Article

Clubgoers and their trendy cocktails: Implications of mixing caffeine into alcohol on information processing and subjective reports of intoxication

Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506-0044, USA.
Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology (Impact Factor: 2.71). 12/2006; 14(4):450-8. DOI: 10.1037/1064-1297.14.4.450
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Alcoholic drink preferences in college students have made an interesting shift recently, with trends in consumption leaning toward caffeinated alcohol in various forms (e.g., Red Bull and vodka or caffeinated beers such as Anheuser-Busch's B-to-the-E). Despite the dramatic rise in popularity of these beverages, little research has examined the combined effects of alcohol and caffeine, which is problematic for adequately informing the public about the risk or lack thereof of these drinks. The purpose of this study was to directly investigate the acute effects of alcohol and caffeine, alone and in combination, on well-validated measures of cognitive performance and subjective intoxication in social drinkers. Participants (N = 12) performed a psychological refractory period task that measured dual-task interference as the prolonged reaction time to complete the 2nd of 2 tasks performed in close temporal sequence. Performance was tested under 2 active doses and 1 placebo dose of caffeine (0.0 mg/kg, 2.0 mg/kg, and 4.0 mg/kg) in combination with 1 active dose and 1 placebo dose of alcohol (0.0 g/kg and 0.65 g/kg). As expected, alcohol impaired task performance by increasing dual-task interference and increasing errors. The coadministration of caffeine counteracted the effects of alcohol on interference but had no effect on the degree to which alcohol increased errors. Subjective measures of intoxication showed that coadministration of caffeine with alcohol reduced participants' perceptions of alcohol intoxication compared with administration of alcohol alone. The results highlight the complexity of drug interactions between alcohol and caffeine.

Full-text preview

Available from: memphis.edu
  • Source
    • "Impairment indicated in number of studies reviewed at low, medium and high blood alcohol concentrations.–/01 (0%)Abroms et al., 2006;Blekher et al., 2002;Dumont et al., 2010;Holdstock and de Wit, 1999;King et al., 2002;Marinkovic et al., 2013;Miller and Fillmore, 2011;Nyberg et al., 2004;Roche and King, 2010;Vassallo and Abel, 2002;Vorstius et al., 2008Blekher et al., 2002;Khan et al., 2003;Marinkovic et al., 2013;Roche and King, 2010;Vassallo and Abel, 2002;Vorstius et al., 2008Marczinski and Fillmore, 2006;Marczinski et al., 2012;Marinkovic et al., 2000 "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Laboratory tests assessing driving related skills can be useful as initial screening tools to assess potential drug induced impairment as part of a standardized behavioural assessment. Unfortunately, consensus about which laboratory tests should be included to reliably assess drug induced impairment has not yet been reached. The aim of the present review was to evaluate the sensitivity of laboratory tests to the dose dependent effects of alcohol, as a benchmark, on performance parameters. In total, 179 experimental studies were included. Results show that a cued go/no-go task and a divided attention test with primary tracking and secondary visual search were consistently sensitive to the impairing effects at medium and high blood alcohol concentrations. Driving performance assessed in a simulator was less sensitive to the effects of alcohol as compared to naturalistic, on-the-road driving. In conclusion, replicating results of several potentially useful tests and their predictive validity of actual driving impairment should deserve further research. In addition, driving simulators should be validated and compared head to head to naturalistic driving in order to increase construct validity.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2016 · Accident Analysis & Prevention
  • Source
    • "Importantly, no differences were observed in actual impairment in motor coordination or reaction time resulting from intoxication [18]. In a second study, participants consuming alcohol with energy drinks reported lower subjective intoxication compared with alcohol-only participants, and caffeine counteracted some cognitive effects of alcohol (e.g., response speed) but not others (e.g., response accuracy), showing the complexity of the drug interaction [19]. A third study concluded that consuming alcohol with energy drinks led to more impairment in behavioral inhibition, although response activation was not as impaired as in the alcohol-only condition [1]. "

    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Journal of studies on alcohol and drugs
  • Source
    • "Chez l'homme, des travaux ont démontré que la caféine contenue dans les boissons énergisantes diminuait les effets subjectifs de l'ivresse, sans réduire les mesures objectives des effets de l'alcool au niveau moteur ou du temps de réaction. Ainsi, la caféine pourrait non seulement modifier les effets renforçant de l'alcool, mais aussi réduire la sensation d'ivresse et donc potentialiser les effets de désinhibition, et faciliter ainsi l'abus d'alcool et les comportements à risque [74]. En effet, un quart des consommateurs justifie l'ajout de Red Bull ou de Dark Dog par l'envie de boire plus d'alcool tout en retardant l'ivresse [2]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Energy drinks designate "any product in the form of a drink or concentrated liquid containing a mixture of ingredients having the property to raise the level of energy and liveliness". Their introduction has raised many reluctance and reserves after numerous cardiovascular and neurological injuries among regular consumers. This article attempts to synthesize the existing literature on energy drinks. The review focuses to show that excessive energy drinks consumption cause many complications. The literature review was conducted from 2001 to 2014, using PubMed, Google Scholar, EMBASE, and PsycInfo, using the following keywords alone or combined: energy drinks, caffeine, taurine, toxicity, dependence, complications. Occasional or moderate consumption of these cans seem to present little risk to healthy adults. However, their repeated consumption in proportions that far exceed the recommendations for recommended use by the manufacturers, combined with the use of alcohol or illicit drugs consumption increases the risk of occurrence of somatic and psychiatric complications, especially among underage, and subjects with cardiovascular and neurological history. Repeated consumption of energy drinks increases the risk of somatic and psychiatric complications. Further studies must be controlled to improve our understanding of other possible negative consequences on health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · La Presse Médicale
Show more