Antimicrobial Therapy of Multidrug-Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci, and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Antibiotic resistance among pneumococci, enterococci, and staphylococci has become increasingly important in recent decades. Clinicians should be familiar with the nuances of antibiotic susceptibility testing and interpretation in selecting antibiotics for these infections. The clinical significance of penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, macrolide-resistant S pneumoniae, and multidrug-resistant S pneumoniae is discussed. The clinical spectrum and therapeutic approach to Enterococcus faecalis (i.e., vancomycin-sensitive enterococci) and E faecium (i.e., vancomycin-resistant enterococci) are discussed. Differences in therapeutic approach between methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S aureus (MRSA) infections are reviewed. Differences between in vitro susceptibility testing and in vivo effectiveness of antibiotics for hospital-acquired MRSA (HA-MRSA) are described. Finally, the clinical features of infection and therapy of HA-MRSA and community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA) infections are compared.
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