Article

CD5-CK2 Binding/Activation-Deficient Mice Are Resistant to Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis: Protection Is Associated with Diminished Populations of IL-17-Expressing T Cells in the Central Nervous System

Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1530 Third Avenue South, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA.
The Journal of Immunology (Impact Factor: 4.92). 01/2007; 177(12):8542-9. DOI: 10.4049/jimmunol.177.12.8542
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Regulating the differentiation and persistence of encephalitogenic T cells is critical for the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). We reported recently that CD5 has an engagement-dependent prosurvival activity in T cells that played a direct role in the induction and progression EAE. We predicted that CD5 regulates T cell apoptosis/survival through the activation of CK2, a prosurvival serine/threonine kinase that associates with the receptor. To test this hypothesis, we generated mice expressing CD5 with the inability to bind and activate CK2 and assessed their susceptibility to EAE. We found mice deficient in CD5-CK2 signaling pathway were mostly resistant to the development of EAE. Resistance to EAE was associated with a dramatic decrease in a population of effector infiltrating Th cells that coexpress IFN-gamma and IL-17 and, to a lesser extent, cells that express IFN-gamma or IL-17 in draining lymph nodes and spinal cords. We further show that T cells deficient in CD5-CK2 signaling hyperproliferate following primary stimulation; however, following restimulation, they rapidly develop nonresponsiveness and exhibit elevated activation-induced cell death. Our results provide a direct role for CD5-CK2 pathway in T cell activation and persistence of effector T cells in neuroinflammatory disease. This study predicts that targeting of IFN-gamma(+)/IL-17(+) infiltrating Th cells will be useful for the treatment of multiple sclerosis and other systemic autoimmune diseases.

Full-text preview

Available from: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This paper shows how expressions with side effects can be treated in an axiomatic framework. The first problem is defining an appropriate valuation function. This is done by defining evaluation orders and showing how this can be used to define appropriate valuation functions. A syntactic transformation that eliminates all expressions with side effects is then presented. This transformation yields a program that is equivalent to the original program but has no expressions with side effects. This new program can be then handled with the standard axioms
    No preview · Conference Paper · Nov 1993
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aims of this study were to determine whether IL-17(+) T cells were present in CD4 and CD8 interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP)-specific T cells and to determine the role of antigen-specific and nonspecific IL-17(+) T cells in the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU). B6 mice were immunized with uveitogenic peptide IRBP1-20. In vivo-primed T cells were separated and stimulated with the immunizing peptide. Intracellular expression of IFN-gamma and IL-17 by the T cells was assessed, and the pathogenic activity of the activated T cells was determined. A subset of autoreactive IRBP-specific CD8 T cells expressed IL-17. IRBP-specific T cells preferentially expressed IL-17 when expanded by IL-23, whereas IFN-gamma-expressing cells were dominant when the T cells were cultured with IL-2. Importantly, both expanded T-cell populations were uveitogenic. In addition, IL-23 promoted the expansion of antigen-specific and non-antigen-specific IL-17(+) T cells, whereas TGF-beta and IL-6 acted only on non-antigen-specific IL-17(+) T cells. Only the antigen-specific IL-17(+) T cells were uveitogenic. The activation of autoreactive IL-17(+) T cells was markedly increased in vivo by the mycobacterial component of CFA and pertussis toxin (PTX) and in vitro by the ligation of Toll-like receptors. IL-17(+) T cells can be readily detected among activated autoreactive and bystander T cells and may play a major role in the pathogenesis of EAU.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2007 · Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remains the major complication after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). The process whereby acute GVHD mediated by alloreactive donor T cells transitions into chronic GVHD, which is characterized by prominent features of auto-immunity, has long been unresolved. In this study, we demonstrate that GVHD-associated autoimmunity and, by extension, chronic GVHD is attributable to the progressive loss of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells during the course of acute GVHD. This leads to the expansion of donor-derived CD4(+) T cells with T(H)1 and T(H)17 cytokine phenotypes that release proinflammatory cytokines and cause autoimmune-mediated pathological damage. These T cells are present early after transplantation, indicating that the pathophysiological events that lead to chronic GVHD are set in motion during the acute phase of GVHD. We conclude that the absence of CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells coupled with unregulated T(H)1 and T(H)17 cells leads to the development of autoimmunity and that donor-derived T(H)1 and T(H)17 cells serve as the nexus between acute and chronic GVHD.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2007 · Blood
Show more