Further Questions Regarding the Role of Mosaic penA Sequences in Conferring Reduced Susceptibility to Ceftriaxone in Neisseria gonorrhoeae

Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (Impact Factor: 4.48). 03/2007; 51(2):802-3. DOI: 10.1128/AAC.01307-06
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Available from: Theodorus P. Sloots, Aug 14, 2014
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    ABSTRACT: The recent emergence and transmission of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates with reduced susceptibility to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins such as cefixime and ceftriaxone have been reported. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation of different polymorphisms in the penA, mtrR, porB1b (penB), and ponA genes of N. gonorrhoeae with reduced susceptibility to cefixime and ceftriaxone. Eighteen gonococcal isolates with reduced cefixime and ceftriaxone susceptibility (Cefi) and two susceptible isolates were characterized using serovar determination, antibiograms, N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing (NG-MAST), and sequencing of penA, mtrR, porB1b, and ponA alleles. For the Cefi isolates (n = 18), the MICs of cefixime and ceftriaxone ranged between 0.032 to 0.38 μg/ml and 0.064 to 0.125 μg/ml, respectively. These isolates were assigned five different serovars and six divergent NG-MAST sequence types. Eleven isolates (61%) with higher MICs of cefixime and ceftriaxone contained a nearly identical penA mosaic allele and previously described polymorphisms in mtrR (a single nucleotide [A] deletion in the promoter), penB (mutations in porB1b encoding loop 3 of PorB1b), and ponA (ponA1 polymorphism). The remaining seven Cefi isolates (39%), which had somewhat lower MICs of cefixime and ceftriaxone, contained an aspartic acid insertion (Asp-345a) in PBP 2 in conjunction with alterations of 4 to 10 amino acid residues in the C-terminal region of the transpeptidase domain of penA. In conclusion, an unambiguous association between penA mosaic alleles, in conjunction with genetic polymorphisms in mtrR, porB1b, and ponA, and greater reduced susceptibility to cefixime and ceftriaxone was identified.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2007 · Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
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    ABSTRACT: Increasing numbers of Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains with decreased susceptibilities to ceftriaxone and other oral cephalosporins widely used for the treatment of gonorrhea have been isolated in Sydney, Australia, over several years. In this study, we examined the complete penicillin-binding protein 2 (PBP 2) amino acid sequences of 109 gonococci, selected on the basis of their diverse temporal and geographic origins and because they exhibited a range of ceftriaxone MICs: ≤0.03 μg/ml (n = 59), 0.06 μg/ml (n = 43), and 0.125 μg/ml (n = 7). Auxotyping, serotyping, and genotyping by N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing sequence-based analysis was also performed. In total, 20 different amino acid sequence patterns were identified, indicating considerable variation in the PBP 2 sequences in this study sample. Only some of the N. gonorrhoeae isolates with significantly higher ceftriaxone MICs contained a mosaic PBP 2 pattern, while more isolates exhibited a nonmosaic PBP 2 pattern containing an A501V substitution. Although particular N. gonorrhoeae genotypes in our sample were shown to be less susceptible to ceftriaxone, the reduced susceptibility to ceftriaxone was not specific to any particular genotype and was observed in a broad range of auxotypes, serotypes, and genotypes. Overall, the results of our study show that N. gonorrhoeae strains exhibiting reduced sensitivity to ceftriaxone are not of a particular subtype and that a number of different mutations in PBP 2 may contribute to this phenomenon.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2007 · Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
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    ABSTRACT: In Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the mosaic structure of the penA gene (encoding penicillin-binding protein 2 [PBP 2]), which is composed of fragments of the penA genes from Neisseria cinerea and Neisseria perflava, has been significantly associated with decreased susceptibility to cephalosporins, particularly oral cephalosporins. The aim of this study was to develop a rapid assay for the detection of mosaic PBP 2 of N. gonorrhoeae by real-time PCR. This assay successfully detected the mosaic penA gene of N. gonorrhoeae, and its sensitivity was ≥101 copies/reaction. Six hundred twenty-one clinical strains were examined by this assay for the presence of mosaic PBP 2, which was detected in 85 (39.4%) of 216 strains from 2002, 69 (40.6%) of 170 strains from 2003, 71 (44.4%) of 160 strains from 2004, and 31 (41.3%) of 75 strains from 2005. The MICs of cephalosporins for strains with the mosaic PBP 2 detected by the assay were statistically higher than those for strains without the mosaic PBP 2. One hundred sixty-six (64.8%) of 256 strains with the mosaic PBP 2 exhibited cefixime MICs of ≥0.5 μg/ml. The emergence and spread of strains with mosaic PBP 2 could be a threat to the cefixime treatment of gonorrhea. This real-time PCR assay for the detection of mosaic PBP 2 of N. gonorrhoeae is thus useful in the prediction of decreased susceptibilities to oral cephalosporins.
    Preview · Article · May 2008 · Journal of clinical microbiology
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