorial. Antiandrogens are inconsistent in clinical results. Instead of fighting hair loss, we focus on strengthening the hair roots and promoting better hair growth. The article lists non-androgenic causes, enlists foods to be added and avoided for good hair growth, and provides scientific evidence for role of nutrients in hair loss management. New process of autophagy conceals clinical detection of low nutrient levels through lab tests. It is experimentally proven that DHT causes accumulation of ROS which in turn releases TGF ß1 leading to miniaturization, and this action can be successfully blocked by the use of antioxidants. Changing food preferences and decreasing nutritive value of the foods make it necessary to have supplements. Too many supplements consumed together reduce the absorption and efficiency of one another. Therefore, a low-dose once in 3 days cyclical vitamin therapy has been proposed. Nutritional correction ensures wellness, good health, and good hair growth without the fear of side effects.
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Hair disorders such as hair loss (alopecia) and androgen dependent, excessive hair growth (hirsutism, hypertrichosis) may impact the social and psychological well‐being of an individual. Recent advances in understanding the biology of hair have accelerated the research and development of novel therapeutic and cosmetic hair growth agents. Preclinical models aid in dermocosmetic efficacy testing and claim substantiation of hair growth modulators. The in vitro models to investigate hair growth utilize the hair follicle Dermal Papilla cells (DPCs), specialized mesenchymal cells located at the base of hair follicle that play essential roles in hair follicular morphogenesis and postnatal hair growth cycles. In this review, we have compiled and discussed the extensively reported literature citing DPCs as in vitro model to study hair growth promoting and inhibitory effects. A variety of agents such as herbal and natural extracts, growth factors and cytokines, platelet‐rich plasma, placental extract, stem cells and conditioned medium, peptides, hormones, lipid‐nanocarrier, light, electrical and electromagnetic field stimulation, androgens and their analogs, stress‐serum and chemotherapeutic agents etc. have been examined for their hair growth modulating effects in DPCs. Effects on DPCs’ activity were determined from untreated (basal) or stress induced levels. Cell proliferation, apoptosis and secretion of growth factors were included as primary end‐point markers. Effects on a wide range of biomolecules and mechanistic pathways that play key role in the biology of hair growth were also investigated. This consolidated and comprehensive review summarizes the up‐to‐date information and understanding regarding DPCs based screening models for hair growth and may be helpful for researchers to select the appropriate assay system and biomarkers. This review highlights the pivotal role of DPCs in the forefront of hair research as screening platforms by providing insights into mechanistic action at cellular level, which may further direct the development of novel hair growth modulators. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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A vast majority of the world’s population lacks access to essential medicines and the provision of safe healthcare services. Medicinal plants and herbal medicines can be applied for pharmacognosy, or the discovery of new drugs, or as an aid for plant physiology studies. In recent years, there has been increased interest in the search for new chemical entities and the expression of resistance of many drugs available in the market has led to a shift in paradigm towards medicinal research. Herbal treatments, the most popular form of folk medicine, may become an important way of increasing access to healthcare services. Advanced Pharmacological Uses of Medicinal Plants and Natural Products provides emerging research exploring the theoretical and practical aspects of drug discovery from natural sources that allow for the effective treatment of human health problems without any side effects, toxicity, or drug resistance. Featuring coverage on a broad range of topics such as ethnobotany, therapeutic applications, and bioactive compounds, this book is ideally designed for pharmacologists, scientists, ethnobotanists, botanists, health researchers, professors, industry professionals, and health students in fields that include pharmaceutical drug development and discovery.
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Background Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is the most common form of non‐scarring alopecia in humans. Several studies have used different laboratory models to study the pathogenesis and interventions for AGA. These study models have proved beneficial and have led to the approval of two drugs. However, the need to build on existing knowledge remains by examining the relevance of study models to the disease. Objective We sought to appraise laboratory or pre‐clinical models of AGA. Method We searched through databases (PubMed, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, World CAT, Scopus and Google Scholar) for articles on AGA‐related studies from 1942 to March 2019 with a focus on study models. Results The search rendered 101 studies after screening and deduplication. Several studies (70) used in vitro models, mostly consisting of two‐dimensional monolayer cells for experiments involving the characterization of androgen and 5‐alpha reductase (5AR) and inhibition thereof, the effects of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and biomarker(s) of AGA. Twenty‐seven studies used in vivo models of mice and monkeys to investigate DHT synthesis, the expression and inhibition of 5AR and hair growth. Only four studies used AGA‐related or healthy excisional/punch biopsy explants as ex vivo models to study the action of 5AR inhibitors and AGA‐associated genes. No study used three‐dimensional [3‐D] organoids or organotypic human skin culture models. Conclusion We recommend clinically relevant laboratory models like human or patient‐derived 3‐D organoids or organotypic skin in AGA‐related studies. These models are closer to human scalp tissue and minimize the use of laboratory animals and could ultimately facilitate novel therapeutics.
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The primary aim of this study is to access the salient herbal plants with the active constituent of potentially anti-hair fall activities. It also presents the various reasons behind hair loss ailments. As part of this study, a focus is placed on active phytochemicals within these medicinal plants or natural products in terms of various hair fall disease treatments. As natural products have a beneficial effect to minimize hair loss and have promoted the potential for new hair growth, it presents the medicinal values of natural plants in reference to safety and effectiveness for health.
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The primary aim of this study is to access the salient herbal plants with the active constituent of potentially anti-hair fall activities. It also presents the various reasons behind hair loss ailments. As part of this study, a focus is placed on active phytochemicals within these medicinal plants or natural products in terms of various hair fall disease treatments. As natural products have a beneficial effect to minimize hair loss and have promoted the potential for new hair growth, it presents the medicinal values of natural plants in reference to safety and effectiveness for health.
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Introduction: Hair follicle regeneration and control of growth cycling is a small but growing field of study. Here we considered some of the more common in vitro and ex vivo hair follicle models that are available for examining follicle growth and cycling, epithelial-mesenchymal signaling, stem cell activity, and follicular neogenesis. Methods: Cited literature was selected using the Pubmed database and the associated MESH terms, or conference proceedings. Results: A variety of in vitro and ex vivo assay models have been developed over the last 35 years. In vitro research started with simple 2D culture of dermal papilla or dermal sheath cells, but this has now progressed to 3D single cell type aggregate cultures that more accurately reflect the gene and protein expression profiles of dermal papilla and dermal sheath cells in vivo. Combining hair follicle mesenchyme and epithelial cells together in 3D “organoid” cultures enables formation of rudimentary proto-hair follicles. More recently, 3D cultured skin equivalents incorporating hair follicle-like structures have been produced from adult cells as well as induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Ex vivo models are focused on amputated or full-length hair follicles microdissected from scalp skin, follicular units, or whole scalp skin explant culture. Conclusions: Each of the culture systems described holds potential for modelling different aspects of hair follicle growth and regeneration. Potentially, several methods may also be used to provide cells or tissue constructs for treating hair loss. The advantages and limitations of each approach are explored in this review.
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We report for the first time the successful maintenance and growth of human hair follicles in vitro. Human anagen hair follicles were isolated by microdissection from human scalp skin. Isolation of the hair follicles was achieved by cutting the follicle at the dermo-subcutaneous fat interface using a scalpel blade. Intact hair follicles were then removed from the fat using watchmakers' forceps. Isolated hair follicles maintained free-floating in supplemented Williams E medium in individual wells of 24-well multiwell plates showed a significant increase in length over 4 days. The increase in length was seen to be attributed to the production of a keratinised hair shaft, and was not associated with the loss of hair follicle morphology. [methyl-3H]thymidine autoradiography confirmed that in vitro the in vivo pattern of DNA synthesis was maintained; furthermore, [35S]methionine labelling of keratins showed that their patterns of synthesis did not change with maintenance. The importance of this model to hair follicle biology is further demonstrated by the observations that TGF-beta 1 has a negative growth-regulatory effect on hair follicles in vitro and that EGF mimics the in vivo depilatory effects that have been reported in sheep and mice.
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The Ras oncogene regulates cellular proliferation, differentiation, transformation, and survival through multiple downstream signals. Ras signals through its effector phosphoinositide 3 (PI3) kinase to the Pak protein kinase (p65(pak)), but the steps from Ras to Pak remain to be elucidated. PI3 kinase can stimulate the small G protein, Rac, a direct activator of Pak, as well as the Akt proto-oncogene, a serine-threonine protein kinase. We found that activated Akt stimulated Pak, whereas a dominant negative Akt inhibited Ras activation of Pak in transfection assays. Akt stimulation of Pak was not inhibited by dominant negative mutants of either Rac or Cdc42 suggesting that Akt activated Pak through a GTPase-independent mechanism. We also developed a novel cell-free system to study Ras activation of Pak. In this system Ras activated Pak only in the presence of a crude cell extract but failed to activate Pak when Akt was immunodepleted from the extract. Akt protects cells from apoptosis through phosphorylation of downstream targets such as the Bcl-2 family member, Bad. We found that activated Pak decreased apoptosis and increased phosphorylation of Bad, whereas dominant negative Pak increased apoptosis and decreased phosphorylation of Bad. These studies define a new oncogene-mediated cell survival signal.
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We attempted to establish a coculture model of human dermal papilla cells (DPCs) from androgenetic alopecia (AGA) and keratinocytes (KCs) to study the pathomechanism of AGA. Since expression of mRNA for the androgen receptor (AR) decreased during subcultivation of DPCs in vitro, we transiently transfected the AR expression vector into the DPCs and cocultured them with KCs. In this coculture, androgen inhibited the growth of KCs by 50%, indicating that the DPCs produce diffusible growth suppressive factors into the medium in an androgen-dependent manner. Since recently increasing evidence has shown the importance of transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) in hair growth, we further examined the concentration of TGF-beta1 in this coculture medium after androgen treatment by ELISA assays. The results showed that androgen treatment increased the secretion of TGF-beta1 into the conditioned medium. Moreover, neutralizing anti-TGF-beta1 antibody reversed the inhibition of KC proliferation. Thus, we suggest that androgen-inducible TGF-beta1 derived from DPCs mediates hair growth suppression in AGA.
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Beneficial effects attributed to green tea, such as its anticancer and antioxidant properties, may be mediated by (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). In this study, the effects of EGCG on cell proliferation and UV-induced apoptosis were investigated in normal epidermal keratinocytes. When topically applied to aged human skin, EGCG stimulated the proliferation of epidermal keratinocytes, which increased the epidermal thickness. In addition, this topical application also inhibited the UV-induced apoptosis of epidermal keratinocytes. EGCG was found to increase the phosphorylation of Bad protein at the Ser112 and Ser136. Moreover, EGCG-induced Erk phosphorylation was found to be critical for the phosphorylation of Ser112 in Bad protein, and the EGCG-induced activation of the Akt pathway was found to be involved in the phosphorylation of Ser136. Furthermore, EGCG increased Bcl-2 expression but decreased Bax expression, causing an increase in the Bcl-2-to-Bax ratio. In addition, we demonstrate the differential growth inhibitory effects of EGCG on cancer cells. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that EGCG promotes keratinocyte survival and inhibits the UV-induced apoptosis via two mechanisms: by phosphorylating Ser112 and Ser136 of Bad protein through Erk and Akt pathways, respectively, and by increasing the Bcl-2-to-Bax ratio. Moreover, these two proposed mechanisms of EGCG-induced cell proliferation may differ kinetically to promote keratinocyte survival.
Article
The most abundant green tea polyphenol, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), was found to induce differential effects between tumor cells and normal cells. Nevertheless, how normal epithelial cells respond to the polyphenol at concentrations for which tumor cells undergo apoptosis is undefined. The current study tested exponentially growing and aged primary human epidermal keratinocytes in response to EGCG or a mixture of the four major green tea polyphenols. EGCG elicited cell differentiation with associated induction of p57/KIP2 within 24 h in growing keratinocytes, measured by the expression of keratin 1, filaggrin, and transglutaminase activity. Aged keratinocytes, which exhibited low basal cellular activities after culturing in growth medium for up to 25 days, renewed DNA synthesis and activated succinate dehydrogenase up to 37-fold upon exposure to either EGCG or the polyphenols. These results suggest that tea polyphenols may be used for treatment of wounds or certain skin conditions characterized by altered cellular activities or metabolism.
Mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways
  • Robinson