Phytosphingosine in combination with TRAIL sensitizes cancer cells to TRAIL through synergistic up-regulation of DR4 and DR5
Laboratory of Radiation Experimental Therapeutics, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706, Korea.Oncology Reports (Impact Factor: 2.3). 02/2007; 17(1):175-84. DOI: 10.3892/or.17.1.175
Sensitization of cancer cells to TRAIL could improve the effectiveness of TRAIL as an anticancer agent. We explored whether TRAIL in combination with phytosphingosine could sensitize cancer cells to TRAIL. The combined treatment enhanced synergistic apoptotic cell death of Jurkat T cells, compared to TRAIL or phytosphingosine alone. Enhanced apoptosis in response to the combination treatment was associated with caspase-8 activation-mediated Bax and Bak activation and mitochondrial dysfunction. The combination treatment also resulted in synergistic up-regulation of TRAIL receptor R1 (DR4) and R2 (DR5). siRNA targeting of DR5 significantly attenuated the combination treatment-induced caspase-8 activation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and apoptotic cell death. Upon stimulation of cells with the combination treatment, NF-kappaB was activated. Moreover, siRNA targeting of NF-kappaB significantly attenuated the combination treatment-induced DR4 and DR5 expression and receptor-mediated caspase-8 activation. These results indicate that phytosphingosine sensitizes cancer cells to TRAIL through the synergistic up-regulation of DR4 and DR5 in an NF-kappaB-dependent fashion resulting in caspase-8 activation and subsequent mitochondrial dysfunction. These findings support the potential application of combination treatment with TRAIL and phytosphingosine in the treatment of cancers that are less sensitive to TRAIL.
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ABSTRACT: 8-Chloro-adenosine (8-Cl-Ado) is an adenosine derivative, which inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in various tumor cells. Subtoxic concentration of 8-Cl-Ado sensitizes human hepatoma cells to tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL)-triggered apoptosis. However, the molecular mechanism by which TRAIL cytotoxicity is amplified by 8-Cl-Ado is unknown. In the present study, we demonstrated by Western blot and real-time PCR that 8-Cl-Ado selectively up-regulated death receptor 5 (DR5), but not death receptor 4 (DR4), at both protein and RNA levels in human hepatoma cell line BEL-7402. Analysis of the transcriptional regulation of DR5 expression by using Dual-Luciferase reporter assay system demonstrated that the 5'-flanking fragment -207 to -145 upstream to the ATG site within the DR5 promoter region was responsible for the 8-Cl-Ado-upregulated DR5 expression. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) confirmed that 8-Cl-Ado treatment facilitated transcription factor Sp1 binding to its cis-element -198/-189 in the DR5 promoter, suggesting that Sp1 is at least one of the 8-Cl-Ado-responsive transcription factors. However, we observed that nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) activity remained invariable in the cells treated with 8-Cl-Ado. These data allowed us to draw a conclusion that 8-Cl-Ado-enhanced DR5 expression is regulated by Sp1 binding to the -198/-189 cis-element in DR5 promoter without affecting NF-kappaB activity in the hepatoma cells. This study may shed light on further screening the regulators of DR5 expression and developing novel therapeutic drugs for liver cancer.
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ABSTRACT: Ceramidases catalyze hydrolysis of ceramides to generate sphingosine (SPH), which is phosphorylated to form sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P). Ceramide, SPH, and S1P are bioactive lipids that mediate cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, adhesion, and migration. Presently, 5 human ceramidases encoded by 5 distinct genes have been cloned: acid ceramidase (AC), neutral ceramidase (NC), alkaline ceramidase 1 (ACER1), alkaline ceramidase 2 (ACER2), and alkaline ceramidase 3 (ACER3). Each human ceramidase has a mouse counterpart. AC, NC, and ACER1–3 have maximal activities in acidic, neutral, and alkaline environments, respectively. ACER1–3 have similar protein sequences but no homology to AC and NC. AC and NC also have distinct protein sequences. The human AC (hAC) was implicated in Farber disease, and hAC may be important for cell survival. The mouse AC (mAC) is needed for early embryo survival. NC is protective against inflammatory cytokines, and the mouse NC (mNC) is required for the catabolism of ceramides in the digestive tract. ACER1 is critical in mediating cell differentiation by controlling the generation of SPH and S1P and that ACER2's role in cell proliferation and survival depends on its expression or the cell type in which it is found. Here, we discuss the role of each ceramidase in regulating cellular responses mediated by ceramides, SPH, and S1P.
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ABSTRACT: Marine environment has frequently afforded a variety of biologically active compounds with strong anticancer and cytotoxic properties. In the present study, the mechanism of action of Jaspine B, an anhydrophytosphingosine derivative isolated from the marine sponge Jaspis sp., was investigated. Jaspine B was able to dose- and time-dependently decrease the viability of murine B16 and human SK-Mel28 melanoma cells. On these cells, Jaspine B treatment triggered cell death by typical apoptosis as illustrated by phosphatidylserine externalization, the release of cytochrome c and caspase processing. These effects were associated with increased intracellular ceramide levels owing to perturbed ceramide metabolism. Indeed, Jaspine B exposure strongly inhibited the activity of sphingomyelin synthase (SMS), an enzyme that converts de novo ceramide into the membrane lipid sphingomyelin. Moreover, whereas Jaspine B-induced cell death was enhanced in SMS1-depleted cells, it was strongly inhibited in cells that stably overexpress human SMS1. Finally, the cytotoxic effects of Jaspine B truncated analogs were also shown to be dependent on SMS activity. Altogether, Jaspine B is able to kill melanoma cells by acting on SMS activity and consequently on ceramide formation, and may represent a new class of cytotoxic compounds with potential applications in anticancer melanoma therapy.
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