Middle and Inferior Temporal Gyrus Gray Matter Volume Abnormalities in First-Episode Schizophrenia: An MRI Study

Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
American Journal of Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 12.3). 01/2007; 163(12):2103-10. DOI: 10.1176/appi.ajp.163.12.2103
Source: PubMed


Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of schizophrenia reveal temporal lobe structural brain abnormalities in the superior temporal gyrus and the amygdala-hippocampal complex. However, the middle and inferior temporal gyri have received little investigation, especially in first-episode schizophrenia.
High-spatial-resolution MRI was used to measure gray matter volume in the inferior, middle, and superior temporal gyri in 20 patients with first-episode schizophrenia, 20 patients with first-episode affective psychosis, and 23 healthy comparison subjects.
Gray matter volume in the middle temporal gyrus was smaller bilaterally in patients with first-episode schizophrenia than in comparison subjects and in patients with first-episode affective psychosis. Posterior gray matter volume in the inferior temporal gyrus was smaller bilaterally in both patient groups than in comparison subjects. Among the superior, middle, and inferior temporal gyri, the left posterior superior temporal gyrus gray matter in the schizophrenia group had the smallest volume, the greatest percentage difference, and the largest effect size in comparisons with healthy comparison subjects and with affective psychosis patients.
Smaller gray matter volumes in the left and right middle temporal gyri and left posterior superior temporal gyrus were present in schizophrenia but not in affective psychosis at first hospitalization. In contrast, smaller bilateral posterior inferior temporal gyrus gray matter volume is present in both schizophrenia and affective psychosis at first hospitalization. These findings suggest that smaller gray matter volumes in the dorsal temporal lobe (superior and middle temporal gyri) may be specific to schizophrenia, whereas smaller posterior inferior temporal gyrus gray matter volumes may be related to pathology common to both schizophrenia and affective psychosis.

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Available from: Dean F Salisbury
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    • "Alterations of the structures comprising the lateral temporal cortex (LTC) are commonly reported in structural MRI (sMRI) studies of schizophrenia (Shepherd et al., 2012). This includes, most typically, gray matter (GM) abnormalities of the superior temporal gyrus (STG) (Shenton et al., 2001), but it also involves less often studied LTC structures , such as: middle temporal gyrus (MTG) (Kuroki et al., 2006; Onitsuka et al., 2004; Tang et al., 2012), inferior temporal gyrus (ITG) "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Structural alterations of the lateral temporal cortex (LTC) in association with memory impairments have been reported in schizophrenia. This study investigated whether alterations of LTC structure were linked with impaired facial and/or verbal memory in young first-degree relatives of people with schizophrenia and, thus, may be indicators of vulnerability to the illness. Methods: Subjects included 27 non-psychotic, first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients, and 48 healthy controls, between the ages of 13 and 28. Participants underwent high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 1.5Tesla. The LTC was parcellated into superior temporal gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, inferior temporal gyrus, and temporal pole. Total cerebral and LTC volumes were measured using semi-automated morphometry. The Wechsler Memory Scale - Third Edition and the Children's Memory Scale - Third Edition assessed facial and verbal memory. General linear models tested for associations among LTC subregion volumes, familial risk and memory. Results: Compared with controls, relatives had significantly smaller bilateral middle temporal gyri. Moreover, right middle temporal gyral volume showed a significant positive association with delayed facial memory in relatives. Conclusion: These results support the hypothesis that smaller middle temporal gyri are related to the genetic liability to schizophrenia and may be linked with reduced facial memory in persons at genetic risk for the illness. The findings add to the growing evidence that children at risk for schizophrenia on the basis of positive family history have cortical and subcortical structural brain abnormalities well before psychotic illness occurs.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Schizophrenia Research
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    • "Our findings about GM volume decrease of the MTG are consistent with previous studies. Kuroki et al. reported smaller gray matter volumes of the left and right MTG and left posterior STG in first episode schizophrenia but not in first episode affective psychosis, suggesting that smaller gray matter volumes in the dorsal temporal lobe may be specific to schizophrenia (Kuroki et al., 2006). Another study in chronic schizophrenia found GM volume decreases in the left MTG and bilateral inferior temporal gyrus (Onitsuka et al., 2004). "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Studies have shown that patients with schizophrenia and their siblings share decreased gray matter (GM) volumes in certain brain regions, which may represent candidate endophenotypes of schizophrenia. However, the specificity and utility of these possible endophenotypes in relation to schizophrenia remain unclear. Methods: Twenty drug-naive, first-episode schizophrenia patients and 20 first-degree unaffected siblings from the same families as the patients (USS group), a separate group of 25 first-degree unaffected siblings of schizophrenia patients from other families (USO group), and 43 healthy controls were recruited. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to analyze structural imaging data. Results: The VBM analysis showed a significant difference in GM volume between the combined sibling group and the control group in the left middle temporal gyrus (MTG). Group comparison showed that the patients, the USS, and the USO had significantly decreased GM volume of the left MTG compared with the controls; such a difference did not exist among the patients and the two sibling groups. A receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC curve) analysis showed good predictive value of the mean cluster volume in the left MTG to distinguish patients, USS, and USO from healthy controls. There were no significant correlations between the mean cluster volume in the left MTG and clinical variables in the patients. Conclusions: The GM volume decrease of the left MTG may be utilized as a candidate biomarker for schizophrenia. The novel design of including a USO group in our study enhances both the specificity and the heritability of the biomarker identified.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Schizophrenia Research
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    • "In first-episode affective and schizophrenia spectrum psychoses, similar reductions across both conditions compared to controls have been found in the temporal pole (Kasai et al. 2003a, b), inferior temporal gyrus (Kuroki et al. 2006), medial frontal gyrus (Janssen et al. 2008), subgenual cingulate (Koo et al. 2008), prefrontal grey matter (Wiegand et al. 2004) and in whole-brain measurements (Nakamura et al. 2007). Reductions that are specifically associated with first-episode schizophrenia spectrum psychoses have been reported in the insula (Kasai et al. 2003a, b; Takahashi et al. 2009b), middle and superior temporal gyri (Kuroki et al. 2006; Takahashi et al. 2009a), middle frontal gyrus (Janssen et al. 2008) and cingulate cortices (Koo et al. 2008). These findings raise the possibility that medication and illness type could have independent effects on the brain, or that there could be an interaction between them; for example, differential effects may only occur in patients with schizophrenia due to treatment bias or underlying pathophysiological processes. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Whether there are differential effects of first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs) and second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) on the brain is currently debated. Although some studies report that FGAs reduce grey matter more than SGAs, others do not, and research to date is limited by a focus on schizophrenia spectrum disorders. To address this limitation, this study investigated the effects of medication in patients being treated for first-episode schizophrenia or affective psychoses. Method: Cortical thickness was compared between 52 first-episode psychosis patients separated into diagnostic (i.e. schizophrenia or affective psychosis) and medication (i.e. FGA and SGA) subgroups. Patients in each group were also compared to age- and sex-matched healthy controls (n = 28). A whole-brain cortical thickness interaction analysis of medication and diagnosis was then performed. Correlations between cortical thickness with antipsychotic dose and psychotic symptoms were examined. Results: The effects of medication and diagnosis did not interact, suggesting independent effects. Compared with controls, diagnostic differences were found in frontal, parietal and temporal regions. Decreased thickness in FGA-treated versus SGA-treated groups was found in a large frontoparietal region (p < 0.001, corrected). Comparisons with healthy controls revealed decreased cortical thickness in the FGA group whereas the SGA group showed increases in addition to decreases. In FGA-treated patients cortical thinning was associated with higher negative symptoms whereas increased cortical thickness in the SGA-treated group was associated with lower positive symptoms. Conclusions: Our results suggest that FGA and SGA treatments have divergent effects on cortical thickness during the first episode of psychosis that are independent from changes due to illness.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · Psychological Medicine
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