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Manuka honey dressing: An effective treatment for chronic wound infections

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Abstract

The battle against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) wound infection is becoming more difficult as drug resistance is widespread and the incidence of MRSA in the community increases. Manuka honey dressing has long been available as a non-antibiotic treatment in the management of chronic wound infections. We have been using honey-impregnated dressings successfully in our wound care clinic and on the maxillofacial ward for over a year. (c) 2007 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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... Manuka (L. scoparium) honey [27] has been shown to be effective against a variety of human infections, including Escherichia coli (E. coli), ...
... Enterobacter aerogenes, Salmonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus [27,28]. Many studies have been published on the medicinal qualities of manuka honey, both in vitro and in vivo, confirming its effectiveness against a wide range of medically significant pathogens, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) [5,6]. ...
... Honey's primary use is as a topical antibiotic to treat surgical site or wound infections [40]. Manuka honey has been demonstrated to have in vivo activity and is effective for ulcers, infected wounds and burns [27,41]. ...
... FDA approved honey for wound dressing applications and treatment of different types of wounds (e.g., burn, ulcers, and surgical wounds) [7,[11][12][13].Clinically, honey has been applied in the different forms, e.g., as ointment, hydrogel and honey Annals of Biotechnology impregnated in different dressing materials such as sterile gauze and bandages or a polyurethane dressing [14][15][16]. Preparing honey-impregnated dressing gauze is difficult and requires frequent replacement for it does not provide permanent wound-coverage [3]. ...
... Naturally, the components present-H 2 O 2 , enzymes etc., in honey provide bacterial resistance and inhibits the growth of microbes [5,9,11,41]. It was reported that the honey incorporated scaffold effective against gram negative (S. aureus) and gram positive (E.coli) bacterial strain [12,38,42,43]. ...
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Honey is a potent natural antibacterial remedy used for the treatment of chronic wounds. In this study, Honey incorporated Acellular Dermal Matrix (H-AGDM) was fabricated for accelerating the wound healing process. The physiochemical and morphological characterization of the fabricated matrix was performed by FTIR, FESEM, in vitro degradation study, and antibacterial activity. Subsequently the biocompatibility was evaluated by in vitro 3T3 cell culture study and in vivo by full-thickness wound healing study in albino mice model. H-AGDM significantly showed significantly enhanced antibacterial activity, biocompatibility, anti-inflammatory response and wound healing rate.
... In vitro testing has indicated the effectiveness of Manuka honey against a variety of bacteria, including antibiotic-resistant bacteria such as MRSA [21,[26][27][28]. These protective and pro-healing effects of Manuka honey in wounds have been demonstrated both in animal models and clinical trials [29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37]. However, some animal models and in vitro testing have indicated that high concentrations of Manuka honey can have a deleterious cytotoxic effect [38][39][40]. ...
... The clinical usage of Manuka honey typically involves the topical application of non-diluted Manuka honey to the wound site [32,[34][35][36]59,60]. While variations of this method have demonstrated effectiveness for in vivo wound healing, in vitro testing has indicated that Manuka honey concentrations of 5% v/v or above are cytotoxic [38,45]. ...
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A large body of in vivo and in vitro evidence indicates that Manuka honey resolves inflammation and promotes healing when applied topically to a wound. In this study, the effect of two different concentrations (0.5% and 3% v/v) of Manuka honey on the release of cytokines, chemokines, and matrix-degrading enzymes from neutrophils was examined using a differentiated HL-60 cell line model in the presence of inflammatory stimuli. The results indicate that 0.5% honey decreased TNF-α, IL-1β, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, IL-12 p70, MMP-9, MMP-1, FGF-13, IL-1ra, and IL-4 release, but increased MIP-3α, Proteinase 3, VEGF, and IL-8 levels. In contrast, 3% honey reduced the release of all analytes except TNF-α, whose release was increased. Together, these results demonstrate a dose-dependent ability of Manuka honey to modify the release of cytokines, chemokines, and matrix-degrading enzymes that promote or inhibit inflammation and/or healing within a wound. The findings of this study provide further guidance for the future use of Manuka honey in wounds or tissue engineering templates. Future in vivo investigation is warranted to validate the in vitro results and translate these results to physiologically relevant environments.
... The gauze showed a lower sense of pain and faster epithelialization time than paraffin gauzes and salinesoaked gauzes 36 . In the UK, dressings impregnated with Manuka honey were successfully used in the wound care clinic 37 . Subrahmanyam et al. has shown in a randomized clinical study that residual scars decrease in patients treated with honey-impregnated gauze compared with those treated with amniotic membrane 38 . ...
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Wound dressings are frequently developed by introducing new products to target different aspects of the wound healing process. Many medicated dressings incorporated with natural extracts and chemicals have been developed. Chronic wounds could be invaded by many bacteria and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureusare the most common. S. aureus and P. aeruginosa are usually detected in the higher layer of wounds or in the deepest region of wound bed, respectively. They can express many virulence factors affecting wound healing process and leading to severe infections and antibiotic resistance. Starch based impregnated gauze containing either N. sativa honey, myrtle berries hydro-alcoholic extract or a combination were prepared. There efficacy against both P. aeruginosa and S. aureus isolated from chronic wounds. N. sativa honey mixture was the most potent against P. aeruginosa with an inhibition zone diameter of 18.1±0.3 mm, while the myrtle berries hydro-alcoholic extract mixture was the most potent against S. aureus with an inhibition zone diameter of 18.4±0.5 mm. The prepared impregnated gauzes deliver a moist environment that helps wounds epithelialize more rapidly. In addition, honey and myrtle berries hydro-alcoholic extract provide antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties that will accelerate the healing process of wounds.
... Among them best known is Manuka honey of New Zealand which is produced from Leptospermum scoparium 5 . Research has been conducted on Manuka honey of Leptospermum scoparium origin which reflected effectiveness of the honey against numerous human pathogens including Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterobacter aerogenes 6,7 . Manuka honey, as an anti-bacterial agent, has the ability to treat a variety of illness. ...
... A number of clinical trials have shown that the use of honey as a wound dressing is better than the use of topical or systemic antibiotics, including for diabetic foot ulcers [15][16][17][18]. Manuka honey-impregnated dressings are effective in even recalcitrant cases that had been previously treated with conventional modalities, such as systemic antibiotic therapy, negative pressure vacuumassisted dressings, continuous dressing change with local debridement and maggot treatment [19]. A Cochrane systematic review by Jull et al. (2015) concluded that the use of honey in cases other than partial thickness burns and infected postoperative wounds is not supported by high-quality evidence and therefore does not have a strong basis for decision making [20]. ...
Article
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Background: Honey has been increasingly recognized as a potential therapeutic agent for treatment of wound infections. There is an urgent need for assessment and evaluation of the antibacterial properties against wound pathogens of honeys that have not yet been tested. Methods: Ten Saudi honeys collected from different geographical locations were screened initially for their antibacterial potential against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) by the agar well diffusion method. Manuka honey (UMF-12) was used for comparison. Of the tested honeys, the honey that exhibited the greatest antibacterial activity in the agar well diffusion assay was further evaluated for its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against ten MRSA clinical isolates and three American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) reference strains by the microbroth dilution method. Results: Locally produced honeys exhibited variable antibacterial activity against the tested isolates in the agar well diffusion assay. They were unable to exhibit antibacterial activity against MSSA and MRSA at 25% dilutions (w/v) in catalase solution. However, Sumra and Talha honeys showed a zone of inhibition at 50% dilutions (w/v) in catalase solution. This finding means that both honeys possess weak non-peroxide-based antibacterial activity. Moreover, Sumra honey showed a larger inhibition zone at 50 and 25% dilutions (w/v) in distilled water than Manuka honey against both MSSA and MRSA. This result demonstrates that Sumra honey has more hydrogen peroxide-related antibacterial activity or total antibacterial activity than Manuka honey. In addition, MIC results obtained through a microbroth dilution assay showed that Sumra honey inhibited the growth of all MRSA clinical isolates (n = 10) and reference strains [MRSA (ATCC 43300) and MSSA (ATCC 29213)] at lower concentrations (12.0% v/v) than those required for Manuka honey-mediated inhibition (14.0% v/v). This result means that Sumra honey has more peroxide or synergistic antibacterial activity than Manuka honey. An equivalent MIC (15.0% v/v) was observed for E. coli (ATCC 25922) between Manuka honey and Sumra honey. Conclusions: Sumra honey may be used as an alternative therapeutic agent for infected wounds and burns, where additional hydrogen peroxide-related antibacterial activity is needed. In the future, the physiochemical characteristics of Sumra honey may be evaluated and standardized.
... The wound is classified according to healing time, acute wound is the one that heals without external support and in minimum time [108][109][110], whereas the chronic wound is the delayed acute wound which takes longer time to heal due to diabetic ulcer. Acute wound is healed through orderly manner but chronic wound does not follow the order of the wound healing stages [111][112][113]. ...
Article
Chronic wound healing is an intricate time-consuming process (healing time ∼12 weeks), susceptible to external biological attack such as bacteria (e.g. E. coli, B. subtilis, S. aureus etc.) promoting wound infection and exhibit a negative effect on the immune system, therefore, it is a necessity to form a controlled environment for wound healing with the help of suitable barrier. Over the past few decades, various topical formulations of wound barriers like films, hydrogels, emulsions and nano/micro-fibers have been explored. The drug-embedded fibers are the potential candidate for wound healing as a barrier owing to the large specific surface area (for surface functionalization), enormous porosity ∼60–90% (for oxy-permeability), reticulated nano-porosity (for inhibition of the microorganism) and advanced electrospinning methodology which facilitates sustained drug release. Wound bed exhibits 37 °C temperature and 7.4 pH (typically for blood) condition which triggers the drug release and nano/micro-fiber degradation simultaneously. Drug-embedded nano/micro-fiber consists of a matrix with excellent biocompatibility, appreciable biodegradation rate (e.g. Chitin nanofiber-20% degradation in 15 days) and a drug with a superior antibiotic, antimicrobial property, besides certain drug (e.g. Captopril) also promote vasodilation which increases in-vascular permeability leading to rapid movement of leukocytes into the affected tissue, thereby reducing the healing time. In this review article, we discuss the consolidated recent advanced works on wound healing and wound dressing which implies the significance of wound dressing. In addition, the recent advancements in nano/micro-fiber fabrication methodology for drug release mechanism, and benefits of the fiber-based wound dressings compared to conventional wound dressings have been extensively discussed.
... It has been suggested that manuka honey contains MGO-derived advanced glycosylated end (AGE) products (argpyrimidine), which cause activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), leading to apoptosis in the epithelial cells. [39] Moreover, manuka honey exerts osmotic action, which induces outflow of lymph, promotes extra oxygenation, protects fibroblasts, and enriches nutrient supply to the surface of the wound. [40] In addition, its antimicrobial activity is enhanced due to inhibition of tissue catalases, which are responsible for metabolizing hydrogen peroxide. ...
Article
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Background: Manuka honey has attracted the attention of the scientific community for its antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. The active compounds of manuka honey to which its myeloperoxidase activity inhibition is owed are methyl syringate (MSYR) and leptosin (a novel glycoside of MSYR). The non-peroxide antibacterial activity is attributed to glyoxal, 3-deoxyglucosulose, and methylglyoxal. These properties make it an inexpensive and effective topical treatment in wound management. This study has focused on the evaluation of the effect of manuka honey and acacia honey on wound healing in nondiabetic and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on a total of 42 rats (six rats in each group) and respective drug/substance was topically applied once daily on the excision wound for 21 days. Induction of diabetes was carried out in rats in groups IV, V, VI, and VII only. Measurement of wound contraction was carried out on days 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, and 21 after operation. Time taken for the complete epithelization was recorded along with a histopathological examination of the healed wound bed. Results: Topical application of manuka honey achieved ≥80% wound contraction on day 9 after operation in both the nondiabetic and diabetic group. Complete epithelization was achieved 2 days earlier than the normal epithelization time in the manuka group. Histopathological examination showed well formed keratinized squamous epithelium with normal collagen tissue surrounding hair follicles. Conclusion: This study provides good outcome with respect to wound healing (especially in diabetic condition) when manuka honey was compared to acacia honey and standard treatment.
... In general, the oedema, inflammation, and exudation that commonly occur in all types of wounds were reduced by honey in order to improve the wound healing effects. e growth of epithelial cells and fibroblasts was also stimulated by honey [67,100]. In Iran, the EBH was topically applied on wounds created on rabbits. ...
Article
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Both honeybees (Apis spp.) and stingless bees (Trigona spp.) produce honeys with high nutritional and therapeutics value. Until recently, the information regarding potential health benefits of stingless bee honey (SBH) in medical databases is still scarce as compared to the common European bee honey (EBH) which is well known for their properties as therapeutic agents. Although there have been very few reports on SBH, empirically these products would have similar therapeutic quality as the EBH. In addition, due to the structure of the nest, few studies reported that the antimicrobial activity of SBH is a little bit stronger than EBH. Therefore, the composition of both the types of honey as well as the traditional uses and clinical applications were compared. The results of various studies on EBH and SBH from tissue culture research to randomised control clinical trials were collated in this review. Interestingly, there are many therapeutic properties that are unique to SBH. Therefore, SBH has a great potential to be developed for modern medicinal uses.
... 31 Honey can also be used for treatment in which the healing time is explained by the multiple effects on response of inflammation. First, honey prevents continuous response of inflammation by suppressing the production and spreading of inflammation cells in the wound area; secondly, stimulating the production of citoxin proinflammation, enabling normal healing 32 , and stimulating proliferation fibroblas and ephytel cells 33,34 effects of honey and its compounds in the production of citoxin proinflammation have been evaluated in human primary monosite cells 35 . ...
Article
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Background: Pregnancy is a natural process which is experienced by a mother-to-be. Changes during pregnancy may limit women's activities. Being non-active during pregnancy is an apprehensive condition since it may give negative effects both for the mother and her fetus. This study is meant to comprehend Moslem women's activities during pregnancy. Method: Qualitative study with phenomenological approach was used and data collecting was carried out in June 2016 in Bojong Kulur village. Sample selection was done using purposive sampling technique. Thorough interviews involved 32 Moslem women who had given birth. Data verification was done using triangulation method. Results: Findings of this study discussed women's activities during pregnancy, such as 1) jima' during pregnancy; 2) keeping personal hygiene; 3) taking a rest; 4) on time praying; 5) reading and listening to Al-Qur'an; 6) Dzikrullah; 7) praying more; 8) nutrition consumption; and 9) fasting. Pregnant Moslem women make use of the time during pregnancy for beneficial activities with the hope that they can introduce religious value to their babies since they are still in the intrauterine. Midwives need to comprehend and investigate the safe activities done by Moslem women during pregnancy and facilitate their patients' activities during pregnancy in accordance with Islamic Shari'ah.
... The antioxidant, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory capacity are the main properties related to the effi- cacy of honey in wound healing. At the wound site honey prevents a prolonged inflammatory response inhibiting the production and pro- pagation of inflammation and stimulating the production of proin- flammatory cytokine and the proliferation of fibroblasts and epithelial cells ( Tonks et al., 2001;Visavadia et al., 2008). The effect of MH on the ROS and NO production, antioxidant enzymes and oxidative stress and on inflammatory markers in LPS-treated macrophages has been eval- uated in the second part of the present study, highlighting that the Fig. 4. Protein expression of caspase-3, p-Erk1/2 and p-p38 determined by western blotting in RAW 264.7 macrophages treated with DMEM (ctrl), Manuka honey (3 or 8 mg/mL) for 24 h and Manuka honey (3 or 8 mg/mL) for 24 h and then with LPS (1 μg/mL) per 24 h. ...
Article
Manuka honey (MH) is a monofloral honey from Australia and New Zealand, well-known for its healthy properties, such as antioxidant, antimicrobial and wound healing capacities. The aim of this work was to assess the phenolic composition and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of MH, as well as its effects on cellular viability, proliferation, apoptosis and metabolism in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated RAW 264.7 macrophages, highlighting the molecular mechanisms involved. Up to 18 compounds were identified in MH, with gallic acid and quercetin as the major ones; MH showed also remarkable TAC. In addition, MH was able to enhance cellular viability, decrease apoptosis, promote wound healing and attenuate inflammation in a dose-dependent manner, by reducing the expression of caspase 3, p-p38 and p-Erk1/2 proteins, in macrophages stressed with LPS. In addition, it improved mitochondrial respiration and glycolytic activities, stimulating the expression of p-AMPK, SIRT1 and PGC1α, counteracting in this way the deleterious effects of LPS treatment. In conclusion, one of the possible mechanisms by which MH exerts its beneficial effects could be to its capacity to improve cellular viability, promote proliferation and enhance energetic metabolism, by modulating the expression of several proteins involved in apoptosis, inflammation, metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis.
... Manuka honey, a variety of honey produced in New Zealand from the nectar of the leptospermum scoparium shrub, is a wound treatment that has recently become the subject of investigation as a tissue engineering template additive [11][12][13]. The honey's methylglyoxal content gives it potent antibacterial activity against a wide range of bacteria, including antibiotic-resistant bacteria [14][15][16][17]. Additionally, the honey contains flavonoids which scavenge tissue-damaging free oxygen radicals, and particular phenolic components have been demonstrated to activate intracellular antioxidant response pathways [18,19]. ...
Article
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Manuka honey, a topical wound treatment used to eradicate bacteria, resolve inflammation, and promote wound healing, is a focus in the tissue engineering community as a tissue template additive. However, its effect on neutrophil extracellular trap formation (NETosis) on a tissue engineering template has yet to be examined. As NETosis has been implicated in chronic inflammation and fibrosis, the reduction in this response within the wound environment is of interest. In this study, Manuka honey was incorporated into electrospun templates with large (1.7–2.2 µm) and small (0.25–0.5 µm) diameter fibers at concentrations of 0.1%, 1%, and 10%. Template pore sizes and honey release profiles were quantified, and the effect on the NETosis response of seeded human neutrophils was examined through fluorescence imaging and myeloperoxidase (MPO) analysis. The incorporation of 0.1% and 1% Manuka honey decreased NETosis on the template surface at both 3 and 6 h, while 10% honey exacerbated the NETosis response. Additionally, 0.1% and 1% Manuka honey reduced the MMP-9 release of the neutrophils at both timepoints. These data indicate a therapeutic window for Manuka honey incorporation into tissue engineering templates for the reduction in NETosis. Future in vivo experimentation should be conducted to translate these results to a physiological wound environment.
... The antibacterial and tissue repair activities of honey are related to its low acidity and release of the least amount of hydrogen peroxide (7,8). The recent clinical case studies indicate that honey actively involves in the treatment of cutaneous infections (9). ...
Article
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Background: Honey as a natural product exhibits a variety of biological and pharmacological activities. Its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antibacterial, and antihypertensive effects have already been proven. Objectives: In this study, the inhibitory effects of honey on the 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-initiated and croton oil-promoted mice skin carcinogenesis were studied. Methods: Albino Swiss mice were pretreated with multiple topical applications of honey. After nine hours, the carcinogenesis was initiated by a single dose of DMBA. Topical croton oil, as for a promoting agent, was applied biweekly for a period of 30 weeks. Results: The tumor incidences were observed. Compared to the control group, the honey pre-treated mice showed a significant inhibition in tumor incidences. In addition, the enhanced uptake of [³H]-thymidine in mice skin DNA was inhibited in honeypretreated animals as compared to the control group. Furthermore, honey significantly decreased croton oil-mediated lipid peroxidation (LPO). Conclusions: Taken together, the results suggest that the antioxidants existed in honey have diminishing effects on croton oilmediated murine skin tumor promotion. In conclusion, we suggest that honey as an effective natural preventive agent may provide protection against skin cancer. © 2018, Jundishapur Journal of Natural Pharmaceutical Products.
... Based on this threshold and based on previous works reporting healing in ulcers only when the bacterial load was below 10 6 CFU/ml (Bendy et al., 1964) and successful skin grafting in patients with wound contamination under 5 × 10 4 CFU/cm 2 (Majewski et al., 1995), it might be inferred that this combined treatment presents potential to effectively reduce viable bacterial levels. Moreover, the recognized antiinflammatory activity of honey that stimulate immune responses by increasing the release of citokines supports this assumption (Visavadia et al., 2008). ...
Article
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Chronic skin wounds represent a major burn both economically and socially. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli are among the most common colonizers of infected wounds and are prolific biofilm formers. Biofilms are a major problem in infections due to their increasingly difficult control and eradication, and tolerance to multiple prescribed drugs. As so, alternative methods are necessary. Bacteriophages (phages) and honey are both seen as a promising approach for biofilm related infections. Phages have specificity toward a bacterial genus, species or even strain, self-replicating nature, and avoid dysbiosis. Honey has gained acknowledgment due to its antibacterial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory and wound healing properties. In this work, the effect of E. coli and P. aeruginosa phages vB_EcoS_CEB_EC3a and vB_PaeP_PAO1-D and chestnut honey, alone and combined, were tested using in vitro (polystyrene) and ex vivo (porcine skin) models and against mono and dual-species biofilms of these bacteria. In general, colonization was higher in the porcine skins and the presence of a second microorganism in a consortium of species did not affect the effectiveness of the treatments. The antibacterial effect of combined therapy against dual-species biofilms led to bacterial reductions that were greater for biofilms formed on polystyrene than on skin. Monospecies biofilms of E. coli were better destroyed with phages and honey than P. aeruginosa monospecies biofilms. Overall, the combined phage-honey formulations resulted in higher efficacies possibly due to honey's capacity to damage the bacterial cell membrane and also to its ability to penetrate the biofilm matrix, promoting and enhancing the subsequent phage infection.
... [84][85][86] Similarly, the medicinal benefits of honey have been well known for centuries [87,88] including its antibacterial and would healing properties. [89] Honey possesses a broad range of antibacterial activity against E. coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, S. typhimurium, S. aureus, [90,91] b-haemolytic streptococci and vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE). [92,93] The active components of honey include hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), methylglyoxal (MGO) and bee defensin-1. ...
Article
Objectives Whether vertebrates/invertebrates living in polluted environments are an additional source of antimicrobials. Key findings Majority of antimicrobials have been discovered from prokaryotes and those which are of eukaryotic origin are derived mainly from fungal and plant sources. With this in mind, it is important to note that pests, such as cockroaches come across pathogenic bacteria routinely, yet thrive in polluted environments. Other animals, such as snakes thrive from feeding on germ‐infested rodents. Logically, such species must have developed an approach to protect themselves from these pathogens, yet they have largely been ignored as a potential source of antimicrobials despite their remarkable capability to fight disease‐causing organisms. Summary Animals living in polluted environments are an underutilized source for potential antimicrobials, hence it is believed that several novel bioactive molecule(s) will be identified from these sources to counter increasingly resistant bacterial infections. Further research will be necessary in the development of novel antimicrobial(s) from these unusual sources which will have huge clinical impact worldwide.
... This may be to refrigeration conditions and competition with lactic acid bacteria which used would offer undesirable conditions for coliforms to grow in yoghurt (Vahedi et al. 2008). Also, honey has a more pronounced inhibitory effect on several human pathogens, including Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium and Enterobacter aerogenes (Molan 1992, Lusby et al. 2005, Visavadia et al. 2006). This may be due to antibacterial property of honey such as; flavonoids, acidity (low pH), osmolarity due to its sugar concentration, the hydrogen peroxide content and the non components of hydrogen peroxide, i.e., the presence methylglyoxal (Weston 2000 andMavric et al. 2008 Starter organisms are playing a main role in yoghurt manufacture, because of their ability to produce bioactive compounds such as free fatty acids, organic acids, ethanol, enzymes, benzoate, and hydrogen peroxide and antimicrobial peptides (De Vuyst andLeroy 2007 andKlaenhammer et al. 2002) .These qualities together inhibited the pathogens and lower the cardiovascular diseases and cancer risk (Cummings et al. 2001 andFlint et al. 2012). ...
Article
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Stirred yoghurt fortification with iron distressed bees honey and gelatin (iron-honey jelly) to improve the effects of health promoting of the stirred yoghurt. Results revealed that stirred yoghurt fortification with 5 and 10 mg iron/100 g yoghurt gave positive effect on flavour, body and texture and appearance and overall scores in comparison with 15and 20 mg iron /100g yoghurt. Streptococcus thermophilus count was in the range of 7.41-7.53 log CFU/g after 3weeks at 5ºC. Lactobacillus delbreuckii ssp bulgaricus had good viability and growth in the stirred yoghurt fortification with or without iron. Addition of iron (5, 10, 15and 20 mg iron /100g yoghurt) increased total solid (T.S) value significantly, but decreased syneresis. The value of pH was decreased significantly, while the fat and protein content did not change during cold storage. Results indicated it can be incorporated up to10 mg iron /100 g yoghurt and it is possible to become a commercial product.
... Clinical evidence has also shown honey to improve wound closure. Numerous case studies have demonstrated beneficial effects of Manuka honey in the closure of various types of infected non-healing ulcers [70][71][72][73][74]. In the 2010 study by Moghazy et al. described earlier, ulcer size decreased in 28 of the 30 patients treated with honey, with complete healing in 13 of the patients after three months [51]. ...
Article
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Over the past few decades, there has been a resurgence in the clinical use of honey as a topical wound treatment. A plethora of in vitro and in vivo evidence supports this resurgence, demonstrating that honey debrides wounds, kills bacteria, penetrates biofilm, lowers wound pH, reduces chronic inflammation, and promotes fibroblast infiltration, among other beneficial qualities. Given these results, it is clear that honey has a potential role in the field of tissue engineering and regeneration. Researchers have incorporated honey into tissue engineering templates, including electrospun meshes, cryogels, and hydrogels, with varying degrees of success. This review details the current state of the field, including challenges which have yet to be overcome, and makes recommendations for the direction of future research in order to develop effective tissue regeneration therapies.
... The gauze showed a lower sense of pain and faster epithelialization time than paraffin gauzes and saline- soaked gauzes 36 . In the UK, dressings impregnated with Manuka honey were successfully used in the wound care clinic 37 . Subrahmanyam et al. has shown in a randomized clinical study that residual scars decrease in patients treated with honey-impregnated gauze compared with those treated with amniotic membrane 38 . ...
... inflammation [4]. Honey and silver are the two antimicrobial agents, which are used in various forms like gel, foam, solution to produce an antimicrobial dressing from textile base. ...
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The wound dressing are one of the critical products of medical textile. The wound management system includes wound dressings, bandages, pressure garments and tissue engineering etc. The main function of wound dressings is to heal the wound depending upon the severity of the wound, preventing from infections and providing appropriate condition for faster wound healing. The honey is well-known natural product used for medicated purpose in different medical problem. The technical research shows that the honey can be act as anti-microbial, anti-fungal, anti-biotic, anti-inflammatory and anti-dour. The result of studies shows that honey with silver Nano particles gives efficient wound healing performance. Further study required to get the standardized the wound dressing. In this present study, using honey and silver, the standardize colloidal solution has been prepared using honey by varying the concentration of honey and stock solution and it’s characterization has been done which has been applied to prepared the spunlace wound dressing and antimicrobial activities has been checked Keywords — Spunlace, colloidal solution, Nano particles, wound dressing, honey
... In vitro antimicrobial properties of Manuka honey of New Zealand origin were reported against some pathogenic bacteria 11 . Researchers have shown efficiency of L. scoparium origin Manuka honey, against human pathogens including S. Typhi 12,13 . Honey including Manuka Honey (MH) has antibacterial action against gram-negative and gram-positive bacterial pathogens 14 . ...
... For example, apart from its antibacterial properties in vivo (Lusby, Coombes, & Wilkinson, 2002;Visavadia, Honeysett, & Danford, 2008), manuka honey has unique viscosity-enhancing features that could be exploited to enhance hydrogels' mechanical features. A procedure to incorporate manuka honey as a composite hydrogel material with gellan gum was reported by Azam and Amin (2017). ...
Article
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Hydrogels as artificial biomaterial scaffolds offer a much favoured 3D microenvironment for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM). Towards biomimicry of the native ECM, polysaccharides from Nature have been proposed as ideal surrogates given their biocompatibility. In particular, derivatives from microbial sources have emerged as economical and sustainable biomaterials due to their fast and high yielding production procedures. Despite these merits, microbial polysaccharides do not interact biologically with human tissues, a critical limitation hampering their translation into paradigmatic scaffolds for in vitro 3D cell culture. To overcome this, chemical and biological functionalization of polysaccharide scaffolds have been explored extensively. This review outlines the most recent strategies in the preparation of biofunctionalized gellan gum, xanthan gum and dextran hydrogels fabricated exclusively via material blending. Using inorganic or organic materials, we discuss the impact of these approaches on cell adhesion, proliferation and viability of anchorage-dependent cells for various TERM applications.’
... This reputation has continued up to the present day, leading to the emergence of a relatively new branch of alternative medicine, called "apitherapy", which focuses on medical applications of honey and other bee products [2][3]. Nowadays, different types of honey have been used in many countries as an alternative to pharmaceutical products for treating contaminated, infected, and burn wounds [4][5]. This is attributed to the effectiveness of these honeybees in inhibiting or killing a broad spectrum of bacteria [6][7]. ...
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Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the antibacterial activity of three varieties of Malaysian honeybees; Tualang honey (TH), Gelam honey (GH), and Acacia honey (AH) against Escherichia coli. Methods: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the honey samples against E. coli were determined by the broth microdilution assay in the presence and absence of catalase enzyme. The mode of inhibition of honey samples against E. coli was investigated by the effect of time on viability. Impacts of the honey samples on the expression profiles of the selected genes of E. coli were examined using RT-qPCR analysis. Results: The results showed that TH and GH honey possessed lowest MIC and MBC values against E. coli with 20% and 25% (w/v) respectively. Highest MIC and MBC values were observed by AH honey against E. coli with 25% (w/v) and 50% (w/v) values, respectively. Among the tested honey samples, TH and GH exhibited the highest total antibacterial activity and the highest levels of peroxide-dependent activity. Time-kill curve demonstrated a bactericidal rather than a bacteriostatic effect; with a 2-log reduction estimated within 540 min. Viable cells were not recovered after 9 hours exposure to MIC of all honey-treated samples. The RT-qPCR analysis showed that all honey-treated cells share a similar overall pattern of gene expression, with a trend toward reduced expression of the virulence genes of interest. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that Malaysian honey have the potential to be effective inhibitor and virulence modulator of E. coli via multiple molecular targets.
... Antibacterial (Molan, 1992;Tan et al., 2009), antifungal Theunissen, Grobler, & Gedalia, 2001) and antiviral effects (Zeina, Othman, & Al-Assad, 1996) of different honey may contribute to the expression of such healing activities. Honey possesses the bacteriostatic or bactericidal capability in various concentrations in the context of around 60 bacteria species, including Gram-negative and Gram-positive, and anaerobes and aerobes (Olaitan, Adeleke, & Iyabo, 2007;Visavadia, Honeysett, & Danford, 2008). ...
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Background Honey is being used in Complementary and Alternative Medicine, especially in Indian Ayurvedic Medicine, as an adjuvant and supplement in diabetes mellitus treatment since immemorial times. In recent times, the use of honey has experienced a renewed interest in the context of diabetes treatment because of the rise in the accessibility of evidence-based pharmacological and clinical findings, signifying its health benefits. Scope and approach There are differential opinions regarding the traditional use of honey in diabetes mellitus. The present review highlights various research propositions, hoisted issues, and misconceptions regarding the effects of honey in diabetes management and presents current challenges and future perspectives. A comprehensive critical review was performed by probing the traditional antidiabetic claims of honey, considering published reports in online databases. Key findings and conclusions A total of 20 pre-clinical and 25 clinical studies investigated the antidiabetic effect of honey. Though in vivo studies are still limited, the findings reinforce the multi-targeted antidiabetic effect of honey, exerting antioxidant, nutritional, antihyperglycemic, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, wound-healing, antihypertensive, hypolipidemic, and hypoglycaemic activities. Preclinical and clinical evidence suggests that honey may possess multi-faceted and adjunct effects to accomplish a better glycaemic control, ameliorate several metabolic derangements, and mitigate oxidative stress-evoked diabetic problems. Nevertheless, the findings remain inconclusive due to poor study designs and other limitations (e.g. short duration, few participants, the difference in type of study participants, varied honey sources, and administered doses). Overall, there is a significant gap in knowledge, and hence, carefully planned, detailed in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies are warranted to reach better conclusions.
... The aforementioned qualities of honey allow the regeneration of even hard-healing wounds infected with MRSC (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) within a few weeks. In the conducted studies, an MRSC-infected wound, which was covered with a manuka honey dressing changed every 2 days, healed in a 64-year-old patient within two weeks, and in an 80-year-old patient within six (Visavadia et al. 2008). Researchers from south-east Nigeria have seen significant improvements in the healing of septic and other gangrene wounds in 80% of patients by the end of day 4 of treatment. ...
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The paper presents information concerning the beneficial and harmful effects of honey on human health. Selected therapeutic properties and components responsible for the antibiotic activity of honey are discussed, along with the impact of different factors and technological treatments on these properties. This paper also presents methods applied in the analyses of antioxidant and antibacterial properties of bee products. The purpose of the following study is to present a review of the health properties of honey and the effect of various factors on these properties. Honey is a valuable product because of its nutritional and health properties. It should be noted, however, that individual botanical varieties of honey exhibit different levels of nutritional and health properties, including antibacterial properties.
... The antibacterial activity of manuka honey has been confirmed in various pathogens, including those resistant to first-line antibacterial drugs (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, (Lin et al., 2017;White, 2016;Ahmed and Othman, 2013;Majtan et al., 2011;Lin et al., 2011;Visavadia et al., 2006;Sherlock et al., 2010). ...
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Vegetable production in the Republic of Serbia is performed on about 130,000 hectares that is about 3.5% of total plant production. The most common vegetable in Serbia is potato, which is grown on about 30,000 hectares. The goal of the paper is to show the financial aspects of potato production on farms in Republic of Serbia in the 2015-2019 period by utilization of calculation based on variable costs. The data for analysis have been collected on 323 farms (survey done on selected farms conducted by the Institute for Science Application in Agriculture - IPN). By utilization of sensitivity analysis it has been also shown in the paper the impact of prices and yields on amount of gross margin in potato production. The obtained results indicate a constant increase of the gross margin amount in the potato production in the analyzed period, as well as that changes in prices and yields have a significant impact on the gross margin in potato production.
... with a specific gravity of 1.34 [4]. It is slightly more acidic than other local Malaysian honey, such as Kelulut and Gelam [5], but its low pH is similar to Manuka honey [6]. The sugar composition of Tualang honey is mainly composed of monosaccharides, such as fructose (41.73%) and glucose (47.13%), and disaccharides, such as sucrose (1.02%) and maltose (4.49%) [7]. ...
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Tualang honey has been shown to protect against neurodegeneration, leading to improved memory/learning as well as mood. In addition, studies have also demonstrated its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. However, a substantial part of this research lacks systematization, and there seems to be a tendency to start anew with every study. This review presents a decade of research on Tualang honey with a particular interest in the underlying mechanisms related to its effects on the central nervous system. A total of 28 original articles published between 2011 and 2020 addressing the central nervous system (CNS) effects of Tualang honey were analysed. We identified five main categories, namely nootropic, antinociceptive, stress-relieving, antidepressant, and anxiolytic effects of Tualang honey, and proposed the underlying mechanisms. The findings from this review may potentially be beneficial towards developing new therapeutic roles for Tualang honey and help in determining how best to benefit from this brain supplement.
... Its use is recorded for 4000 years and today its therapeutic use is expanded and popular to such an extent that the term apitherapy has been coined to describe a large variety of therapeutic remedies originating from honey and other bee products [1][2][3]. Most scientific research studies focus on the healing properties of honey in various skin conditions [4][5][6], while only a few of these investigate the use of honey as a systemic medicine administrated per os [7]. ...
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Oregano honey is an exceedingly rare and distinct product, not commercially available, produced by bees bred in oregano fields of alpine altitudes at the mountainous area of Epirus, Greece. In ethnic popular medicine, this product is used as a therapeutic in various gastric diseases. To test this hypothesis, 14 strains of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), 6 isolated from gastric ulcers and 8 from cases of clinical gastritis, were employed in the present study. The above bacterial strains were exposed to various concentrations (75% v/v, 50% v/v, 25% v/v, 12.5% v/v, and 6% v/v) of 50 oregano honey samples by using the agar well method and the inhibition zones observed around each well were recorded. Although the inhibitory zones of the H. pylori isolated from the gastric ulcers were wide enough (0–34 mm), those strains, in general, appeared more resistant than the other eight (0–58 mm). The same result was observed when the same strains were tested against six antibiotics used in clinical practice. Extracts of oregano honey were prepared by extraction with four different organic solvents. N-hexane and chloroform extracts had the most potent antibacterial action. Finally, pure oregano honey and diethyl ether extracts of honey showed significant inhibitory activity against urease secreted by the pathogen. These results strongly indicate the susceptibility of H. pylori strains to the oregano honey by more than one mode of action. Consequently, this variety of honey seems to have potential therapeutic properties against gastric ulcers and gastritis, thus explaining the preference of the locals towards this traditional remedy.
... To overcome the above mentioned limitations we incorporated honey in a hydrogel formula that is reported to deliver drug for sufficient time. It can be used for medical purpose, wound management in particular [9][10][11]12] owing to its characteristic property of humid environment and good fluid absorbance property that is essential for successful wound healing process and aids in pain management [9]. ...
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Background and Aim: The present study aims to formulate a hydrogel containing Tulsi (O. sanctum) and honey, to obtain a pharmaceutical topical preparation having desirable healing effects and antibacterial properties of both the ingredients. Material and Method: Topical honey hydrogel formulation were prepared using 75%honey and 10% Occimum sanctum (Tulsi) with polymer carbopol 934. The prepared formulation was assessed for its pH, spreadability, swelling index and in-vitro release Result: The pH and spreadability were in the range of 4.74 ± 0.02 and 7.75 ± 0.04 cm respectively. Carbopol based Honey –Tulsi Formulation showed a concentration-dependent increase in the amount of honey and O. sanctum diffused through dialysis method. Conclusion: Within the limitations of the study, the results of our present study suggest that the studied Honey –Tulsi based hydrogel could be an economic indigenous substitute which is non-toxic, natural and efficient for clinical application.
... The antibacterial activity of manuka honey has been confirmed in various pathogens, including those resistant to first-line antibacterial drugs (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, (Lin et al., 2017;White, 2016;Ahmed and Othman, 2013;Majtan et al., 2011;Lin et al., 2011;Visavadia et al., 2006;Sherlock et al., 2010). ...
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... Visavadia et al. [184] provided a case study on the use of Manuka honey tulle dressings (Activon brand) for treating recalcitrant, antibiotic-resistant surgical wounds in two patients. In both instances, the patients had arm wounds infected with MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus). ...
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Objectives The pathophysiology of chronic wounds typically involves redox imbalance and inflammation pathway dysregulation, often with concomitant microbial infection. Endogenous antioxidants such as glutathione and tocopherols are notably reduced or absent, indicative of significant oxidative imbalance. However, emerging evidence suggests that polyphenols could be effective agents for the amelioration of this condition. This review aims to summarise the current state of knowledge surrounding redox imbalance in the chronic wound environment and the potential use of polyphenols for the treatment of chronic wounds. Key findings Polyphenols provide a multi-faceted approach towards the treatment of chronic wounds. Firstly, their antioxidant activity allows direct neutralisation of harmful free radicals and reactive oxygen species, assisting in restoring redox balance. Upregulation of pro-healing and anti-inflammatory gene pathways and enzymes by specific polyphenols further acts to reduce redox imbalance and promote wound healing actions, such as proliferation, extracellular matrix deposition and tissue remodelling. Finally, many polyphenols possess antimicrobial activity, which can be beneficial for preventing or resolving infection of the wound site. Summary Exploration of this diverse group of natural compounds may yield effective and economical options for the prevention or treatment of chronic wounds.
... As alternatives to both antiseptic and antibiotic ointments, natural plant-based agents have been shown to provide optimal biofilm disinfection without leading to antimicrobial resistance [6]. MediHoney [7] has been successfully used to treat recalcitrant wounds [8][9][10][11][12], wounds in neonates [13], and wound infection in severely immunocompromised patients [7], but it has also been ineffective in other studies [14]. The combination of polygalacturonic acid (PG) and caprylic acid (CAP) has been shown to synergistically eradicate biofilms in an in vitro model of typical hospital and foodborne infectious pathogenic biofilms (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella enteritidis) [6]. ...
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Antiseptic wound ointments are widely used to treat dermal wounds that are microbially contaminated. Polygalacturonic acid (PG)+caprylic acid (CAP) is a novel combination that has been shown to eradicate biofilms. We developed a novel PG+CAP ointment and compared the biofilm eradication capability and cytotoxicity of PG+CAP with that of commercially available antiseptic wound ointments. We used a well-established biofilm model to quantitatively assess the eradication of organisms following exposure to the wound ointments for 2 hours. PG+CAP ointment completely eradicated Candida albicans, multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus biofilms, whereas MediHoney, polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB), and benzalkonium chloride (BZK) ointments failed to eradicate all biofilms within 2 hours. We assessed cytotoxicity by exposing L-929 fibroblasts to extracts of each ointment; Trypan blue exclusion was used to assess cell viability, and Alamar blue conversion was used to assess metabolic function. After exposure to PG+CAP and MediHoney, fibroblast viability was 96.23% and 95.23%, respectively (Trypan blue), and was comparable to untreated cells (98.77%). PHMB and BZK showed reduced viability (83.25% and 77.83%, respectively, p
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Beeswax is the natural secretion from the wax gland of the genus Apis mellifera and Apis cerana whereas honey is a by-product of flower nectar and the upper aero-digestive tract of the honey bee. The introduction of beeswax and honey to clinical use dates back to the fourteenth century but subsequently it was restricted to the cosmetic and food industry. With the emerging trend of using natural resources as cure for many diseases, beeswax and honey have regained its popularity in medical field. The presented manuscript describes the production, composition, and attempts to highlight the uses of beeswax, honey, and advances especially in oral and maxillofacial surgery.
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Chapter
Plant-based foods contain flavonoids, belonging to the polyphenols class. The phytochemical and phyto-pharmacological sciences advancement has enabled composition elucidation and biological activities of various medicinal plant products. The efficacy of medicinal plants can be measured on the basis of bio-active constituents they comprise. Flavonoid is one of the classes among the bio-active constituents that are hydrophilic in nature. They have low bioavailability and efficacy due to low absorption, as they cannot cross cells lipid membrane due to larger molecular size. A variety of novel drug delivery systems have been developed for polyphenolic compounds to enhance the relative bioavailability. However, if novel drug delivery technology is applied, it may reduce the adverse effects and increase the efficacy of several herbs and their compounds. Herbal medicines were not encouraged for novel formulations development for a long time due to lack of scientific justification and processing difficulties, such as individual drug components identification, extraction and standardization in complex poly-herbal systems. However, advance phytopharmaceutical research can reduce the scientific thirst (e.g, pharmacokinetics determination, mechanism of action, the accurate dose required, site of action etc.) for herbal medicines to be incorporated in novel drug delivery systems, such as nanoparticles (NPs), liposomes, matrix systems, and micro-emulsions (-E) etc. by improving activity by reducing the side effects and required dose. Various drug delivery technologies have been summarized in this chapter which can be used for flavonoids loaded polymeric drug delivery systems.
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Manuka honey is a well-known natural material from New Zealand, considered to have properties beneficial for burn treatment. Gels created from polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) blended with natural polymers are potential burn-care dressings, combining biocompatibility with high fluid uptake. Controlled release of manuka honey from such materials is a possible strategy for improving burn healing. This work aimed to produce polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), PVA–sodium carboxymethylcellulose (PVA-CMC), PVA–gelatin (PVA-G), and PVA–starch (PVA-S) cryogels infused with honey and to characterize these materials physicochemically, morphologically, and thermally, followed by in vitro analysis of swelling capacity, degradation/weight loss, honey delivery kinetics, and possible activity against Staphylococcus aureus. The addition of honey to PVA led to many PVA crystals with defects, while PVA–starch–honey and PVA–sodium carboxymethylcellulose–honey (PVA-CMC-H) formed amorphous gels. PVA-CMC presented the highest swelling degree of all. PVA-CMC-H and PVA–gelatin–honey presented the highest swelling capacities of the honey-laden samples. Weight loss/degradation was significantly higher for samples containing honey. Layers submitted to more freeze–thawing cycles were less porous in SEM images. With the honey concentration used, samples did not inhibit S. aureus, but pure manuka honey was bactericidal and dilutions superior to 25% honey were bacteriostatic, indicating the need for higher concentrations to be more effective.
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Honey is known to have a variety of health-promoting effects. Ethyl acetate fractions (EAFs) of four Korean domestic honeys from basswood, Korean raisin, chestnut, and acacia as well as a New Zealand manuka honey were analyzed comparatively to evaluate their antioxidative and antimelanogenic effects. The EAFs of basswood, Korean raisin, and chestnut honey had higher antioxidant capacities and tyrosinase inhibition activities than those of manuka honey. Pretreatment of B16F1 melanoma cells with EAFs at 100 µg/mL resulted in relative retention of melanin contents as follows: acacia honey (141.0%)>basswood honey (134.3%)>manuka honey (131.5%)>Korean raisin honey (107.3%)> chestnut honey (88.0%). Intracellular tyrosinase activities of B16F1 melanoma cells were significantly (p<0.05) lowered by EAFs of Korean raisin and chestnut honey than by EAF of manuka honey. Consequently, these results suggest that Korean domestic honeys from different floral sources serve as good sources of antioxidative and antimelanogenic agents.
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The syrup-blended adulteration of Manuka honey was detected using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy combined with aquaphotomics. Manuka honey was adulterated with five different syrups (corn syrup, sucrose syrup, high fructose corn syrup, beet syrup, and rice syrup) in degrees from 10% to 50% for NIR spectra collection. Spectral variance analysis, PCA analysis, and partial least square regression (PLSR) model regression vector analysis were then performed for the spectral region of 1300–1800 nm. Finally, 12 characteristic bands were selected according to the results of analysis, and the aquagrams constructed on the basis of these wavelengths were used for aquaphotomic evaluation. The evaluation results showed that Manuka honey dominated at long-wavelength regions, indicating that more water molecules with strong hydrogen bonds and more structured water molecules are present in Manuka honey compared with sugar syrups. On the other hand, sugar syrups dominated at short-wavelength regions, indicating that sugar syrups mainly contain unstructured free water molecules with few or no hydrogen bonds. Furthermore, as the degree of adulteration increased, the number of structured water molecules, which facilitate molecular interactions, in Manuka honey decreased. The experimental results demonstrated that the detection of syrup-adulterated Manuka honey using NIR spectroscopy combined with aquaphotomics is practical.
Chapter
Honey is a well-known and historically important sweet food which possesses immense antimicrobial properties. Numerous varieties of honey are present in nature, and all of these honey varieties contain certain key ingredients, which confer upon them various antimicrobial properties. These antimicrobial key ingredients include polyphenolic compounds, hydrogen peroxide, methylglyoxal, and bee-defensin among several others. Honey is nowadays used extensively in modern medicine as potent antibiotic for the treatment of surface wounds and burns. It is also used in combination with other antibiotics to treat antibiotic resistance. As an antifungal agent, honey is used to treat the athlete’s foot (tinea pedis), jock itch (tinea cruris), and ringworm of face, scalp, nail, and hand (tinea corporus). In this chapter, we aim to provide a brief overview of various types of honey and their composition and describe extensively its various antimicrobial properties and how these properties are exploited in modern medicine as an alternative to popular therapeutics or in conjunction with it.
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The research aimed to develop a bioactive wound dressing using chitosan and Leptospermum scoparium honey, which is commonly known as Manuka Honey. The wound dressing was developed using solvent- casting technique with the honey as a drug. The wound healing ability of the developed dressing was evaluated against three different wound models namely excision, incision and burn wound model in terms of wound contraction percentage and histopathological examination. The results of the study revealed that the performance of the developed honey loaded chitosan dressing was comparable with commercial dressing. In the case of excision and incision wound models, complete healing was observed in on 18th day and in the case of burn wound model on 21 st day. The wound contraction percentage of CH dressed excision wound model is noted significantly better (0.05> p; 94%) than the commercial dressing (90%). In incision wound model, the tensile strength of healing skin was noted significantly higher (0.05> p) for CH dressed wounds than the commercial dressing. Similarly, for the burn wound also a significantly improved performance was noted it is noted (0.05> p; 96%) for CH dressing than the commercial dressing (85%). The results of the study indicated that the CH dressing have higher potential for the wound healing application.
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In light of concerns raised about antimicrobial resistance, especially in hospitals, and the rise in bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics scientists are examining alternative sources and strategies to combat infection. Among the plethora of complementary medicines now being considered is honey, particularly manuka honey. Medicinal honey is a relatively new label given to some types of honey that have been shown to be effective antimicrobial agents in in vitro studies. Large-scale clinical trials are yet to be conducted but there is considerable interest and numerous case studies that demonstrate the benefits of medicinal honey, especially in wound healing.
Chapter
Currently, researchers are oriented to the use of several natural products as alternatives in curing various ailments. Among natural products, honey occupies a great position as a sweetening agent as well as a magic remedy for a large list of diseases. Several studies had been conducted on different types of honeys. At first, most of the studies were focused on the use of honey as a natural antimicrobial. Afterwards, many pharmaceutical applications have been knocked. The well-known anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antimicrobial characteristics of honey suggest its use to promote wound healing, relief oxidative stress in case of cardiovascular diseases and cure several infectious and inflammatory diseases. Honey has proved its effectiveness in eradication of multidrug resistant pathogens such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), controlling blood sugar in diabetic patients, accelerating healing of wounds and chronic ulcers, improving cough and asthma, treatment of different types of cancers, and reducing symptoms associated with periodontal diseases.
Chapter
Honey dressings attract attention as a therapeutic alternative for wound care due to its antibacterial, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory action. To obtain better medicinal properties, the formulation of honey requires the characterization of physicochemical and mechanical properties. This chapter aims to provide an in-depth account of the value of characterizing the honey dressing. Physical tests, such as swelling capacity, water vapor transmission rate, and thermal studies, are described. Therapeutic testings of honey wound dressings and their clinical applications have been covered. Recent developments in the formulation of honey dressings are also discussed in this chapter.
Chapter
Honey is the material made by mixing of nectar and sweet deposits from plants and later on modified by honey bees. Honey is one of the most appreciated and valued natural products introduced to humankind since ancient times. Honey is a nutritional material that is traditionally known for its medicinal properties. Honey is used as a traditional medicine in treating various clinical ailments from wound healing to cancer apart from being used as a nutritional product. In dermatology, honey is used in the treatment of eczema, ulcers, wounds, atopic dermatitis (AD), allergies, and much more due to its antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory properties. In conclusion, honey could be considered as a natural therapeutic agent for various medicinal purposes. Sufficient evidences recommend the use of honey in the management of disease conditions especially skin- related disorders. Based on these facts, the use of honey in clinical wards is highly recommended. However, more rigorous scientific studies are needed to confirm its benefits in health care settings especially in the field of dermatology.
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Children are more susceptible to various infections because of underdeveloped immune system as compared to adults. Strengthening the immune system is a natural way to help the body fight against the disease-causing pathogens and immunomodulators can play a major role in this context. Various Ayurveda classics and studies published in journals related to Ayurveda drugs for improving immunity are reviewed and analysed. In Ayurveda, the objective of immune enhancement is achieved through the use of the Amalakyadi Rasayana (an Immunomodulators), as it increases longevity of life, memory, intellect, luxture, complexion, voice, strength of the body functions, strength of all senses and provides the resistance to disease, improves glow and power. Analysis of classical references and various experimental studies show that Amalakyadi Rasayana posse immuno-modulatory, Antioxidant, Anti-inflammatory, Antimicrobial, Anthelmintic activity. Present paper is a review to update knowledge on pharmacological properties, therapeutic actions and possible mode of action of the selected formulation, Amalakyadi rasayana from Yogaratnakara (Rasayanadhikara/17) to enhance the immunity in children. Rasayana is an important part of Ayurvedic therapeutics used to improve the quality of life by strengthening the tissue quality and by reducing the age-related tissue degeneration. This study reveals that Amalakyadi Rasayana have potential to improve or strengthen the immune system in children and thereby can lower down the morbidity rate in children.
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Manuka honey, a wound treatment used to eradicate bacteria, resolve inflammation, and promote wound healing, is a current focus in the tissue engineering community as a tissue template additive. However, Manuka honey's effect on neutrophils during the inflammation-resolving phase has yet to be examined. This study investigates the effect of 0.5% and 3% Manuka honey on the release of cytokines, chemokines, and matrix-degrading enzymes from a dHL-60 neutrophil model in the presence of anti-inflammatory stimuli (TGF-β, IL-4, IL-4 +IL-13). We hypothesized that Manuka honey would reduce the output of pro-inflammatory signals and increase the release of anti-inflammatory signals. The results of this study indicate that 0.5% honey significantly increases the release of CXCL8/IL-8, CCL2/MCP-1, CCL4/MIP-1β, CCL20/MIP-3α, IL-4, IL-1ra, and FGF-13 while reducing Proteinase 3 release in the anti-inflammatory-stimulated models. However, 3% honey significantly increased the release of TNF-α and CXCL8/IL-8 while reducing the release of all other analytes. We replicated a subset of the most notable findings in primary human neutrophils, and the consistent results indicate that the HL-60 data are relevant to the performance of primary cells. These findings demonstrate the variable effects of Manuka honey on the release of cytokines, chemokines, and matrix-degrading enzymes of this model of neutrophil anti-inflammatory activity. This study reinforces the importance of tailoring the concentration of Manuka honey in a wound or tissue template to elicit the desired effects during the inflammation-resolving phase of wound healing. Future in vivo investigation should be undertaken to translate these results to a physiologically-relevant wound environment.
Article
Honey has been used by a wide variety of cultures across the world and for thousands of years to prevent infection and improve wound healing. Recently, Manuka honey has been demonstrated to be a potent antibacterial and anti‐inflammatory therapeutic and has been incorporated into an array of wound dressings, as well as being ingested for its anti‐inflammatory and antioxidant effects. Burgeoning investigation into Manuka honey's potential as a biomaterial additive has shown promising results in reducing acute inflammatory behavior from neutrophils, the most abundant leukocyte in the body, and the potent drivers of the initial immune response to implanted biomaterials. This paper discusses the most abundant antioxidant chemicals found in Manuka honey and explains their contribution to the anti‐inflammatory and prowound resolution effects seen by Manuka honey therapeutics. This paper also examines the benefits and drawbacks to current Manuka honey therapies and provides future potential uses for Manuka honey‐inspired therapeutics that could greatly benefit host–biomaterial integration, reduce scar tissue development at the site of implantation, and lower discomfort to the patient caused by biomaterial implantation. Burgeoning investigation into Manuka honey's potential as a biomaterial additive has shown promising results in reducing acute inflammatory behavior from neutrophils, the most abundant leukocyte in the body, and the potent drivers of the initial immune response to implanted biomaterials. This paper discusses the most abundant antioxidant chemicals found in Manuka honey and explains their contribution to the anti‐inflammatory and prowound resolution effects seen by Manuka honey therapeutics.
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The clinical use of honey has gained significant importance in regenerative medicine owing to its constructive properties that abets the rapid healing of broad-spectrum of injuries. The salient characteristics of honey are attributable to its active ingredients which include sugars, enzymes and vitamins. Moreover, the evidence based results exert that honey acts in synergy with its immunologic modulators and physiologic mediators in multitude of signalling pathways and molecular targets offering beneficial vigor effects in wound healing. The aim of this present study is to systematically review the literature in PubMed database in order to identify the available pre-clinical results in support to rational use of honey in wound management. The results revealed that the active biomolecules of honey assisted in improved autolytic debridement and tissue granulation. This review highlights the physiological basis for the use of honey in wound healing, its current pre-clinical uses and its future recommendations.
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Background Jellies are usually preserved by artificial preservatives where they have harmful side effects and health hazards especially to infants. Honey and fresh lemon juice work as natural preservative due to their hygroscopic, high sugar, low pH and antibacterial properties. Hence, the honey and fresh lemon juice were undertaken to formulate the synthetic preservative free guava-pineapple jelly for extended shelf life with higher retention of nutrients and antioxidants. Results Best formulation found using honey and fresh lemon juice treated jelly (T2 and T3) by the sensory evaluation, nutrients, bioactive compounds, phenolics, antioxidant and antibacterial properties. Storage study was conducted at ambient condition and the shelf life of the jelly was remained upto 8 months without any quality deterioration. All the physicochemical, nutritional, minerals, bioactive compounds, antioxidants activities and phenolic acids were decreased with progression of storage periods. The highest vitamin-C, energy, total phenolic, flavonoid, carotenoid, ß-carotene, and anthocyanin, were recorded by the combination of guava-pineapple jelly formulated using honey and fresh lemon (T3) juice; values were 42.94-41.00 mg/100 g, 406.35-406.94 cal/g, 4.15–4.01 mg GAE/100g, 0.91 − 0.84 mg QE/g, 0.94 − 0.84 mg/100g, 12.44–12.20 mg/100g, and 4.06–4.01 mg/100g, respectively. Phenolic acids, i.e. gallic acid, vanilic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, catechin acid and syringic acids were identified and quantified higher in sample T3; values ranged 5.41–5.30 mg/100 g, 4.66–4.54 mg/100 g, 9.07–8.93 mg/100 g, 0.46 − 0.35 mg/100 g, 81.70-81.43 mg/100g, 3.23–3.10 mg/100 respectively. Microbial study confirmed that the jelly was free from microbes upto 6 months of storage. After 8 months, the Aspergillus, Shigella and E-coli were detected but they were within acceptable limit. Initial color was retained upto 8 months of storage but after 8 months, the color faded out and turned into dark. Conclusion Honey and fresh lemon juice are valuable source of natural preservative for formulation of fruit jelly with extended shelf life upto 8 months by preventing microbial activities. The processors could process and preserve the fruit jelly with decent aroma by applying this technology as an alternative to artificial food additives.
Article
Although honey has been used as a traditional remedy for burns and wounds, the potential for its inclusion in mainstream medical care is not well recognized. Many studies have demonstrated that honey has antibacterial activity in vitro, and a small number of clinical case studies have shown that application of honey to severely infected cutaneous wounds is capable of clearing infection from the wound and improving tissue healing. The physicochemical properties (eg, osmotic effects and pH) of honey also aid in its antibacterial actions. Research has also indicated that honey may possess antiinflammatory activity and stimulate immune responses within a wound. The overall effect is to reduce infection and to enhance wound healing in burns, ulcers, and other cutaneous wounds. It is also known that honeys derived from particular floral sources in Australia and New Zealand (Leptospermum spp) have enhanced antibacterial activity, and these honeys have been approved for marketing as therapeutic honeys (Medihoney and Active Manuka honey). This review outlines what is known about the medical properties of honey and indicates the potential for honey to be incorporated into the management of a large number of wound types. (J WOCN 2002;29:295-300.)
Article
With the everincreasing emergence of antibiotic-resistant pathogens, in particular methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in leg ulcers, a means of reducing the bacterial bioburden of such ulcers, other than by the use of either topical or systemic antibiotics, is urgently required. We report the case of an immunosuppressed patient who developed a hydroxyurea-induced leg ulcer with subclinical MRSA infection which was subsequently treated with topical application of manuka honey, without cessation of hydroxyurea or cyclosporin. MRSA was eradicated from the ulcer and rapid healing was successfully achieved. Honey is recognized to have antibacterial properties, and can also promote effective wound healing. A traditional therapy, therefore, appears to have enormous potential in solving new problems.
Article
Although honey has been used as a traditional remedy for burns and wounds, the potential for its inclusion in mainstream medical care is not well recognized. Many studies have demonstrated that honey has antibacterial activity in vitro, and a small number of clinical case studies have shown that application of honey to severely infected cutaneous wounds is capable of clearing infection from the wound and improving tissue healing. The physicochemical properties (eg, osmotic effects and pH) of honey also aid in its antibacterial actions. Research has also indicated that honey may possess antiinflammatory activity and stimulate immune responses within a wound. The overall effect is to reduce infection and to enhance wound healing in burns, ulcers, and other cutaneous wounds. It is also known that honeys derived from particular floral sources in Australia and New Zealand (Leptospermum spp) have enhanced antibacterial activity, and these honeys have been approved for marketing as therapeutic honeys (Medihoney and Active Manuka honey). This review outlines what is known about the medical properties of honey and indicates the potential for honey to be incorporated into the management of a large number of wound types.
Article
Clinical observations indicate that honey may initiate or accelerate the healing of chronic wounds and has, therefore, been claimed to have anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of honey on the activation state of immunocompetent cells, using the monocytic cell line, MonoMac-6 (MM6), as a model. We investigated the effect of each of the three honeys (manuka, pasture and jelly bush) on the release of important inflammatory cytokines from MM6 cells. These honeys, together with a sugar syrup control (artificial honey), were incubated with MM6 cells at a concentration of 1% (w/v) for 0-24h. Cell culture supernatants were tested using specific ELISA assays for tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin (IL)-1beta and IL-6. All honeys significantly increased the TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6 release from MM6 cells (and human monocytes) when compared with untreated and artificial-honey-treated cells (P<0.001). Jelly bush honey significantly induced the maximal release of each cytokine compared with manuka, pasture or artificial honeys (P<0.001). These results suggest that the effect of honey on wound healing may in part be related to the stimulation of inflammatory cytokines from monocytic cells. Such cell types are known to play an important role in healing and tissue repair.