Genetics of Antimicrobial Resistance
Office of Research, Center for Veterinary Medicine, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Laurel, Maryland 20708, USA. Animal Biotechnology
(Impact Factor: 0.76).
02/2006; 17(2):111-24. DOI: 10.1080/10495390600957092
Antimicrobial resistant strains of bacteria are an increasing threat to animal and human health. Resistance mechanisms to circumvent the toxic action of antimicrobials have been identified and described for all known antimicrobials currently available for clinical use in human and veterinary medicine. Acquired bacterial antibiotic resistance can result from the mutation of normal cellular genes, the acquisition of foreign resistance genes, or a combination of these two mechanisms. The most common resistance mechanisms employed by bacteria include enzymatic degradation or alteration of the antimicrobial, mutation in the antimicrobial target site, decreased cell wall permeability to antimicrobials, and active efflux of the antimicrobial across the cell membrane. The spread of mobile genetic elements such as plasmids, transposons, and integrons has greatly contributed to the rapid dissemination of antimicrobial resistance among several bacterial genera of human and veterinary importance. Antimicrobial resistance genes have been shown to accumulate on mobile elements, leading to a situation where multidrug resistance phenotypes can be transferred to a susceptible recipient via a single genetic event. The increasing prevalence of antimicrobial resistant bacterial pathogens has severe implications for the future treatment and prevention of infectious diseases in both animals and humans. The versatility with which bacteria adapt to their environment and exchange DNA between different genera highlights the need to implement effective antimicrobial stewardship and infection control programs in both human and veterinary medicine.
Available from: Mohammad Javed Ansari
- "Antibiotics provide the main basis for the therapy of microbial (bacterial and fungal) infections. However, overuse of antibiotics has become the major factor for the emergence and dissemination of multi-drug resistant strains of several groups of microorganisms (Harbottle et al., 2006). Apart from resistance, some antibiotics have serious undesirable side effects which limit their application. "
Available from: Khalil H AL ALI
- "The antibacterial agents constitute the principal basis for human infection therapy, as their application might lead to the effective eradication of many serious infectious diseases. Unfortunately, the extensive and massive use of these antibacterial drugs has resulted in the emergence of multi antibiotics resistant bacterial pathogens . Antibacterial drugs have been extensively used for more than fifty years and this over use has resulted in the acquisition of specific bacterial resistance for most of the used antibiotics as consequences of arising new resistant antibiotics bacterial genes. "
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to explore antimicrobial effect of four plant extracts Mentha cervina , Mentha longifolia,Ocimum basilicum and Origanum vulgare against multi-drug resistance (MDR) Staphylococcus aureus isolated from wound infections in Al madinah Almounawarah, Saudi Arabia. MRSA is resistant to not only methicillin and other β- lactam antibacterial agents but also other antibacterial agents; therefore new agents are needed to treat MRSA. Antibacterial activity of the medicinal plant extract was determined using well diffusion assays and paper disc diffusion method. The medicinal plant extract exhibited antibacterial activity against multi-drug resistance (MRSA) Staphylococcus aureus. The synergetic effect was clearly observed with Mentha longifolia were combined with Ocimmum basilicum , and followed by Mentha longifolia + Origanum vulgare, Mentha longifolia + Mentha cervina and Ocimmum basilicum + Mentha cervina then , Origanum vulgare + Ocimmum basilicum and Origanum vulgare + Mentha cervina and showed the strongest antimicrobial activity. our result confirmed that ethanolic extracts, could be a possible source to obtain new and effective herbal medicines to treat infections caused by multi-drug resistant strains of microorganisms from community as well as hospital settings. In addition ethanolic extracts of our medicinal plants may have the potential to restore the effectiveness of β-lactam Antibacterial agents against MRSA.
Available from: Muhammad Saqib Ishaq
- "The main reasons of these infectious diseases are the natural development of bacterial resistance to various antibiotics  . The development of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria takes place because of the accumulation of different antibiotic resistance mechanisms inside the same strain  . Although, in previous decades, the pharmacological companies have produced a number of new antibiotics, but even then drug resistance has increased . "
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