National access to antiretroviral program for PHA (NAPHA) in Thailand

Bureau of AIDS, TB and STIs, Department of Disease Control, Ministry of Public Health, Thailand.
The Southeast Asian journal of tropical medicine and public health (Impact Factor: 0.72). 08/2006; 37(4):704-15.
Source: PubMed


To describe the development, components, initial results and lessons learned from Thailand's National Access to Antiretroviral Program for People living with HIV/AIDS (NAPHA), a historical review was conducted and program monitoring was analyzed. The national antiretroviral therapy program at different levels of the public health system was implemented with all major program components; ARV protocol development, health care professional training, drug supply chain management, laboratory network formation, monitoring and evaluation, and multi-sector and PHA involvement since 2001, which was based on elements of research, pilot projects, training, national guideline development, experiences and policy making. A national monitoring system was developed to monitor the progress of the program. From February 2001 to December 2004, the monitoring reports received from implementing hospitals showed that 58,133 cases had received antiretroviral therapy (ART), and 85% (49,477) of them were continuing to take ARV drugs. In conclusion, the NAPHA was implemented nationwide with comprehensive systems. The reports indicate achievement of expansion of the ART program. Lessons learned from the program initiation and scaling up show local leadership, comprehensive training, adherence, and coordination are essential to program effectiveness and sustainability.

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Available from: Sanchai Chasombat, Apr 08, 2015
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    • "Access to ART has dramatically expanded; by the end of 2011, 225,272 people in Thailand had received ART [1]. The results of some studies among HIV-infected Thai patients have demonstrated a reduction in AIDS-related mortality and morbidity by ART234. In spite of the success of ART, HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) is the major cause of treatment failure after scaling up of ART56. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) is the major cause of treatment failure after scaling up of antiretroviral therapy (ART). HIVDR testing prior to ART initiation is not routinely performed in resource-limited settings. We aimed to assess the prevalence of primary HIVDR by short reverse transcriptase (RT) genotypic resistance assay and evaluate of the impact of the mutations on the treatment outcomes. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted in treatment-naïve HIV-infected patients. Fourteen major mutations of codon 99-191 on the RT gene were selected (K103N, V106A/M, V108I, Q151M, Y181C/I, M184V/I, Y188C/L/H, and G190S/A) at a cost of testing of 35 USD. The association between the presence of primary HIVDR and undetectable HIV RNA (<50 copies/mL) after 6 months of ART was determined. Results: A total of 265 HIV-infected patients were included, with a median age of 35.2 (range, 16.8-75.2) years; 62.6% were males. The median (interquartile range) CD4 cell count at ART initiation was 216 (77-381) cells/mm3. The overall prevalence of primary HIVDR was 7.9%. The prevalence of each HIVDR mutation were K103N 6.0%, V106I 1.1%, V108I 0.4%, Y181C 2.3%, Y181I 0.7%, Y181V 0.4%, M184V 3.0%, M184I 1.5%, and G190A 2.3%. No associated factor of having primary HIVDR was determined. By multiple stepwise logistic regression, factors associated with undetectable HIV RNA after 6 months of ART were: having M184V/I (odds ratio [OR] 0.11; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.02-0.62, p = 0.013), condom use (OR 2.38; 95% CI 1.12-5.06, p = 0.024), and adherence per 5% increase (OR 1.16; 95% CI 1.00-1.35, p = 0.044). Conclusions: The prevalence of primary HIVDR is approximately 8%; it is associated with detectable HIV RNA at 6 months after ART initiation. Routine "short RT" genotypic resistance assay should be considered in resource-limited settings to maximize treatment outcome.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2016 · PLoS ONE
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    • "Combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) has significantly reduced mortality and morbidity since its introduction in Thailand [3-5]. Since 2001, the government has committed to providing ART free of charge to people living with HIV under the National Access to Antiretroviral Program for People Living with HIV/AIDS (NAPHA) [6]. The subsequent production and use of generic drugs led to more than an eight-fold expansion in treatment provision between 2001 and 2003 [7]. "
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    ABSTRACT: After rapid scaling up of antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1-infected patients, the data of primary HIV-1 drug resistance in Thailand is still limited. This study aims to determine the prevalence and associated factors of primary HIV-1 drug resistance in Thailand. A prospective observational study was conducted among antiretroviral-naïve HIV-1-infected Thai patients from 2007 to 2010. HIV-1 subtypes and mutations were assayed by sequencing a region of HIV-1 pol gene. Surveillance drug resistance mutations recommended by the World Health Organization for surveillance of transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance in 2009 were used in all analyses. Primary HIV-1 drug resistance was defined as the presence of one or more surveillance drug resistance mutations. Of 466 patients with a mean age of 38.8 years, 58.6% were males. Risks of HIV-1 infection included heterosexual (77.7%), homosexual (16.7%), and intravenous drug use (5.6%). Median (IQR) CD4 cell count and HIV-1 RNA were 176 (42-317) cells/mm(3) and 68,600 (19,515-220,330) copies/mL, respectively. HIV-1 subtypes were CRF01_AE (86.9%), B (8.6) and other recombinants (4.5%). The prevalence of primary HIV-1 drug resistance was 4.9%; most of these (73.9%) had surveillance drug resistance mutations to only one class of antiretroviral drugs. The prevalence of patients with NRTI, NNRTI, and PI surveillance drug resistance mutations was 1.9%, 2.8% and 1.7%, respectively. From logistic regression analysis, there was no factor significantly associated with primary HIV-1 drug resistance. There was a trend toward higher prevalence in females [odds ratio 2.18; 95% confidence interval 0.896-5.304; p = 0.086]. There is a significant emergence of primary HIV-1 drug resistance in Thailand after rapid scaling up of antiretroviral therapy. Although HIV-1 genotyping prior to antiretroviral therapy initiation is not routinely recommended in Thailand, our results raise concerns about the risk of early treatment failure in patients with primary HIV-1 drug resistance. Interventions to prevent the transmission of HIV-1 drug resistance and continuation of surveillance for primary HIV-1 drug resistance in Thailand are indicated.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · Journal of the International AIDS Society
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    • "The mathematic model describing the epidemic trends using the Asia Epidemic Model software projected that there will be 10,835 new HIV cases each year [1]. In Thailand, it was only after the establishment of the National Access to Antiretroviral Program for People living with HIV/AIDS (NAPHA) in 2002 that combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) became widely available free of charge throughout the country [2]. In a previous study from Thailand, treatment with GPO-VIR® (a locally-produced generic fixed-dose combination of stavudine, lamivudine, and nevirapine) resulted in 62.7% and 93.3% of 90 HIV treatment-naïve patients achieving undetectable HIV viral load at 24 and 48 weeks, respectively [3]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The use of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has become a standard of care for the treatment of HIV infection. However, cost and resistance to cART are major obstacles for access to treatment especially in resource-limited settings. In this study, we aimed to determine the incidence and risk factors of treatment failure in a cohort of treatment-naïve Thai HIV-infected patients. A retrospective cohort study was conducted among HIV-infected patients initiating their first cART at Chiang Mai University Hospital, Thailand. From January 2002 to December 2008, 788 patients were enrolled; 365 were male (46.3%), and the mean age was 37.9 ± 8.6 years. The median baseline CD4 count was 57.7 cells/mm3 (IQR 22, 127). GPO-VIR® (a fixed-dose combination of lamivudine, stavudine, and nevirapine) was the most common prescribed cART (657 patients, 83.4%). Seventy-six patients developed virological failure given the cumulative incidence of 9.6%. The incidence of virological failure was 2.79 (95% CI 2.47, 3.14) cases per 100 person years. Poor adherence was the strongest predictor for virological failure. Of 535 immunologically evaluable patients, 179 (33.5%) patients developed immunological failure. A low CD4 cell count at baseline (< 100 cells/mm3) and the increment of CD4 cell count of < 50 cell/mm3 after 6 months of cART were the predictors for immunological failure (p < 0.001). This study demonstrated that even in resource-limited settings, the high rate of success could be expected in the cohort with good and sustainable drug adherence. Poor adherence, older age, and low baseline CD4 cell count are the predictors for unfavorable outcome of cART.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2011 · AIDS Research and Therapy
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