Stress and depression in the employed population

Health Statistics Division, Statistics Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0T6.
Health reports / Statistics Canada, Canadian Centre for Health Information = Rapports sur la santé / Statistique Canada, Centre canadien d'information sur la santé (Impact Factor: 2.67). 11/2006; 17(4):11-29.
Source: PubMed


This article describes stress levels among the employed population aged 18 to 75 and examines associations between stress and depression.
Data are from the 2002 Canadian Community Health Survey: Mental Health and Well-being and the longitudinal component of the 1994/95 through 2002/03 National Population Health Survey.
Stress levels were calculated by sex, age and employment characteristics. Multivariate analyses were used to examine associations between stress and depression in 2002, and between stress and incident depression over a two-year period, while controlling for age, employment characteristics, and factors originating outside the workplace.
In 2002, women reported higher levels of job strain and general day-to-day stress. When the various sources of stress were considered simultaneously, along with other possible confounders, for both sexes, high levels of general day-to-day stress and low levels of co-worker support were associated with higher odds of depression, as was high job strain for men. Over a two-year period, men with high strain jobs and women with high personal stress and low co-worker support had elevated odds of incident depression.

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Available from: Margot Shields, Sep 06, 2014
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    • "Even though depression is both preventable and treatable at the workplace (Corbière et al., 2009; Tan et al., 2014) and positive effects of psychological interventions on work-productivity have been found (Wang et al., 2007), the majority of affected individuals remain untreated (American Psychological Association, 2013; Goldberg and Steury, 2001). Consequently, depression is highly prevalent in working populations, with a 12-month prevalence rate of 7.1% for men and 6.2% for women (Andrea et al., 2004; Blackmore et al., 2007; Shields, 2006; Wang et al., 2010a,b). Moreover, the disease not only causes a considerable burden for individuals, society, and employers (Mathers and Loncar, 2006; Wittchen et al., 2011), but also incurs costs due to productivity loss and absenteeism (Lerner and Henke, 2008; Wang et al., 2010a). "
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    ABSTRACT: Internet-based problem-solving training (IPST) effectively reduces depressive symptoms in employees. Yet, it is unknown which employees benefit most from this particular treatment. The study aimed to identify predictors and moderators of treatment outcome in IPST offered to employees with depressive symptoms. Within a randomized controlled trial (N = 150), designed to test the effectiveness of IPST, variables that predict and moderate the effects of IPST when compared with a waitlist control group (WLC) were explored. The outcome was change in depression severity, assessed using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Both depression severity and other psychopathological symptoms and potential predictors/moderators were assessed as self-reports at baseline (t1) and in follow-up assessments after seven weeks (t2), three months (t3) and six months (t4). Higher depression severity at baseline predicted improvement in depressive symptomology in follow-up assessments after seven weeks, and three- and six months. Depression severity moderated the effectiveness of IPST assessed at six-month follow-up. Simple slope analyses revealed that the long-term effectiveness of the intervention was more pronounced among participants with high (CES-D range: 33–44, M = 37.0, SD = 3.2) and moderate (CES-D range: 14–32, M = 23.1, SD = 5.6) depression baseline scores, compared to participants displaying low depression baseline scores (CES-D range: 5–13, M = 9.0, SD = 2.2). No indication was found that participants presenting low depression severity at baseline significantly benefitted from IPST in the long-term. IPST might be appropriate for employees with a wide range of different characteristics. While there appears to be no reason to exclude employees with severe depression from Internet-based occupational mental health interventions, for employees low in depression severity, watchful waiting or potentially no intervention should be considered. These findings may not apply to other low-intensity interventions and/or target groups.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Internet Interventions
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    • "Work stress has been determined to be an independent predictor of depression . Job strain ( high demand and low control ) , lack of support from supervisors and co - workers , and bullying are stressors that workers may face in day - to - day work life are related to depression disorders [ Tennant , 2001 ; Wang , 2005 ; Shields , 2006 ; Lipscomb et al . , 2007 ; Melchior et al . "
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    ABSTRACT: Workers with depression and frequent mental distress (FMD) have lost work productivity. Limited systematic comparisons exist for the prevalence of depression and FMD across occupational groups. Using a state-added question for occupation coupled to measures of depression and FMD on the Washington State (WA) 2006 and 2008 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey, we estimated the prevalence and odds ratios (ORs) among the 20,560 WA workers. The prevalences of current depression and FMD were 5.2% and 7.5%, respectively. The prevalence varied considerably across occupations. Compared with Management occupation, Truck drivers had significantly increased odds for both current depression [OR = 6.18, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.52-15.16] and FMD (OR = 1.85, 95% CI: 1.01-3.41). Cleaning/Building services (OR = 1.95, 95% CI: 1.11-3.40) and Protective services (OR = 1.97, 95% CI: 1.19-3.27) were associated with increased FMD. These findings demonstrate the need for research on possible sources of the differences for current depression and FMD across occupations. Am. J. Ind. Med. 55:893-903, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2012 · American Journal of Industrial Medicine
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    • "Individual's responses reflect perception about various dimensions of their work including: job security, social support, monotony, physical effort required and the degree of physiological demands and decision-making authority of each individual's job. Detail description of the outcome measure, work-related stress, has been extensively documented elsewhere [20-23]. Internal consistency of two sub-components of the NPHS JCQ, psychological demand (α = 0.34) and job control (α = 0.61) for the initial cross-sectional sample (1994/1995) has been reported [24]. "
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    ABSTRACT: There is substantial empirical evidence on the benefits of smoking bans; however, the unintended consequences of this anti-smoking measure have received little attention. This paper examines whether workplace smoking bans (WSB's) are associated with higher self-perceived, work-related stress among smoking workers. A longitudinal representative sample of 3,237 individuals from the Canadian National Population Health Survey from 2000 to 2008 is used. Work-related stress is derived from a 12-item job questionnaire. Two categories of WSB's, full and partial, are included in the analysis, with no ban being the reference category. Analysis also controls for individual socio-demographic characteristics, health status, provincial and occupational fixed-effects. We use fixed-effects linear regression to control for individual time-invariant confounders, both measured and unmeasured, which can affect the relationship between WSB's and work-related stress. To examine the heterogeneous effects of WSB's, the analysis is stratified by gender and age. We check the robustness of our results by re-estimating the baseline specification with the addition of different control variables and a separate analysis for non-smokers. Multivariate analysis reveals a positive and statistically significant association between full (β = 0.75, CI = 0.19-1.32) or partial (β = 0.69, CI = 0.12-1.26) WSB's, and the level of self-perceived, work-related stress among smoking workers compared to those with no WSB. We also find that this association varies by gender and age. In particular, WSB's are significantly associated with higher work stress only for males and young adults (aged 18-40). No statistically significant association is found between WSB's and the level of self-perceived work-related stress among non-smoking workers. The results of this study do not imply that WSB's are the main determinant of self-perceived, work-related stress among smokers but provides suggestive evidence that these may be positively related.
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