Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and type 2 diabetes

The Centre of Inflammation and Metabolism, Department of Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Diabetologia (Impact Factor: 6.67). 03/2007; 50(2):431-8. DOI: 10.1007/s00125-006-0537-4
Source: PubMed


Decreased levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease and depression. These disorders are associated with type 2 diabetes, and animal models suggest that BDNF plays a role in insulin resistance. We therefore explored whether BDNF plays a role in human glucose metabolism.
We included (Study 1) 233 humans divided into four groups depending on presence or absence of type 2 diabetes and presence or absence of obesity; and (Study 2) seven healthy volunteers who underwent both a hyperglycaemic and a hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp.
Plasma levels of BDNF in Study 1 were decreased in humans with type 2 diabetes independently of obesity. Plasma BDNF was inversely associated with fasting plasma glucose, but not with insulin. No association was found between the BDNF G196A (Val66Met) polymorphism and diabetes or obesity. In Study 2 an output of BDNF from the human brain was detected at basal conditions. This output was inhibited when blood glucose levels were elevated. In contrast, when plasma insulin was increased while maintaining normal blood glucose, the cerebral output of BDNF was not inhibited, indicating that high levels of glucose, but not insulin, inhibit the output of BDNF from the human brain.
Low levels of BDNF accompany impaired glucose metabolism. Decreased BDNF may be a pathogenetic factor involved not only in dementia and depression, but also in type 2 diabetes, potentially explaining the clustering of these conditions in epidemiological studies.

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Available from: Christian Philip Philip Fischer
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    • "However, further investigation into this phenomenon needs to be completed before a substantive conclusion is made. Furthermore, these findings support the hypotheses that BDNF is linked to multiple parameters of energy metabolism and homeostasis in diabetes (Krabbe et al. 2007; Yamanaka et al. 2008). Nakagawa et al. (2002) injected BDNF subcutaneously into STZinduced diabetic mice with or without insulin administration. "
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    ABSTRACT: Exercise is known to have beneficial effects on cognitive function. This effect is greatly favored by an exercise-induced increase in neurotrophic factors, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), especially with high-intensity exercises (HIE). As a complication of type 1 diabetes (T1D), a cognitive decline may occur, mostly ascribed to hypoglycaemia and chronic hyperglycaemia. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of acute HIE on cognitive function and neurotrophins in T1D and matched controls. Ten trained T1D (8 males, 2 females) participants and their matched (by age, sex, fitness level) controls were evaluated on 2 occasions after familiarization: a maximal test to exhaustion and an HIE bout (10 intervals of 60 s at 90% of their maximal wattage followed by 60 s at 50 W). Cognitive tests and analyses of serum BDNF, IGF-1, and free insulin were performed before and after HIE and following 30 min of recovery. At baseline, cognitive performance was better in the controls compared with the T1D participants (p < 0.05). After exercise, no significant differences in cognitive performance were detected. BDNF levels were significantly higher and IGF-1 levels were significantly lower in T1D compared with the control group (p < 0.05) at all time points. Exercise increased BDNF and IGF-1 levels in a comparable percentage in both groups (p < 0.05). In conclusion, although resting levels of serum BDNF and IGF-1 were altered by T1D, comparable increasing effects on BDNF and IGF-1 in T1D and healthy participants were found. Therefore, regularly repeating acute HIE could be a promising strategy for brain health in T1D.
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    • "It is a nerve growth and positively contributes to neurogenesis, neurodegeneration, and hippocampal neural plasticity, and enhances memory and learning4). A lower than normal BDNF level has been observed among individuals with obesity and T2DM5), and this has been reported to bring about neuropsychosis, severe depression, and Alzheimer’s disease6), and has also recently been found to affect metabolism in the skeletal muscles6). "
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    ABSTRACT: [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 12 weeks regular aerobic exercise on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and inflammatory factors in juvenile obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Obesity and T2DM, typically common among adults, have recently become more prevalent in the Korean juvenile population, affecting not only their lipid profiles and oxidant stress levels, but also their BDNF and inflammatory factor levels. [Subjects] This study enrolled 26 juveniles (boys = 15, girls = 9) who were assigned to a control group (CG, n = 11), obesity group (OG, n = 8), or T2DM group (TG, n = 7). [Methods] The outcome of a 40-60-minute aerobic exercise session that took place three times per week for 12 weeks at a maximum oxygen intake (VO2max) of 50~60% was investigated. [Results] The exercise resulted in a significant reduction in the resting serum BDNF and TrkB levels (baseline) among juveniles in the OG and TG as compared to those in the CG. Additionally, the 12 weeks of regular aerobic exercise led to significant reductions in body weight, body fat percentage, and body mass index in the OG and a significant increase of VO2max in the OG and TG. However, no significant differences in serum NGF or inflammatory factors were found among the three groups. There was a significant increase in resting serum BDNF levels following the 12 weeks regular exercise only in the OG. [Conclusion] While 12 weeks of regular aerobic exercise had a positive effect on body composition, and increased BDNF levels of juveniles in the OG, it did not affect the inflammatory factor levels and had no effect on the TG.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Journal of Physical Therapy Science
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    • "Down-regulation of the system has been proved to be a pathogenetic factor for depression, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus type 2 and for several components of metabolic syndrome. The activation of Sígma-1R signaling has emerged as a link between these pathologies [36,37]. "
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