Part one: The restoration of non-vital teeth: structural, biological, and micromechanical issues in maintaining tooth longevity.
This manuscript will review research from 1967 to the present to find the best evidence for the reconstruction of non-vital teeth. The paper will review the contention that non-vital teeth are "more brittle" by analyzing the relevant physical properties of vital versus non-vital teeth; describe the structures of the tooth used to manage stress and strain; describe the formation of dentinal cracks and propagation of fracture planes through dentin; and analyze forces placed on human teeth and their effects on the tooth in Part One. In Part Two, the paper will describe the strength of various dowel and core designs relative to strength, retention, and durability and describe the results of testing various dentin bonding materials in strength and retention of dowels in non-vital teeth. The review will conclude with recommendations as to the materials and techniques in specific clinical situations best capable of single tooth reconstruction to ensure tooth longevity together with the scientific basis for their adoption.
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