Griel AE, Kris-Etherton PM. Tree nuts and the lipid profile: a review of clinical studies. Br J Nutr 96(Suppl 2), S68-S78

Pennsylvania State University, S-126 Henderson Building, University Park, PA 16802, USA.
British Journal Of Nutrition (Impact Factor: 3.45). 12/2006; 96 Suppl 2(Suppl 2):S68-78. DOI: 10.1017/BJN20061866
Source: PubMed


Tree nuts have a fatty acid profile that favourably affects blood lipids and lipoproteins. They are low in saturated fat and high in unsaturated fatty acids and are rich sources of other nutrients. An extensive database consistently shows total and LDL cholesterol-lowering effects of diets low in saturated fat and cholesterol and high in unsaturated fat provided by a variety of tree nuts. Collectively, a summary of studies conducted to date shows that tree nuts reduce LDL cholesterol by 3-19 % compared with Western and lower-fat diets. Nuts also contain many nutrients and bioactive compounds that appear to contribute to the favourable effects on lipids and lipoproteins--these include plant sterols, dietary fibre and antioxidants. Because of their unique nutrient profile, nuts can be part of a diet that features multiple heart-healthy foods resulting in a cholesterol lowering response that surpasses that of cholesterol-lowering diets typically used to reduce CVD risk.

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    • "Nut consumption (such as almond) cause improvements in triglycerides, total cholesterol (TC),[9] and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and so it has positive effects on various cardiovascular disease risk factors.[91011] Moreover, observational studies show that nut consumption is associated with a lower risk of developing coronary artery disease, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes.[121314] "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Due to the wholesome benefits of nuts increased consumption of them has been recommended. However, because of nut's high energy density, the role of them in the treatment of overweight and obesity is vague. This current clinical trial study aims to investigate the effects of a balanced hypocaloric almond-enriched diet (AED) (almond group) in comparison to a balanced hypocaloric nut-free diet (NFD) (nut-free group) on body weight and cardiovascular disease risk factors in women with body mass index (BMI) >25 for 3-month. Materials and Methods: A total of 108 overweight and obese women were assigned in our 3-month randomized controlled trial. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups regarding a balanced hypocaloric diet with or without almond. The planned reduced calorie diets for both groups were identical except for the almond group who consumed 50 g of almonds daily. Anthropometric and laboratory measurements of the participants who completed the study were made prior to and at the end of the study. Results: A total of 100 subjects completed the study. Weight, BMI, waist circumference, waist to hip circumference ratio, total cholesterol, and triglyceride, total: High density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), fasting blood sugar and diastolic blood pressure decreased significantly in the almond group compared to the nut-free group (P > 0.001). Greater reduction in low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (P > 0.002) and systolic blood pressure (P > 0.001) and greater increase in HDL-C (P = 0.001) were found in the nut-free group. Conclusion: The balanced hypocaloric AED in comparison to the balanced hypocaloric NFD led to a greater weight-loss and overall better improvements in studied cardiovascular disease risk factors.
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    • "Previous studies have shown that feeding 42-57 grams of walnuts per day (1.5-2 ounces/d) lowers total-C, LDL-C and TAG in both normal and hypercholesterolemic individuals [21,22,25-28]. While we showed a significant lowering in total-C and TAG, LDL-C remained unchanged. "
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    • "Since this study, more than 25 clinical studies have been conducted to evaluate the effects of nut consumption on serum lipids and lipoproteins. Although the degree of dietary control has been variable, ranging from being tightly controlled to simply providing dietary advice, the results have been consistent in showing a cholesterollowering effect of regular nut consumption [90] [91]. In agreement , Mukuddem-Petersen et al. [42] showed that the consumption of 50 to 100 g of nuts at least five times per week as a part of a heart-healthy diet with a total fat content of 35% in a randomized controlled intervention trial significantly decreased TC and LDL-C. "
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