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Association between dairy food consumption and weight change over 9 y in 19 352 perimenopausal women

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Abstract

Dairy foods may play a role in the regulation of body weight. We examined the association between changes in dairy product consumption and weight change over 9 y. The study was conducted in 19 352 Swedish women aged 40-55 y at baseline. Data on dietary intake, body weight, height, age, education, and parity were collected in 1987-1990 and 1997. The intake frequencies of whole milk and sour milk (3% fat), medium-fat milk (1.5% fat), low-fat milk and sour milk (<or=0.5% fat), cheese, and butter were calculated at baseline and follow-up. The women were categorized into 4 groups according to their intake: 1) constant, <1 serving/d; 2) increased from <1 serving/d to >or=1 serving/d; 3) constant, >or=1 serving/d; and 4) decreased from >or=1 serving/d to <1 serving/d. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs for an average weight gain of >or=1 kg/y were calculated by using multivariable logistic regression analyses, with group 1 as the reference. Mean (+/-SD) body mass index (in kg/m2) at baseline was 23.7 +/- 3.5. The constant (>or=1 serving/d) intakes of whole milk and sour milk and of cheese were inversely associated with weight gain; ORs for group 3 were 0.85 (95% CI: 0.73, 0.99) and 0.70 (95% CI: 0.59, 0.84) respectively. No significant associations were seen for the other 3 intake groups. When stratified by BMI, the findings remained significant for cheese and, for normal-weight women only, for whole milk and sour milk. The association between the intake of dairy products and weight change differed according to type of dairy product and body mass status. The mechanism behind these findings warrants further investigation.

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... [8] The fat available in milk is a major source of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) which has attracted much attention due to its role in fat accumulation in fatty cells. [5,9] Many probable mechanisms have been postulated for the beneficial role of dairy products in body weight. [9] The simplest effect of calcium in prohibiting obesity is through preventing the absorption of fat and fatty acids and, thereby, increasing the percentage of excreted fatty acids in feces. ...
... [5,9] Many probable mechanisms have been postulated for the beneficial role of dairy products in body weight. [9] The simplest effect of calcium in prohibiting obesity is through preventing the absorption of fat and fatty acids and, thereby, increasing the percentage of excreted fatty acids in feces. [5] Increase in calcium intake raises fat oxidation and reduces RQ (respiratory quotient). ...
... [10] Dietary calcium plays a key role in regulating energy metabolism due to negative self-regulation of the parathyroid and calcitriol hormone concentrations. [9] Many studies have explored the relationship between intake of dairy products and obesity; however, these studies have rarely focused on central obesity and fat distribution in the body. In a cross-sectional study on 40-to 60-year-old women in Tehran, it was observed that central obesity was associated with lifestyle factors like low physical activity, depression, smoking, low intake of vitamin C, calcium, and dairy products, and a high consumption of fat. ...
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Nowadays, obesity is considered a worldwide problem. Although genetics is one of the factors associated with obesity, its predisposing factors include nutritional and environmental factors. Several studies have addressed the relationship between nutritional factors and general and central adiposity. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the consumption of dairy products and prevalence of obesity and central obesity in young female university students at the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 236 healthy female university students in the age range of 18 and 30 years who were selected randomly from among the students at the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran. A previously validated semiquantitative food questionnaire was used to assess their entire dietary component intake. Physical activity was evaluated by recording daily physical activities. The prevalence of obesity, central adiposity, and excess weight was 1.7, 0.9, and 8.1%, respectively. The mean values of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference were 21.54 kg/m(2) and 70.37 cm, respectively. Moreover, the mean value of dairy product consumption was 444.24 g/day. The results showed no significant relationship between dairy or calcium intake and weight and waist circumference as well as prevalence of obesity, central adiposity, and excess weight (P>0.05). There was no significant relationship between the consumption of dairy products and calcium intake and excess weight, obesity, and central adiposity among female university students. However, this study is important in that the prevalence of obesity, central adiposity, and excess weight along with the mean values of BMI and waist circumference are reported.
... Milk consumption was found to be inversely associated with weight change in long-term studies of Vergnaud et al. [9] and Rosell et al. [8], but not in that of Mozaffarian et al. [10]. Furthermore, the study of Rosell et al. [8] indicated that the association between dairy consumption and weight change depends on the different types of dairy product. ...
... Milk consumption was found to be inversely associated with weight change in long-term studies of Vergnaud et al. [9] and Rosell et al. [8], but not in that of Mozaffarian et al. [10]. Furthermore, the study of Rosell et al. [8] indicated that the association between dairy consumption and weight change depends on the different types of dairy product. As BMI is widely used as an indicator of overweight and obesity [11], we therefore aimed to prospectively investigate the association between consumption of different dairy products and changes of BMI over 10-year follow-up in the Caerphilly Prospective Study. ...
... Evidence from a meta-analysis of 29 randomized controlled trials (RCTs), including a total of 2101 women and men, showed that higher dairy consumption was inversely associated with weight change in short-term (<1 year) and energy-restricted trials, but not in long term studies (≥1 year and ≤2 year) or ad libitum studies [6]. Although several cross-sectional studies have shown dairy consumption to be inversely associated with body weight [7], findings on the association between dairy consumption and body weight in long-term studies (>2 year) are inconsistent and limited [8][9][10]. ...
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The association between dairy product consumption and body mass index (BMI) remains controversial. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between total dairy, milk, cheese, cream and butter consumption and BMI change over a 10-year follow-up by using long-term follow-up cohort data from the Caerphilly Prospective Cohort Study (CAPS). The CAPS included 2512 men aged 45–59 years at baseline, who were followed up at 5-year intervals for over 20-year. A semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire estimated the intake of dairy consumption, including milk, cheese, cream and butter at baseline, 5-year and 10-year follow-up. In total, men free of cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer (n = 1690) were included in current analysis. General linear regression and logistic regression were used for data analysis. The results showed higher cheese consumption was associated with lower BMI at the 5-year follow-up (p = 0.013). There was no evidence that higher consumption of total dairy, milk, cream and butter were significantly associated with BMI during the over the 10-year following-up. This study suggest that cheese consumption have beneficial effects on lowering BMI, which needs further investigation.
... These results confirmed the hypothesis of the major effectiveness in the lipolitic action of calcium from dairy products, and they are consistent with the results of Summerbell et al. [18], Rosell et al. [19], Pereira et al. [20] and Lee et al. [21] who reported higher weight loss in the subjects fed high dairy Ca diets [18,19] or diets rich in dairy products, apart from Ca content [20]. But, while in the mentioned studies all people had a BMI lower than 30, in the present study all women were characterised by a first level obesity. ...
... These results confirmed the hypothesis of the major effectiveness in the lipolitic action of calcium from dairy products, and they are consistent with the results of Summerbell et al. [18], Rosell et al. [19], Pereira et al. [20] and Lee et al. [21] who reported higher weight loss in the subjects fed high dairy Ca diets [18,19] or diets rich in dairy products, apart from Ca content [20]. But, while in the mentioned studies all people had a BMI lower than 30, in the present study all women were characterised by a first level obesity. ...
... Beside, as reported in some works [7,9,19,[22][23][24] and as observed in this study, dairy products rich diets promote an higher body fat mass loss respect to diets lacking in milk products (Table 4). Considering the same protein, energy ad calcium content of the two administered diets, the observed differences can be ascribed to the dairy products consumption; it could be hypothesized diverse involved mechanisms: the higher bioavailability of diary calcium respect of vegetable Ca [25], the fecal fat loss via binding to Ca [26][27][28], the satiety hormone regulation exercised by milk proteins, such as whey proteins [24,29,30] and the synergic action of other milk molecules [31] such as CLA, BCAA, ACE inhibitor and other bioactive peptides, micronutrients such as vitamin D or phosphorus and lactose, that have been shown to reduce fat mass in rats [32]. ...
Article
BACKGROUND: Several researchers studied the relationship between Ca assumption and overweight/obesity. Levels of Ca supplementation higher than requirement, were related to increased fat loss in subjects at ipo-caloric diet and Ca from dairy foods resulted more effective than Ca from mineral source in the promotion of weight loss. OBJECTIVE: Since the available studies were conducted using very high levels of Ca supplementation or on subjects fed Ca lacking diet, we studied the role of Ca from dairy foods on subjects receiving ipo-caloric diet, with Ca content adequate to the requirements. METHODOLOGY: 40 pre-menopausal, women nursed for their obesity and eating or not dairy foods, were recruited for the study. They received ipo-caloric diets, with Ca equal to requirements. Subjects avoiding dairy products received also a Ca supplement (No Dairy group, n = 15), while other women eating at least 2 servings/d of low fat dairy products (Dairy group, n = 40). Body weight, abdominal fat and blood parameters were monitored at the beginning and at the end (3 months) of the experiment. Age and BMI were: 37.7 ± 7.5 years and 34.4 ± 3.7 for subjects included in the Dairy group and 39.8 ± 9.8 years and 33.8 ± 3.5 for women of No Dairy group. RESULTS: Women in the Dairy group showed a weight loss of 7.03% respect the initial weight, while in women avoiding dairy products the weight loss was 3.21% (P < 0.01). The whole body fat loss was 10.79% and 6,0%, for Dairy and No Dairy respectively, however the consumption of Ca from dairy foods did not affect waist circumference and abdominal-visceral fat. No evidence of significant effect of the food treatments on the main haematological parameters related to the adipose tissue metabolism were seen. Insulin levels did not showed significant variations. Leptin concentration in blood decreased between the beginning and the conclusion of the trial as a consequence of fat mass decrease (P < 0.10), but without difference between the dietary treatments. Instead the IL-6 showed a higher reduction in subjects receiving the Dairy+ diet compared to diet without dairy products. The IL-6 levels showed a significant decrease between the beginning and the end of the experiment, apart from the diet (1.20 vs 0.66 pg/ml; P 0.0135). Both the adiponectin and the unesterified fatty-acid concentration were not influenced by the diet but, while adiponectin decreased between the beginning and the end of the study, NEFA did not show significant variations along time. IL-6 was positively correlated with leptin and fat mass, confirming the relationship between fat accumulation and inflammatory status. CONCLUSIONS: Diets containing dairy foods have increased body weight and fat loss compared to diet lacking of milk and derivatives. Also the blood levels of IL-6 resulted lower in Dairy diets.
... The study selection process is reported in the Flow diagram (S1 Fig and S1 Table). Of these, seven studies (eight reports) analyzed changes in body weight solely [27-30, 33, 37, 45, 48], four studies (five reports) changes in waist circumference solely [25,34,35,43,44] and five studies both changes in body weight and waist circumference [32,38,[40][41][42], while ten studies (11 reports) measured changes in risk of weight gain, overweight, and abdominal obesity [23,24,26,27,31,36,39,44,[46][47][48]. General study and specific characteristics are given in Table 1. ...
... The present systematic review included 24 longitudinal studies (27 reports) lasting at least 9 months, and in which data relating to an association between dairy products and a measure of adiposity could be extracted. Of these 24 studies, five used self-reported estimates of body weight or waist circumference, validated in a subsample [27,28,30,33,36,48] and three used self-assessed anthropometric parameters only in the follow-up [34,37]. Regarding the dietary assessment methods, all but four applied food frequency questionnaires, two of which used dietary records [22,32], one repeated 24-h dietary records [41], and one study a 15-item questionnaire [26]. ...
Article
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Background: The current state of knowledge regarding the association of dairy products and weight gain, overweight, and obesity is based on studies reporting contradicting and inconclusive results. The aim of the present study was thus to clarify the link between dairy consumption in relation to changes in anthropometric measures/adiposity by a meta-analytical approach. Methods: For the meta-analysis PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Sciences, and google scholar were searched by two independent authors up to May 2016 with no restriction to language or calendar date. Prospective cohort studies reporting about intake of dairy consumption (including milk, yogurt, cheese, butter) and changes in body weight or waist circumference, risk of overweight, obesity, or weight gain were eligible. Pooled effects were calculated using a random effects model, and also a fixed effect model for sensitivity analysis. Due to the heterogeneity of statistical analytical approaches of the studies the analysis were done separately for beta-coefficients of changes in body weight and/or waist circumference per serving of dairy, for differences in weight gain/gain in waist circumference when comparing extreme categories of dairy consumption, and for odds ratios in regard to weight gain, overweight/obesity, or abdominal obesity. Findings: 24 studies (27 reports) met the inclusion criteria for the systematic review, and 22 studies provided sufficient data for inclusion in the meta-analysis. The meta-analysis of the five studies on changes in body weight per serving of dairy no significant results could be found for whole fat dairy and low fat dairy. However, there was inverse association between changes in body weight for each serving's increase of yogurt (beta: -40.99 gram/year, 95% CI, -48.09 to -33.88), whereas each serving's increase of cheese was positively associated (beta: -10.97 gram/year, 95% CI, 2.86 to 19.07). Furthermore, the highest dairy intake category was associated with a reduced risk of abdominal obesity (OR: 0.85; 95% CI, 0.76 to 0.95), and risk of overweight (OR: 0.87; 95% CI, 0.76 to 1.00) compared to the lowest intake category. No significant association could be observed for risk of weight gain. Conclusion: In summary the results of the meta-analysis still reflect that dairy consumption was not positively related to changes in body weight. Yogurt was the only dairy food that showed some evidence for a beneficial effect, where higher intakes were inversely associated a reduced risk of obesity, changes in body weight or waist circumference. Further research is needed, since the overall interpretation of the results is limited by heterogeneous risk estimates.
... In addition, the variation in dairy food type may also partially explain the observed inconsistent findings 8,9 . For example studies have not shown consistent associations between high-fat dairy and weight maintenance 8,14 ; and fermented dairy products, although gaining increased interest in relation to health [15][16][17][18] , have been barely explored in long-term prospective studies of anthropometric measurements. ...
... We did not find that the long-term change of weight was greater among participants who consumed more high-fat dairy products; while the individuals who consumed ≥3 servings per week of high-fat dairy products tended to gain less WC than those who consumed <3 servings per week (data not shown). The health impacts of full/high-fat dairy have been prosperously debated 14,37,47,48 . In addition to the potential for better dietary patterns associated with dairy consumption, the conjugated linoleic acid in dairy fats may help reduce body fat and increase lean body mass 49,50 . ...
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Background Dairy foods are nutrient-dense and may be protective against long-term weight gain.Objective We aimed to examine the longitudinal association between dairy consumption and annualized changes in weight and waist circumference (WC) in adults.Methods Members of the Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort who participated in the 5(th) through 8(th) study examinations (1991-2008) were included in these analyses (3440 participants with 11 683 observations). At each exam, dietary intake was assessed by a validated food frequency questionnaire, and weight and WC were assessed following standardized procedures. Repeated measures models were used for the longitudinal analyses by adjusting for time-varying or invariant covariates.ResultsOn average, participants gained weight and WC during follow-up. Dairy intake increased across exams. After adjusting for demographic and lifestyle factors (including diet quality), participants who consumed ≥3 servings/d of total dairy had 0.10 [±0.04] kg smaller annualized increment of weight (Ptrend=0.04) than those consuming <1 serving/d. Higher total dairy intake was also marginally associated with less WC gain (Ptrend=0.05). Similarly, participants who consumed ≥3 servings/wk of yogurt had a 0.10 [±0.04] kg and 0.13 [±0.05] cm smaller annualized increment of weight (Ptrend=0.03) and WC (Ptrend=0.008) than those consuming <1 serving/wk, respectively. Skim/low-fat milk, cheese, total high-fat or total low-fat dairy intake was not associated with long-term change of weight or WC.Conclusion Further longitudinal and interventional studies are warranted to confirm the beneficial role of increasing total dairy and yogurt intake, as part of a healthy and calorie-balanced dietary pattern, in the long-term prevention of gain in weight and WC.International Journal of Obesity accepted article preview online, 20 May 2013; doi:10.1038/ijo.2013.78.
... In a metaanalysis of 27 small-scale randomized controlled trials, which included a total of 2101 women and men, higher dairy consumption lowered body weight in the context of energy restriction in shortterm (,1 y) but not long-term ($1 y) trials (6). Prospective cohort studies have reported mixed results, and the heterogeneity in selected study populations on the basis of obesity status has complicate the interpretation of these results (7)(8)(9)(10)(11)(12)(13). Moreover, a limited number of prospective studies have investigated dairy consumption with both weight change and risk of becoming overweight or obese and whether these associations depend on initial body weight. ...
... In a cohort of French adults, intakes of total dairy products, milk, cheese, and yogurt were not associated with a 6-y weight change in women and men who were normal weight at baseline; however, in overweight adults, there was less weight gain in those who had higher intakes of total dairy products, milk, and yogurt (8). In Swedish women with a constant intake of $1 serving whole/sour milk, and cheese/ d had lower risk of gaining $1 kg/y than were women with constant lower intake of these products during a 10-y follow-up (9). When baseline BMI was stratified for, the association for whole milk and sour milk was only apparent in women of normal weight, but because sour milk is not typically available on the US market, it is hard to compare these results with our observed findings. ...
Article
Background: Studies have reported inconsistent findings on the association between dairy product intake and weight change and obesity. Only a few prospective studies have investigated the role of dairy consumption in both weight change and risk of becoming overweight or obese and whether these associations depend on the initial body weight. Objective: We prospectively investigated how dairy product intake was associated with weight change and risk of becoming overweight or obese in initially normal-weight women. Design: We studied 18,438 women aged ≥45 y from the Women's Health Study who were free of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and diabetes and had initial body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) from 18.5 to <25 at baseline. Dairy intake was assessed with the use of a 131-item food-frequency questionnaire. Women self-reported body weight along with obesity-related risk factors on baseline and annual follow-up questionnaires. At each follow-up time, women were categorized as normal weight (BMI: 18.5 to <25), overweight (BMI: 25 to <30), or obese (BMI ≥30). Results: During a mean follow-up of 11.2 y, 8238 women became overweight or obese. Multivariable-adjusted mean ± SD changes in body weight during the follow-up (18 y) were 1.90 ± 0.09, 1.88 ± 0.08, 1.86 ± 0.09, 1.82 ± 0.09, and 1.65 ± 0.09 kg in quintiles 1-5 of total dairy intake, respectively (P-trend = 0.003). Greater intake of high-fat dairy products, but not intake of low-fat dairy products, was associated with less weight gain (P-trend = 0.004). In multivariable-adjusted analyses, lower risk of becoming overweight or obese was observed in the highest quintile of high-fat dairy product intake (HR: 0.92, 95% CI: 0.86, 0.99). Dietary or supplemental calcium or vitamin D was not associated with risk of becoming overweight or obese. Conclusion: Greater consumption of total dairy products may be of importance in the prevention of weight gain in middle-aged and elderly women who are initially normal weight.
... Overall, there is a need for longer-term studies and RCTs on BW and the type of dairy products in children of different ages. 9.8 Evidence from longitudinal observational studies in adults and older adults 9.8.1 Dairy consumption and risk of developing overweight/ obesity in adults and older adults There is consistent evidence that dairy consumption is inversely associated with weight change (Nikolaou et al., 2015), and indeed increasing dairy consumption has been shown to influence a reduction in BW over time (Rosell et al., 2006). In a longitudinal study of Korean middle-aged adults (n ¼ 7240), authors observed a reduction in risk of AO with higher baseline dairy product intake (Shin et al., 2013). ...
... They also noted a positive association between yoghurt intake and weight change for normal weight women. In a cohort of Swedish women, higher intakes of whole milk and cheese were inversely associated with weight gain, while trends suggested that increasing consumption, rather than maintaining a low intake, reduced the risk of gaining 1 kg/year (Rosell et al., 2006). The authors observed no associations for low-fat milk and butter. ...
Chapter
The prevalence of obesity has reached epidemic proportions globally, and the trend is especially alarming in children and adolescents. Dairy products provide a range of nutrients that are important to health but contribute to overconsumed nutrients such as fat and saturated fat. Data from existing reviews on the role of dairy products in the development of obesity in childhood and adulthood are inconsistent. This chapter reviews the totality of evidence and the justification for the current approach of limiting dairy in the diet to reduce or prevent obesity or weight gain. The majority of data available from longitudinal and intervention studies in adults provide evidence of neutral associations between intakes of milk and other dairy products, and body weight and adiposity measures. Similar results were found for children and adolescents, while there is limited data for older adults. Although the mechanisms have not been clearly elucidated, they include effects on energy and fat balance, fatty acid absorption, appetite, and the metabolic activity of gut microbiota. In conclusion, although inconsistencies exist, there is little evidence to support the justification for limiting dairy in the diet on the grounds that they may promote obesity.
... Most recently, Ludwig and Willett have questioned the scientific basis for recommending reduced-fat dairy products [6]. Additional studies have linked dairy fat consumption to diminished weight gain [7], attenuated markers of metabolic syndrome, including waist circumference [8], and reduced risk of CVD [9] and colorectal cancer [10]. ...
... Many studies and reviews have concluded that reducing dietary v-6/v-3 ratios during adulthood will lower risks of CVD [14,[29][30][31], metabolic syndrome and diabetes [8,38,41,43,44,64], overweight [7,28,37,39,48,62], and violent behavior [40,41,65]. One study reported that a group of adults with the highest plasma ALA levels had ,30% lower incidence of diabetes [44], and a systematic review of lipid-lowering agents concluded that v-3 FAs are as effective as statin drugs in lowering CVD risk [47]. ...
Article
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Over the last century, intakes of omega-6 (ω-6) fatty acids in Western diets have dramatically increased, while omega-3 (ω-3) intakes have fallen. Resulting ω-6/ω-3 intake ratios have risen to nutritionally undesirable levels, generally 10 to 15, compared to a possible optimal ratio near 2.3. We report results of the first large-scale, nationwide study of fatty acids in U.S. organic and conventional milk. Averaged over 12 months, organic milk contained 25% less ω-6 fatty acids and 62% more ω-3 fatty acids than conventional milk, yielding a 2.5-fold higher ω-6/ω-3 ratio in conventional compared to organic milk (5.77 vs. 2.28). All individual ω-3 fatty acid concentrations were higher in organic milk-α-linolenic acid (by 60%), eicosapentaenoic acid (32%), and docosapentaenoic acid (19%)-as was the concentration of conjugated linoleic acid (18%). We report mostly moderate regional and seasonal variability in milk fatty acid profiles. Hypothetical diets of adult women were modeled to assess milk fatty-acid-driven differences in overall dietary ω-6/ω-3 ratios. Diets varied according to three choices: high instead of moderate dairy consumption; organic vs. conventional dairy products; and reduced vs. typical consumption of ω-6 fatty acids. The three choices together would decrease the ω-6/ω-3 ratio among adult women by ∼80% of the total decrease needed to reach a target ratio of 2.3, with relative impact "switch to low ω-6 foods" > "switch to organic dairy products" ≈ "increase consumption of conventional dairy products." Based on recommended servings of dairy products and seafoods, dairy products supply far more α-linolenic acid than seafoods, about one-third as much eicosapentaenoic acid, and slightly more docosapentaenoic acid, but negligible docosahexaenoic acid. We conclude that consumers have viable options to reduce average ω-6/ω-3 intake ratios, thereby reducing or eliminating probable risk factors for a wide range of developmental and chronic health problems.
... However, there have been some discrepancies over the effectiveness of these diets among postmenopausal women such rapid bone loss due to low intakes of essential micronutrients such as calcium (Compston et al. 1992; Ramsdale and Bassey, 1994). Nevertheless, with the inclusion of low-fat dietary sources of the micronutrients, the negative effects of reduced-caloric diets on bone health can be averted while attaining the objective of maintaining a healthy weight (Rosell et al. 2006). ...
... Since dairy products are the richest sources of calcium, data must be treated with precaution. Low fat sources are the best sources to be opted for weight management (Rosell et al. 2006). Furthermore, dietary sources of calcium are the most preferred ones due to the presence of equally important nutrients such as whey proteins which play equally important roles in reducing the risk of obesity (North American Menopause Society, 2006). ...
Chapter
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Menopause is an inevitable physiological situation. A decline in oestrogen levels marks the characterisation of menopause. As such, menopausal women are subjected to an increased risk of adverse conditions related to the bone, heart and they experience weight issues as well. Osteoporosis not only impacts on the quality of life of menopausal women as it is also associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Judicious food choices go hand in hand with adequate regular physical activity since during the menopausal period, muscle mass is reduced and this can lead to weight gain over time. Nutrition holds a central role in health promotion among menopausal women. For instance, there has been a special emphasis on the therapeutic effects of phytoestrogens, calcium, low-caloric diets and adequate intake of fruit and vegetable nutrients during and after menopause. It is vital that menopausal women are made aware of the need of these nutrients and that they are able to give equal importance to a beneficial lifestyle approach to reduce menopausal symptoms. This chapter reviews scientific publications that deal with the risks of overweight/obesity, associations between changes in eating behaviours, physical activity and provides evidence on how appropriate lifestyle interventions can reduce the impact of long term health problems mainly obesity and osteoporosis associated with menopause.
... This finding was confirmed in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey in 8950 children which also showed that higher milk consumption was associated with higher z-scores of BMI at 4 years of age [54]. In contrast, a longitudinal study in 19,352 Swedish women (40-55 years) showed that milk consumption was inversely associated with weight gain, where participants who consumed at least one serving of milk per day had an odds ratio of 0.85 (95% CI: 0.73, 0.99) [55]. Similarly, a study in 1001 adolescents also showed an inverse association between milk intake and BMI [56]. ...
Article
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Background High milk intake has been associated with cardio-metabolic risk. We conducted a Mendelian Randomization (MR) study to obtain evidence for the causal relationship between milk consumption and cardio-metabolic traits using the lactase persistence ( LCT -13910 C > T, rs4988235) variant as an instrumental variable. Methods We tested the association of LCT genotype with milk consumption (for validation) and with cardio-metabolic traits (for a possible causal association) in a meta-analysis of the data from three large-scale population-based studies (1958 British Birth Cohort, Health and Retirement study, and UK Biobank) with up to 417,236 participants and using summary statistics from consortia meta-analyses on intermediate traits ( N = 123,665–697,307) and extended to cover disease endpoints ( N = 86,995–149,821). Results In the UK Biobank, carriers of ‘T’ allele of LCT variant were more likely to consume milk ( P = 7.02 × 10 ⁻¹⁴ ). In meta-analysis including UK Biobank, the 1958BC, the HRS, and consortia-based studies, under an additive model, ‘T’ allele was associated with higher body mass index (BMI) ( P meta-analysis = 4.68 × 10 ⁻¹² ) and lower total cholesterol (TC) ( P = 2.40 × 10 ⁻³⁶ ), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) ( P = 2.08 × 10 ⁻²⁶ ) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ( P = 9.40 × 10 ⁻¹³ ). In consortia meta-analyses, ‘T’ allele was associated with a lower risk of coronary artery disease (OR:0.86, 95% CI:0.75–0.99) but not with type 2 diabetes (OR:1.06, 95% CI:0.97–1.16). Furthermore, the two-sample MR analysis showed a causal association between genetically instrumented milk intake and higher BMI ( P = 3.60 × 10 ⁻⁵ ) and body fat (total body fat, leg fat, arm fat and trunk fat; P < 1.37 × 10 ⁻⁶ ) and lower LDL-C ( P = 3.60 × 10 ⁻⁶ ), TC ( P = 1.90 × 10 ⁻⁶ ) and HDL-C ( P = 3.00 × 10 ⁻⁵ ). Conclusions Our large-scale MR study provides genetic evidence for the association of milk consumption with higher BMI but lower serum cholesterol levels. These data suggest no need to limit milk intakes with respect to cardiovascular disease risk, with the suggested benefits requiring confirmation in further studies.
... 56 Moreover, a 9 year study of over 19000 Swedish women aged 40−55 years showed that at least one serving per day of whole milk and sour milk and of cheese was inversely associated with weight gain. 57 The mechanisms for this effect may involve elevated Ca levels resulting in more fecal fat excretion, 58 oxidation of fat by Ca, 59 or satiety effects. ...
Article
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Milk, cheese, yogurt, and other dairy products have long been known to provide good nutrition. Major healthful contributors to the diets of many people include the protein, minerals, vitamins, and fatty acids present in milk. Recent studies have shown that consumption of dairy products appears to be beneficial in muscle building, lowering blood pressure and low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and prevention of tooth decay, diabetes, cancer, and obesity. Additional benefits might be provided by organic milk and by probiotic microorganisms using milk products as a vehicle. New research on dairy products and nutrition will improve our understanding of the connections between these products, the bioactive compounds in them, and their effects on the human body.
... Whole milk and sour milk were found to be inversely associated with weight gain among normal weight middle age Swedish women, but no association with other type of dairy product (low fat, medium fat milk, butter and cheese) or among other underweight or overweight women. 9 Studies have also shown that the trend of food consumption varied with gender, locality and social class. A nutrition survey in Malaysia showed that the consumption of protein such as chicken and egg was higher among men than women, while the consumption of full cream milk was higher among women than men. 10 Another Malaysian study showed that those in the rural areas consumed more vegetable than those in the urban but those in the urban consumed more fruits than those in the rural. ...
... For example, in addition to calcium and vitamin D, dairy proteins are being suggested as reducers of adipose mass (namely, visceral fat) and body weight (11,14,22,23). These effects have been observed in healthy participants as well as in overweight, obese (21,(24)(25)(26)(27), and diabetic (8,28) patients. In addition to casein, whey protein appears to be particularly effective (29,30), and their actions seem to be mediated by several mechanisms that include increased satiety and decreased appetite (29). ...
Article
Milk is a widely consumed beverage that is essential to the diet of several millions of people worldwide because it provides important macro- and micronutrients. Milk is recognized as being useful during childhood and adolescence because of its composition; however, its relatively high saturated fat proportion raises issues of potential detrimental effects, namely on the cardiovascular system. This review evaluates the most recent literature on dairy and human health, framed within epidemiologic, experimental, and biochemical evidence. As an example, the effects of milk (notably skimmed milk) on body weight appear to be well documented, and the conclusions of the vast majority of published studies indicate that dairy consumption does not increase cardiovascular risk or the incidence of some cancers. Even though the available evidence is not conclusive, some studies suggest that milk and its derivatives might actually be beneficial to some population segments. Although future studies will help elucidate the role of milk and dairy products in human health, their use within a balanced diet should be considered in the absence of clear contraindications.
... Dairying has potential to improve nutrient adequacy (Azadbakht et al., 2005), reduce blood pressure and risk of stroke (Massey, 2001;Steffen et al., 2005), regulate weight gain (Rosell et al., 2006), and improve body mass index (Hollis and Mattes, 2007). Further, a lower prevalence of stunting and improved nutritional status, increased milk consumption and better food security situation has been reported in households keeping dairy cattle (Mbagaya et al., 2004). ...
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Dairy production and marketing dominates the livestock contribution to household economies and is one of the highest deliverer of the per capita milk availability in sub-Saharan Africa. Livestock activities are integrated within household consumption and production decisions, increasing drudgery among women. In Kenya the livestock projects were established to improve household food security and the nutritional status of household members by increasing the consumption of dairy products. A comparison was made between beneficiary and non-beneficiary households to identify factors that were associated with the success of diary programmes. Beneficiary households increased time and income expended in the dairy enterprise, on veterinary services, and had more knowledge on dairy management. There was increased consumption of milk and milk products and green leafy vegetables, and also in the intake of protein, vitamin A and energy in the beneficiary than in the non-beneficiary households. The selection criteria of differentiating beneficiary and non-beneficiary indicate that beneficiary farmers had already had capacity of significant investment in dairy activities. Though it may be ambiguous to tell whether dairy programmes themselves significantly affected the outcomes given in this position, the identification of household factors that are improved by dairy projects has promising returns for sustainable dairying and, improved food and nutrient intake in households and nutritional status of women and their preschool children. Inclusion of livestock as a policy issue in national goals and objectives could result in improved nutritional status and improved living standards.
... There were no significant statistics relationships between BMI with calcium intake and daily frequency of foods by adjusting age in both groups of our study. Some other studies showed similar results [31][32][33]. High calcium intake may reduce overweight and obesity. Suggested mechanisms are, reduced paratormone secretion, and 1,25 (OH) vitamin D, which inhibit lipogenesis and increasing fecal excretion of lipids [18]. ...
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Background: Osteoporosis is an important public health problem. The aim of this study was to investigate food habits and some factors related to osteoporosis in women in Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 399 childbearing age women who were attending health centers and 200 healthcare providers in 2007. Food habits and dietary calcium intake was evaluated by food frequency questionnaire and 24-hour recall method. Weight and height of subjects were also measured. Independent t-test, Mann-withney U test, Pearson, Spearman and Partial correlation coefficient tests were used for analyzing of data. Results: Two groups of women had calcium intake deficiency. Daily frequency of milk, cheese, fruit and coffee consumptions in healthcare providers (0.82±0.82, 0.94±0.49, 2.01±1.28 and 0.84±2.05, P<0.02) were significantly higher than those of women attending health centers(0.58±0.72, 0.84±0.32, 1.50±0.99 and 0.48±1.25). Mean frequency use of dark vegetables, cola and pickles were significantly (P<0.004) higher in women who attending health centers (0.67±0.50, 1.55±2.36 and 1.92±2.03) than those of the other group (0.50±0.44, 1.09±2.65 and 1.49±1.72). In women who were attending health centers, negative and posi-tive significant relationship was found between daily calcium intake with age (P<0.04) and educational level (P<0.001). No significant relationship was found between body mass index with studied variables. Conclusion: Women of health care providers had healthier food habits compared to women who attending health centers. Educational programs are suggested to improve food habits among women to prevent osteoporosis in later life.
... In this context, several studies showed that consumption of dairy products have positive impact on various disease such as obesity (Barrea et al., 2015), hypertension (Gopinath et al., 2014;Yuan et al., 2013) type 2 diabetes (O'Connor et al., 2014;Moslehi, Shab-Bidar, Mirmiran, Sadeghi, & Azizi, 2015), cardiovascular disease (Markey, Vasilopoulou, Givens, & Lovegrove, 2014) metabolic syndrome (Azadbakht, Mirmiran, Esmaillzadeh, & Azizi, 2005;Crichton, Bryan, Buckley, & Murphy, 2011) bone health (Sanders et al., 2009) and cancer (Davoodi, Esmaeili, & Mortazavian, 2013). Also, consumption of dairy foods are associated with lower body weight or body fat (Abargouei, Janghorbani, Salehi-Marzijarani, & Esmaillzadeh, 2012;Chen, Pan, Malik, & Hu, 2012;Louie, Flood, Hector, Rangan, & Gill, 2011;Metz, Karanja, Torok, & McCarron, 1988;Rosell, Håkansson, & Wolk, 2006;Teegarden, 2005). ...
Article
Little is known about consumers' behavior especially their choice behavior toward purchasing and consuming dairy products in developing countries. Hence, the aim of the present work is understanding the factors that affect on consumers' choice behavior toward dairy products in Iran. The study applies the theory of consumption values, which includes the functional values (taste, price, health, and body weight), social value, emotional value, conditional value and epistemic value. The sample were 1420 people (men and women). The data was collected using face to face survey in summer and fall 2015. Chi-square, confirmatory factor analysis, and structural equation modelling is used to assess data collected. The results indicate that functional values, social value, emotional value and epistemic value have a positive impact on choosing dairy products and conditional value didn't have a positive impact. It was concluded that the main influential factors for consumers' choice behavior toward dairy products included consumers experience positive emotion (e.g. enjoyment, pleasure, comfort and feeling relaxed) and functional value-health. This study emphasized the proper pricing of dairy products by producers and sellers.
... Another work suggests that the anti-obesity effect of dairy products may be mediated, at least in part, by integration of events that inhibit expression of genes involved in intestinal fatty acid and cholesterol absorption and synthesis [16]. These data led to the assumption that a higher milk intake causes less weight gain over time [17], which suggests that milk consumption may be beneficial for weight management and increased satiety. However, analyses of metabolic factor expression were only performed in cell culture. ...
Article
Research has demonstrated that consumption of milk promotes weight loss and satiety, however conflicting evidence also exists. Therefore, we tested the effect of long-term milk consumption on body weight and metabolic parameters. Newly weaned mice received whole milk, low-fat milk, or water as control for 17 weeks and serum, liver, and white adipose tissue (WAT) were tested for parameters associated with obesity and diabetes. Our results show that low-fat milk leads to the same overall caloric intake and body weight as the control group. However, the whole-milk group consumed more calories and reached a higher body weight. In addition, in the low-fat milk group, cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, leptin, ghrelin, insulin, corticosterone, and glucagon were not significantly different than the control group. In contrast, in the whole-milk group, cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and glucagon were high compared with the control group. Metabolism in both liver and WAT showed only slight differences between the milk groups. Whereas the whole-milk group showed reduced insulin signaling in WAT, the low-fat milk group exhibited increased insulin signaling. Whole-milk consumption leads to increased body weight and caloric intake and reduced insulin signaling in WAT, as opposed to low-fat milk consumption.
... Wiley [7] studied 1,002 24-59-month-old preschool children using 1999-2002 NHANES data and reported that there was a significant positive correlation between milk intake and children's height, which was not observed in the intake of other dairy products. Also, the analysis of the relationship between the intake of milk and milk products and the change of body weight in 19,352 40-55-year-old Swedish women showed that there was a negative correlation between the intake of milk and milk products and the body weight increase in groups regularly taking milk and milk products more than once a day for 9 years [8][9][10]. Meanwhile Kim [11] reported that there was no relationship between the school milk program and the height and weight of adolescents. ...
Article
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This study was conducted to investigate the relationship among the current status of calcium intake from milk and milk products, physical growth and bone mineral density in 664 male and female middle school and high school students aged 15-17 years. In the study, the current status of calcium intake from milk and milk products was analyzed, and the height, body composition, and bone mineral density of the right heel bone (calcaneus) were measured. The daily calcium intake of milk and milk products was calculated as the 'dairy equivalent of calcium', which is the calcium content in 200 mL of white milk. The cutoffs of tertiles of the dairy equivalent of calcium were calculated and then the subjects were categorized into 3 groups according to the tertiles, Q1 group (lower intake group), Q2 group (middle intake group) and Q3 group (upper intake group). The daily calcium intake of milk and milk products in Q1, Q2 and Q3 groups was 16.2 mg, 99.7 mg, and 284.0 mg, respectively, and the ratio of milk and milk product consumption to the daily total calcium intake was 5.4%, 27.4%, and 49.7%, respectively. The ratio of total calcium intake to the daily recommended intake in study subjects was 30.5% in Q1, 42.3% in Q2, and 60.7% in Q3, with significant differences (P < 0.05). Height, body weight, BMI, and % of body fat in three tertile groups (Q1, Q2 and Q3) were not significantly different. However, the T scores for bone mineral density in female students in three tertile groups (Q1, Q2 and Q3) was significantly different (P < 0.05). The study showed that the intake of milk and milk products in adolescents, particularly in girls, can improve the bone mineral density without increasing body weight, and thus confirmed that milk intake is important in adolescence.
... [34] In contrast, one study found no association between calcium supplementation and body fat, but reported an inverse association between body fat and dietary CI. [35] Our study was in agreement with studies that showed inverse association between dietary calcium and dairy products consumption, on the one hand, and body fat, BMI, and the incidence of obesity, on the other. [36][37][38][39][40][41][42][43] The results on association between CI and obesity remain controversial. One reason could be that previous studies focused mostly on BMI or fat mass as an indicator of obesity. ...
Article
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Some studies have demonstrated the role of calcium in reducing body mass index (BMI) or fat mass. Though, BMI does not provide very valid information about changes in body fat mass, Fat Mass Index (FMI) relates body fat mass to height and allows comparing body fat mass of individuals at different heights. This study investigated the possible association between dietary calcium intake (CI) and other nutritional factors and weight status of girls aged 8-10 years. In this case-control study, 110 girls aged 8-10 with FMI at or above 7.2 kg/m(2) as cases and 307 girls with FMI less than 7.2 kg/m(2) as controls were recruited through multistage cluster random sampling. FMI at or above 7.2 kg/m(2) was considered as the cutoff point for obesity. Body fat mass was assessed by a stand on bio impedance analyzer. In order to assess CI, participants were asked to complete a validated food frequency questionnaire. Mean and standard deviation of CI in the case group was significantly lower than the control group 649 ± 103 and 951 ± 152 mg/d, respectively (P < 0.01). After Adjustment for total energy intake, the percentage of energy from fat, carbohydrate and protein in quartiles of physical activity, inverse association between CI and obesity was significant and in the highest quartile of physical activity the association was weaker. By further adjustment for the effect of fruits and vegetable intake inverse association between CI and obesity became weaker but yet was significant. The inverse relationship between CI and FMI remained significant even after controlling for confounding factors. FMI may be more accurate, compared to BMI, in showing the association between CI and obesity.
... Our study findings are in line similar to other studies which suggest the reverse may be true. The weight of evidence from a recent review [66] suggested that milk intake was more likely to be associated with beneficial weight outcomes in a number of studies [67][68][69][70][71], while a very small number of studies [72] showed beneficial effects of other dairy products such as yoghurt/cheese among subjects with specific baseline characteristics. In our study, milk and curd consumption were associated (chi2, 4 dof, 177.9, p,0005) but the pattern of association did not suggest that curd or buttermilk/lassi was substituted for milk in those taking no milk or vice versa. ...
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The nutritional aetiology of obesity remains unclear, especially with regard to the role of dairy products in developing countries. To examine whether milk/milk product consumption is associated with obesity and high waist circumference among adult Indians. Information on plain milk, tea, curd and buttermilk/lassi consumption assessed using a Food Frequency Questionnaire was obtained from the cross-sectional sib-pair designed Indian Migration Study (3698 men and 2659 women), conducted at four factory locations across north, central and south India. The anthropometric measures included were Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist Circumference (WC). Mixed-effect logistic regression models were conducted to accommodate sib-pair design and adjust for potential confounders. After controlling for potential confounders, the risk of being obese (BMI≥25 kg/m(2)) was lower among women (OR = 0.57;95%CI:0.43-0.76;p≤0.0001) and men (OR = 0.67;95%CI: 0.51-0.87;p = 0.005), and the risk of a high WC (men: >90 cm; women: >80 cm) was lower among men (OR = 0.71;95%CI:0.54-0.93;p = 0.005) and women (OR = 0.79;95%CI:0.59-1.05;p>0.05) who consume ≥1 portions of plain milk daily than those who do not consume any milk. The inverse association between daily plain milk consumption and obesity was also confirmed in sibling-pair analyses. Daily tea consumption of ≥1 portion was associated with obesity (OR = 1.51;95%CI:1.00-2.25;p>0.050) and high WC (OR = 1.65;95%CI:1.08-2.51;p>0.019) among men but not among women but there was no strong evidence of association of curd and buttermilk/lassi consumption with obesity and high waist circumference among both men and women. The independent, inverse association of daily plain milk consumption with the risk of being obese suggests that high plain milk intake may lower the risk of obesity in adult Indians. However, this is an observational finding and uncontrolled confounding cannot be excluded as an explanation for the association. Therefore, confirmatory studies are needed to clarify this relationship.
... A systematic review of randomized trials of the impact of dairy products on body weight has shown that most found no effect while some have shown weight gain, which is likely to be explained by increased energy intake (Barr, 2003). Some studies indicate that BMI change is dependent on the type of dairy products consumed (Rosell, Håkansson, & Wolk, 2006). Obviously, if respondents in our study reported consumption of whole milk at meals where others consumed water or tea, this meant higher energy intake, which is translated in weight gain. ...
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BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity are among the greatest health challenges nowadays. This study aimed to investigate correlates of overweight among the population of Ukraine. METHODS: Data from the survey “Health and Well-Being in Transition Societies” (2000) were analyzed. Body mass index (BMI) based on self-reported height and weight was used to estimate the extent of overweight both in continuous and dichotomous form. Binary dependent variable was computed by setting BMI of 25 as the borderline between normal weight and overweight. Education, demographic characteristics, field of activity, level of physical activity, behavioral and eating habits were considered as independent variables. RESULTS: In 2000, 44% of Ukrainian population (39% of men and 49% of women) were overweight. Risk of overweight increased with age: among those below 40 years old, 16% of men and 12% of women were overweight, about 47% of men and 60% of women were overweight in 40+ groups. Among young men (under 40), those consuming more fruit (OR=0,31) and more physically active (OR=0,43) were less likely to be overweight. In women over 60, those overweight were more physically active (OR=2,32). In men over 40 and women below 40, prevalence of overweight was lower in smokers than in non-smokers. Eating potatoes, meat and milk was associated with increased BMI in some groups. No consistent associations were found for consumption of fish, butter, oil, sugar, and vegetables, as well as for education. CONCLUSION: In 2000, Ukrainian population did not bear patterns of obesity epidemics found in the West: no associations with either socioeconomic status or foods usually associated with overweight were found. Overweight was more likely related to increased use of traditional foods like dairy products, meat and potatoes. Smoking was related to lower BMI in populations with high prevalence of smoking.
... Whole milk and sour milk were found to be inversely associated with weight gain among normal weight middle age Swedish women, but no association with other type of dairy product (low fat, medium fat milk, butter and cheese) or among other underweight or overweight women. 9 Studies have also shown that the trend of food consumption varied with gender, locality and social class. A nutrition survey in Malaysia showed that the consumption of protein such as chicken and egg was higher among men than women, while the consumption of full cream milk was higher among women than men. 10 Another Malaysian study showed that those in the rural areas consumed more vegetable than those in the urban but those in the urban consumed more fruits than those in the rural. ...
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... In total, 43 reports (based on 25 prospective studies) were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis of the 12 predefined food groups and risk of overweight/obesity (defined by BMI), abdominal obesity (defined as elevated waist circumference), or weight gain (defined as gain in weight or waist circumference during the time period). In detail, 6 prospective studies were included in the metaanalysis for consumption of whole grains (37)(38)(39)(40)(41)(42), 4 studies for refined grains (37,38,40,41), 7 for vegetables (39,(43)(44)(45)(46)(47)(48), 6 for fruit (39,43,45,(47)(48)(49), 4 for nuts (5 reports) (47, 50-53), 2 for legumes (45,47), 2 for eggs (47,54), 11 for dairy products (12 reports) (39,47,(55)(56)(57)(58)(59)(60)(61)(62)(63)(64), 4 for fish (47,(65)(66)(67), 4 for red meat (39,(68)(69)(70), 2 for processed meat (47,68), and 9 for SSBs (11 reports) (56, 69, 71-79) (Supplemental Tables 5-16). ...
Article
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This meta-analysis summarizes the evidence of a prospective association between the intake of foods [whole grains, refined grains, vegetables, fruit, nuts, legumes, eggs, dairy, fish, red meat, processed meat, and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs)] and risk of general overweight/obesity, abdominal obesity, and weight gain. PubMed and Web of Science were searched for prospective observational studies until August 2018. Summary RRs and 95% CIs were estimated from 43 reports for the highest compared with the lowest intake categories, as well as for linear and nonlinear relations focusing on each outcome separately: overweight/obesity, abdominal obesity, and weight gain. The quality of evidence was evaluated with use of the NutriGrade tool. In the dose-response meta-analysis, inverse associations were found for whole-grain (RRoverweight/obesity: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.89, 0.96), fruit (RRoverweight/obesity: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.86, 1.00; RRweight gain: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.86, 0.97), nut (RRabdominal obesity: 0.42; 95% CI: 0.31, 0.57), legume (RRoverweight/obesity: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.84, 0.93), and fish (RRabdominal obesity: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.71, 0.97) consumption and positive associations were found for refined grains (RRoverweight/obesity: 1.05; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.10), red meat (RRabdominal obesity: 1.10; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.16; RRweight gain: 1.14; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.26), and SSBs (RRoverweight/obesity: 1.05; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.11; RRabdominal obesity: 1.12; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.20). The dose-response meta-analytical findings provided very low to low quality of evidence that certain food groups have an impact on different measurements of adiposity risk. To improve the quality of evidence, better-designed observational studies, inclusion of intervention trials, and use of novel statistical methods (e.g., substitution analyses or network meta-analyses) are needed.
... However, the optimal ω-6:ω-3 ratio depends on genetic factors and health conditions, and even a 4:1 ratio was found to have a positive effect on asthma patients [58] and decreased mortality in patients with previous myocardial infarction [59]. Several studies have concluded that a reduced ω-6:ω-3 ratio, compared with values of~15 in several European countries [60] and 10 to 15 in U.S.A. [53,61] diets, during adulthood, will lower risks for, e.g., cardiovascular disease [52,62], metabolic syndrome and diabetes [63,64] and overweight [12]. ...
Article
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Origin and quality identification in dairy products is an important issue and also an extremely challenging and complex experimental procedure. The objective of the present work was to compare the metabolite profile of the lipid fraction of organic and conventional bovine milk using NMR metabolomics analysis. 1H-NMR and 1D TOCSY NMR methods of analysis were performed on extracted lipid fraction of lyophilized milk. For this purpose, 14 organic and 16 conventional retail milk samples were collected monthly, and 64 bulk-tank (58 conventional and 6 organics) milk samples were collected over a 14-month longitudinal study in Cyprus. Data were treated with multivariate methods (PCA, PLS-DA). Minor components were identified and quantified, and modification of the currently used equations is proposed. A significantly increased % content of conjugated (9-cis, 11-trans)18:2 linoleic acid (CLA), α-linolenic acid, linoleic acid, allylic protons and total unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) and decreased % content for caproleic acid were observed in the organic samples compared to the conventional ones. The present work confirms that lipid profile is affected by contrasting management system (organic vs. conventional), and supports the potential of NMR-based metabolomics for the rapid analysis and authentication of the milk from its lipid profile.
... A 500-mL dairy (milk or yogurt) preload before mixed-meal paradigms was shown to reduce subjective ratings of hunger and prospective food consumption scores, and to increase fullness scores, in addition to reducing energy consumption in a subsequent meal, compared with fruit drink, cola, or chocolate bar preloads. The long-term effect of dairy foods on body weight and weight loss has been evaluated (37), via both observational epidemiological studies (38)(39)(40)(41) as well as randomized clinical trials (19,21,23,(42)(43)(44). The evidence is controversial, with some studies finding no associations, whereas others find a positive or an inverse association. ...
Article
Background Inclusion of dairy in diet patterns has been shown to have mixed effects on weight loss. A prevailing hypothesis is that dairy improves weight loss by influencing endocrine systems associated with satiety and food intake regulation. Objectives The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effect of weight loss with or without adequate dietary dairy on subjective and objective appetitive measures. Methods Men and women who were habitual low dairy consumers (n = 65, 20–50 y) participated in a 12-wk randomized controlled feeding weight loss trial. During the 12-wk intervention, a low-dairy (<1 serving dairy/d) was compared with an adequate-dairy (3–4 servings dairy/d) diet, both with a 500-kcal deficit/d. Test days, before and at the end of the intervention, began with 2 fasting blood draws and visual analog scale (VAS) measures, followed by a standard breakfast (25% of prescribed restricted calories), 5 postbreakfast blood draws and VASs, a standard lunch (40% of restricted energy amount), and 12 postlunch blood draws and VASs. Blood samples were used for satiety hormone measurements. On a separate day when matching standard meals were consumed, an ad libitum buffet meal was provided as dinner, at a self-selected time. Meal duration and intermeal interval were recorded. Results Weight loss (−6.1 kg), irrespective of dairy, resulted in reduced fasting insulin (−20%) and leptin (−25%), and increased fasting acylated ghrelin (+25%) and VAS desire to eat (+18%) (P < 0.05). There were no effects of dairy on objective or subjective satiety measures. Weight loss marginally reduced the intermeal interval (289 min compared with 276 min, P = 0.059) between lunch and the ad libitum buffet. Conclusions These results do not support the hypothesis that inclusion of dairy in long-term dietary patterns influences appetite during weight loss. Weight loss per se has a modest impact on select systems that regulate hunger and satiety. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00858312.
... High adherence to the NND in our data set also implied higher consumption of milk and higher consumption of milk relative to fruit juice (17) . In several prospective studies, fruit juices (37,40) , as opposed to milk (37,41,42) , are reported to be positively associated with weight gain. Furthermore, in the present study, women with high, as compared with low, NND adherence had a lower intake of sugar-sweetened beverages, which has consistently been linked to weight gain (37,43) . ...
Article
The rising prevalence of overweight and obesity is a worldwide public health challenge. Pregnancy and beyond is a potentially important window for future weight gain in women. We investigated associations between maternal adherence to the New Nordic diet (NND) during pregnancy and maternal BMI trajectories from delivery to 8 years post delivery. Data are from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort. Pregnant women from all of Norway were recruited between 1999 and 2008, and 55 056 are included in the present analysis. A previously constructed diet score, NND, was used to assess adherence to the diet. The score favours intake of Nordic fruits, root vegetables, cabbages, potatoes, oatmeal porridge, whole grains, wild fish, game, berries, milk and water. Linear spline multi-level models were used to estimate the association. We found that women with higher adherence to the NND pattern during pregnancy had on average lower post-partum BMI trajectories and slightly less weight gain up to 8 years post delivery compared with the lower NND adherers. These associations remained after adjustment for physical activity, education, maternal age, smoking and parity (mean diff at delivery (high v . low adherers): −0·3 kg/m ² ; 95 % CI −0·4, −0·2; mean diff at 8 years: −0·5 kg/m ² ; 95 % CI −0·6, −0·4), and were not explained by differences in energy intake or by exclusive breast-feeding duration. Similar patterns of associations were seen with trajectories of overweight/obesity as the outcome. In conclusion, our findings suggest that the NND may have beneficial properties to long-term weight regulation among women post-partum.
... The possible beneficial effect of dairy products and calcium intake on weight management have been investigated, yielding inconsistent results (Booth, Huggins, Wattanapenpaiboon, & Nowson, 2015;Dicker, Belnic, Goldsmith, & Kaluski, 2008;Eilat-Adar et al., 2007;Lee, Cho, Lee, Kim, & Cho, 2014;Macdonald, New, Campbell, & Reid, 2003;Rautiainen et al., 2016;Rosell, Håkansson, & Wolk, 2006;Varenna, Binelli, Casari, Zucchi, & Sinigaglia, 2007). Some previous studies have reported an inverse association between calcium intake and weight, but this finding has not been consistent across all studies (Eilat-Adar et al., 2007;Louie, Flood, Hector, Rangan, & Gill, 2011;Macdonald et al., 2003;Phillips et al., 2003;Schwingshackl et al., 2016). ...
Article
Identifying nutritional strategies to maintain a healthy body weight and reduce the comorbidities associated with obesity is extremely important. We aimed to investigate whether calcium and vitamin D intakes are associated with body composition measurements in a population of children and adolescents. A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 1,060 children and adolescents (65.8% females; 34.2% males) aged 9 to 19 years. Fat mass, percentage of fat mass, and fat-free mass were measured using a body composition analyzer (TANITA BC-418MA®). The mean dietary calcium and vitamin intakes were 829.66 ± 328.34 mg/day and 200.78 ± 400.91 IU/day. Linear regression analysis revealed a lack of significant association between daily calcium and vitamin D intakes and body composition measurements, after adjusting the model for age, sex, maturation status, and energy intake. Dietary calcium and vitamin D intakes do not appear to be associated with higher adiposity measurements in children and adolescents.
... To date, numerous observational studies, mainly cross-sectional studies and retrospective studies have examined the relationship between rate of milk intake and body weight variation. 124,125 Most of these studies have highlighted a statistically significant inverse association between these two parameters thus suggesting that low levels of milk intake is associated, either in children or in adults, with an increase of fat mass and an increased risk of developing overweight and obesity over the time. However, a few randomized controlled clinical investigations have examined the effect of a higher intake of milk on body weight. ...
Article
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Obesity is a chronic pathological condition with a multifactorial aetiology, characterised by an excessive body fat accumulation with multiple organ-specific consequences. Emerging evidence highlights that obesity appears to be associated with multiple alterations in the endocrine system. However, the mechanisms underlying the interactions between obesity and this system remain still controversial. This review discusses the impact of obesity on various endocrine systems and, in particular, would provide a general overview on the biochemical changes that may occur in each of these axes in association with obesity.
... To date, numerous observational studies, mainly cross-sectional studies and retrospective studies have examined the relationship between rate of milk intake and body weight variation. 124,125 Most of these studies have highlighted a statistically significant inverse association between these two parameters thus suggesting that low levels of milk intake is associated, either in children or in adults, with an increase of fat mass and an increased risk of developing overweight and obesity over the time. However, a few randomized controlled clinical investigations have examined the effect of a higher intake of milk on body weight. ...
Article
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Abstract Obesity is a chronic pathological condition with a multifacto- rial aetiology, characterised by an excessive body fat accumula- tion with multiple organ-specific consequences. Emerging evi- dence highlights that obesity appears to be associated with multi- ple alterations in the endocrine system. However, the mechanisms underlying the interactions between obesity and this system remain still controversial. This review discusses the impact of obesity on various endocrine systems and, in particular, would provide a general overview on the biochemical changes that may occur in each of these axes in association with obesity. tions between genetic and environmental factors which give rise to alterations of the endocrine and metabolic functions have been suggested to contribute to the pathogenesis of this disease.3 As these alterations are secondary, they may be often reversible fol- lowing body weight loss. Therefore, these effects should be distin- guished from those primary endocrine-metabolic disorders that, although uncommon, may foster the development of obesity. On the other hand, informations about those complications affecting the endocrine organs which occur in obese patients as a result of the accumulation of dysfunctional adipocytes also in ectopic sites, such as omental fat, pericardial and peri-renal fat are actually scanty4. However they can act as amplifiers of metabolic effects thus worsening the cardiometabolic risk factors in these subjects.
... The high concentration calcium in cheese is well known to contribute to the formation and maintenance of strong bones and teeth (12) , but also shows a positive effect on blood pressure and helps in losing weight in combination with a low energy diet. And these associations between the intake of dairy products and weight change different according to the type of dairy product and body mass status (13) . ...
Article
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Arabian Yogurt and White Cheese is a popular food that contains various probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB). This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Arabian yogurt and white cheese on some physiological parameters which have benefits to health of human. 75 volunteers were selected and divided into 3 groups the volunteers were given yogurt and white cheese every morning as a breakfast meal for (21) days. Blood samples were collected at the end of the experiment. The results in this study exhibited a significant decrease (P<0.05) in the volunteer weight, also in the concentration of serum cholesterol, Triglyceride, LDL-C, and VLDL-C, uric acid, and glucose, on the other hand significantly increased (P<0.05) in HDL-C concentration in the two groups, besides the study, relived no significant decrease in Hb, PCV, and WBC. This study showed no significant variations in the urea of volunteers. The data indicated that Yogurt and White Cheese contains various LAB species that are potential probiotic candidates with health benefits."
... Previous studies in adults suggested that the beneficial effect of dairy products may be dependent on the type of dairy products consumed [35][36][37]. Therefore, given the low dairy products consumption along the day observed in the studied children and adolescents, snack time could be a good opportunity to increase daily intakes of milk and yogurt, specifically among girls who have shown lower consumption of dairy products both in main meals and at snack meal occasions. ...
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... To date, numerous observational studies, mainly cross-sectional studies and retrospective studies have examined the relationship between rate of milk intake and body weight variation. 124,125 Most of these studies have highlighted a statistically significant inverse association between these two parameters thus suggesting that low levels of milk intake is associated, either in children or in adults, with an increase of fat mass and an increased risk of developing overweight and obesity over the time. However, a few randomized controlled clinical investigations have examined the effect of a higher intake of milk on body weight. ...
... The results of many studies have led to formulation of a hypostasis that low calcium intake and/or low consumption of dairy products is associated with a higher mass of adipose tissue, and a higher risk of overweight and obesity [11][12][13][14][15]. Many studies have also pointed to the influence of an incorrect calcium level on the occurrence of metabolic syndrome [16]. ...
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ይህን መጽሀፍ ለምን ለመተርጎም ወሰንኩ? እኔ ዶ/ር ዘውዱ ወንዲፍራው የደ/ማረቆስ ዩኒቨርስቲ ባለደረባ ስሆን በ2008 ዓ.ም ጥቅምት ወር መጀመሪያ አካባቢ ከፍተኛ የውሃ ጥም፣ በተደጋጋሚ ከፍተኛ መጠን ያለው ሽንት መሽናት፣ የሰውነት የድካም ስሜት፣ ብዥ የሚል ዕይታና የትኩረት ማጣት ችግሮች በአንድ ዕለት ሌሊት ተከሰቱብኝ፡፡ ዕለቱ እንደጠባ ጧት ሆስፒታል ሄድኩ የደም የስኳር መጠኔን ተመረመርኩ ምግብ ሳልወስድ 280 mg/dl ሆኖ አገኘሁት፡፡ በጣም የገረመኝ ከዚያ በፊት አንድም ቀን እንኳ ስለስኳር በሽታ አስቤ የቅድሚያ ምርመራ አለማድረጌ ነው፡፡ በወቅቱ የሰውነት ክብደቴ 82 ኪ.ግ ነበር፡፡ ቁመቴ 1 ሜትር ከ65 ሳ.ሜ ሲሆን በሰውነት ክብደት መረጃ ጠቋሚ መሰረት 30.12 ነበርኩ ይህም በሰውነት ክብደት ምደባዎች አማካኝነት ከልክ ያለፈ የሰውነት ውፍረት ነበረኝ ማለት ነው፡፡ ከምርመራ በኋላ ሁለት አይነት በአፍ የሚወሰዱ መድሃኒቶችን ማለትም ሜትፎርሚንና ዳይዎኔል የሚባሉትን መድሃኒቶችን እንድወስድ ሀኪሙ አዘዘልኝ፡፡ የታዘዙትን መድሃኒቶች ለ 10 ተካታታይ ቀናት ወስጄ አቋረጥኩ፡፡ ምክንያቱም አዕምሮዬ በፍጹም የህይወት ዘመን የስኳር በሽተኛ መሆንን ሊቀበለው አልቻለም፡፡ በምትኩ በሳምንት 4 ቀናት ለአንድ ስዓት ያህል ጠንከር ያለ የአካል ብቃት እንቅስቃሴ ለ4 ተከታታይ አመታት ያለማቋረጥ መስራት ጀመርኩ፡፡ በተጨማሪም ዝቅተኛ የካሮቦሃይድሬት ይዘት ያላቸውን ምግቦች ብቻ መመገብ ጀመርኩ እንዲሁም አልፎ አልፎ ጧት ላይ ቁርስ መብላቴን አቆምኩ፡፡ ምንም አይነት አልኮሆል መጠጣቴን አቋረጥኩ፡፡ በዚህም ምክንያት የደም ስኳሬ መጠን እየተስተካከለ መጣ ከመነሻው ከ280 mg/dl ወደ 114 mg/dl ወይም 5.6% የሂሞግሎቢን ኤዋንሲ የተረጋጋ ውጤት ደረሰ፡፡ የሰውነቴ ክብደት በአራት አመት ጊዜ ውስጥ 14 ኪ.ግ. በመቀነስ 68 ኪ.ግ. ደረሰ፡፡ አሁን የቀነስኩትንም ክብደት በዘለቄታው አስጠብቄያለሁ፡፡ በዕየለቱ በውስጤ ደስታና ቀለል የሚል ስሜት እንዲሁም የበለጠ የሰውነት ብርታትና ጥንካሬ ይሰማኛል፡፡ ከዚሁ እንቅስቃሴ ጎን ለጎን ስለ ስኳር በሽታ ከኢንተርኔት ላይ መጽሃፍትን፣ የምርምር ወረቀቶችን፣ ቪዲዮዎችን ማንበብና ማዳመጥ ጀመርኩ፡፡ እነዚህን ሁሉ መረጃዎች ሳገናዝብ የሁለተኛው አይነት የስኳር በሽታ ሊድን የሚችል በሽታ እንደሆነና በርካታ ሰዎችም ከበሽታው እንደተፈወሱ ብዙ መረጃዎችን ለማየት ሞከርኩ፡፡ በዚህ ረገድ ካናዳ ቶሮንቶ ከተማ ውስጥ ጥብቅ የሆነ የአመጋገብ ቁጥጥር በማድረግ የሁለተኛው አይነት የስኳር በሽታ ያለባቸውን ህሙማን የሚያክም ዶ/ር ጀሰን ፈንግ የሚባል የኩላሊት ሀኪም መኖሩን ከድረ-ገጽ መረጃ አገኘሁ፡፡ እርሱም በዚሁ በሽታ ዙሪያ በርካታ የህዝብ ንግግሮችን ያደረገ ሲሆን መጽሃፍትንም ጽፏል፡፡ እርሱ ከጻፋቸው መጽሃፍት ውስጥ The-Diabetes-Code and The-Obesity-Code ዋናዎቹ ናቸው፡፡ ስለሆነም The-Diabetes-Code የተሰኘውን መጽሃፍ በዶ/ር ሩቅያ ሀሰን አማካኝነት ወደ አማርኛ “የስኳር በሽታ ቁልፍ” በሚል ርዕስ ተተርጉሞ አሁን በኢትዮጵያ ገበያ ላይ የሚገኝ ሲሆን እኔም በእርሷ የስራ ትጋት መነሻነት The-Obesity-Code የሚለውን መጽሃፍ ወደ አማርኛ “የሰውነት ውፍረትን የሚያመጡ ሚስጥራዊ እውነታዎች” በሚል ርዕስ ለመተርጎም ወሰንኩ፡፡ ይህ መጽሃፍ አማዞን በተሰኘው የድረ ገጽ መጽሃፍ መደብር ውሰጥ ከፍተኛ ሽያጭ ያሰገኘ ሲሆን እኔም ለኢትዮጵያዊያን ወገኖቼ በሚረዱት ቋንቋ ቢቀርብላቸው በርካቶች እንደእኔ ሊጠቀሙበት ይችላሉ ብዬ በማሰብ ለመተርጎም ችያለሁ፡፡ በዚህ መጽሃፍ ውስጥ ለሁለተኛው አይነት የስኳር በሽታ መሰረታዊ መንስኤ ከልክ ያለፈ የሰውነት ውፍረት መሆኑን ዶ/ር ፈንግ በዝርዝር ያስረዳል፡፡ ስለሆነም ምክንያታዊ በሆነ መልኩ የሰውነት ውፍረት ወሳኝ ትኩረት ያስፈልገዋል የሚል እምነት አለው፡፡ ብሎም ከልክ ያለፈ የሰውነት ውፍረት እና ሁለተኛው ዓይነት የስኳር በሽታ ብዙ ጠቃሚ የሆኑ ተመሳሳነትና ልዩነት እንዳላቸው ያሳያል፡፡ ኢንሱሊን በሰውነት ክብደት ውስጥ ያለውን ማዕከላዊ ሚና እንዲሁም የሰውነት የኢንሱሊን መቋቋም ችግር በሰውነት ክብደት ውስጥ የሚጫወተውን ወሳኝ ሚና በሚገባ ያስረዳል፡፡ በመጽኃፉም የሰውነት የኢንሱሊን መጠን የመጨመር ችግርን በመቆጣጠር ከልክ ያለፈ የሰውነት ውፍረትን መከላከል የሚያስችሉ መመሪያዎችን ይሰጣል፡፡ የአመጋገብ መመሪያዎች ኢንሱሊንን ለመቀነስ በተለይ የስኳር እና የተጣሩ የሰብል ውጤቶችን በመቀነስ፤ የፕሮቲንን ፍጆታ የተመጣጠነ እንዲሆን በማድረግ እና የጤናማ ስብ እና የአሰርን ፍጆታ በመጨመር ማስተካከል እንደሚቻል ይገልጸል፡፡ የካሎሪ ቅነሳ በሰውነት ጤንነት ላይ አሉታዊ ተጽዕኖ ሳያስከትል ጠንካራ ጾም በመጾም የሰውነት የኢንሱሊን የመቋቋም ችግር የሚያሰከትለውን አሉታዊ የሆነ ወሳኝ ሚና ለማስተካከል ውጤታማ መንገድ መሆኑን ያስረዳል፡፡ በመጽሐፉ ውስጥ ደራሲው በሰዎች ላይ የተደረጉ ጥናቶችን እና በአብዛኛው በታዋቂ ባለሙያዎች ተገምግመው በከፍተኛ ጥራት በሚታወቁ ጆርናሎች የታተሙትን ከ450 በላይ የምርምር ግኝቶችን እንደዋቢነት ተጠቅሟል፡፡ ስለሆነም ለኢትዮጵያዊያን ወገኖቼ መግለጽ የምፈልገው ይህ መጽሃፍ የእኔን ተስፋና ህይወት ቀይሮታል በዚህም መሰረት ይህ ችግር ያለባቸውን ሰዎች ህይወት ይቀይራል ብየ በጽኑ አምናለሁ፡፡ ስለዚህ ከልክ ያለፈ የሰውነት ውፍረትና የሁለተኛው አይነት የስኳር በሽታ ያላባቸውም ሆነ የሌለባቸው ሰዎች መጽሃፉን አግኝተው ቢያነቡት ብዙ ጠቃሚ መረጃ ያገኛሉ ብዬ በእጅጉ አምናለሁ፡፡
Article
Scope: We aimed to investigate whether changes in the metabolome could explain observed changes in body composition in overweight adults after consumption of butter with high level of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) in combination with casein or whey. Methods and results: With GC-ToF and LC-Q/MS, we analyzed metabolites in plasma and urine from a 12-weeks randomized double-blinded human intervention including 52-abdominally overweight adults. The participants consumed 63 g/day of milk fat (high or low in MCFAs) and 60 g/day of protein (whey or casein). Urinary loss of the tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolites and a concomitantly increase of glycerol in blood were observed in the whey + high-MCFAs group, indicating potential lower anabolic processes, such as lipogenesis, by draining substrates. High intake of MCFAs resulted in elevated level of urinary adipic (independently of protein type) and plasma sebacic acid (with whey), indicating a potential increase in oxidation of MCFAs, which might lead to energy loss. Conclusion: The type of protein showed highest effect on the overall metabolic profiles, but ω-oxidation of MCFAs in the liver seemed to be the main reason for the observed reduction in body fat mass after consumption of high MCFAs, independent of type of protein. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Purpose: Recent studies have shown that yogurt consumption was associated with better diet quality and a healthier metabolic profile in adults. However, such associations have not been investigated in children. The present study examined the associations in children using data from a nationally representative survey. Methods: Data from 5,124 children aged 2-18 years, who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) between 2003 and 2006 in the USA were analyzed. The frequency of yogurt consumption over 12 months was determined using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Diet quality was assessed by the Healthy Eating Index 2005 (HEI-2005) using one 24-HR dietary recall, and metabolic profiles were obtained from the NHANES laboratory data. Results: It was found that only 33.1 % of children consumed yogurt at least once per week (frequent consumers). Adjusting for covariates, frequent consumers had better diet quality than infrequent consumers, as indicated by a higher HEI-2005 total score (P = 0.04). Frequent yogurt consumption was associated with a lower fasting insulin level (P < 0.001), a lower homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (P < 0.001), and a higher quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (P = 0.03). However, yogurt consumption was not associated with body weight, fasting glucose, serum lipid profiles, C-reactive protein, and blood pressures (all P > 0.05). Conclusions: These results suggest that frequent yogurt consumption may contribute to improved diet quality and a healthier insulin profile in children. Future longitudinal studies and clinical trials in children are warranted to explore the health benefits of yogurt consumption.
Article
We conducted a study to investigate milk and dairy products consumption among elementary school students to identify ways to increase their intake of milk and dairy products. We asked 518 students in Seoul to fill out questionnaire. Only 55.6% of the subjects consumed milk daily, and 43.7% of them drank at least 1 cup per day. The frequency and quantity of milk consumption were higher in male students than female students. The majority of the subjects consumed whole milk, and most students(59.5%) preferred flavored milk to whole milk. The reasons given for drinking milk included 'wanting to be tall'(66.1%) and 'for good health'(47.1%), while the main reason given for not drinking milk was stomach pain (68.4%). Records of having an unpleasant experience and upset stomach after drinking milk occurred at a higher rate for those who did not drink milk(84.2%) than for those who did(53.3%). Of the students questioned, 36.9% consumed dairy products other than milk 3~4 times per week, and liquid-type yoghurt(43.8%) and ice cream(35.4%) were the preferred dairy products among students. The reasons given for consuming dairy products were 'good taste'(56.6%), 'good to eat'(46.6%), 'wanting to be tall'(32.4%), and 'for good health' (25.4%). Among those students who did not consumed dairy products, the major reason given was 'family does not eat at home'(33.3%). After consuming the dairy products, 71.4% of participants thought that dairy products did not result in physical improvement. Most students had experienced purchasing milk and dairy products by themselves. When they bought milk or dairy products, the reasons given for making a particular selection were 'shelf-life'(61.6%) for milk, and 'favorite dairy products'(54.1%) for dairy products. According to participants, the factors that need to be considered for milk and dairy product consumption among elementary school students are 'higher nutrition' (60.8%), 'better sanitation'(57.3%), and 'better quality and taste'(55.2%).
Article
Background/aims To evaluate the associations of dietary consumption with the 10-year incidence of diabetic retinopathy (DR) progression in working-aged Australians with diabetes. Methods We obtained longitudinal data of all diabetic subjects aged 45–65 years from the baseline of the 45 and Up Study and linked this data with Medicare Benefits Schedule (MBS) and Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme claims until 2016. Retinal photocoagulation (RPC), as determined based on the MBS data, was used as a proxy measure of DR progression. Dietary measurements were assessed via self-reported consumption of meat, dairy products, whole-meal bread, breakfast cereal, vegetables, fruit and fruit juice using a self-administered questionnaire at baseline. Cox regression was used to assess the association between dietary consumption and incident RPC during the follow-up period. Results A total of 8122 participants were included in the current analysis with a mean age of 57.2±5.2 years. During a mean follow-up of 8.6 years, 314 participants (3.8% of baseline) received RPC. Higher consumption of cheese and whole-meal bread was associated with a lower risk of incident RPC, with the HRs of the highest quartiles versus the lowest being 0.58 (95% CI 0.41 to 0.83; test for trend, p=0.007) and 0.64 (0.46 to 0.89; p=0.04), respectively. Body mass index, insulin treatment and gender were significant modifiers for the association between cheese/whole-meal bread and RPC. Conclusion Consumption of cheese and whole-meal bread could reduce the risk of DR progression among the working-aged Australian population with diabetes.
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Background: The association between non-nutritive sweeteners and obesity is controversial. Aim: To determine whether the consumption of non-nutritive sweeteners is related to higher risk for overweight or obesity among university students in Chile, Panama, Guatemala and Peru. Material and methods: A total of 1,224 (472 from Chile, 300 from Panama, 248 from Guatemala and 204 from Peru) male and female university students aged between 18 and 26 years participated in the study. Each student reported their food intake (frequency of weekly consumption) in a survey that contained photos of foods containing non-nutritive sweeteners adapted for each country. Anthropometry was also measured. Results: More than 80% of students consumed at least one product containing non-nutritive sweeteners. Females who ate acesulfame potassium and sucralose had a lower risk of overweight or obesity with an odds ratio (OR) of 0.5 (confidence intervals (CI) = 0.3-0.9; p = 0.003) and OR = 0.4 (IC = 0.2-0.8; p = 0.01), respectively. Conclusions: In this sample of Latinamerican university students, consumption of non-nutritive sweeteners was associated with lower risk of overweight only in females.
Chapter
Overweight and obesity are global public health concerns. Excess body fatincreases the risk of premature death, coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes,hypertension, stroke, some types of cancer, and other debilitating conditions. Thecause of overweight and obesity is multifactorial and successful prevention ortreatment depends on multiple actions. Although attention has focused primarilyon reducing energy (calorie) intake and/or increasing energy expenditure (physicalactivity), a promising beneficial role for dietary calcium and dairy products inweight management has emerged. Overall, the body of scientific evidence includinghuman, clinical, observational, animal, and cellular studies supports a relationshipbetween the consumption of dairy foods and weight management. Whileconsumption of dairy foods has been shown to exert a greater impact than calciumalone, studies continue to examine the mechanism to explain this phenomenon,which appears to be multifactorial and may involve bioactive components foundin dairy foods. While there is more to learn about dairy food consumption's impacton weight management, the Dietary Guidelines recommend 3 servings of low-fatand fat-free milk or equivalent milk products (e.g., cheese, yogurt) daily as part ofa healthy diet and stresses the importance of balancing calories consumed fromfoods and beverages with calories expended to achieve and maintain a healthybody weight.
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Background: The association between non-nutritive sweeteners and obesity is controversial. Aim: To determine whether the consumption of non-nutritive sweeteners is related to higher risk for overweight or obesity among university students in Chile, Panama, Guatemala and Peru. Material and Methods: A total of 1,224 (472 from Chile, 300 from Panama, 248 from Guatemala and 204 from Peru) male and female university students aged between 18 and 26 years participated in the study. Each student reported their food intake (frequency of weekly consumption) in a survey that contained photos of foods containing non-nutritive sweeteners adapted for each country. Anthropometry was also measured. Results: More than 80% of students consumed at least one product containing non-nutritive sweeteners. Females who ate acesulfame potassium and sucralose had a lower risk of overweight or obesity with an odds ratio (OR) of 0.5 (confidence intervals (CI) = 0.3-0.9; p = 0.003) and OR = 0.4 (IC = 0.2-0.8; p = 0.01), respectively. Conclusions: In this sample of Latinamerican university students, consumption of non-nutritive sweeteners was associated with lower risk of overweight only in females.
Article
Several studies have evaluated the link between diet and breast cancer in women. This link receives increasing attention from scientists, and many reports have examined the implication of milk and dairy products in the development this disease. Indeed, the available evidence shows that milk increases circulating levels of a mitogenic hormone: insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), and this may affect breast cancer risk. However, epidemiological studies were unsuccessful to establish a strong relationship between this food and the disease. Many other studies measured the role of dairy products in the development of breast cancer risk factors, and our review tried to examine these associations. Our investigation suggests that milk increases appearance of greater adult-attained height, early menarche, delayed menopause and higher birth weight which are all considered as breast cancer risk factors and associated to higher levels of IGF-I. The relationship with adult weight and breast density is still not clear and inconsistent. Our hypothesis suggests that milk intake may influence breast cancer, through some breast cancer risk factors, and IGF-I has an important role in this relationship, but the association with other dairy products is less certain. That is why we suggest that women should consume dairy products other than milk to prevent breast cancer risk.
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The Chinese government has projected that 30% of the total potato consumed as a staple food, to meet the yield demand for staple food anticipated by population growth and the recommended tuber consumption for a healthful diet. This policy has significantly promoted potato development in China in recent years. Nevertheless, it is urgent to determine where is it suitable to grow potatoes in China and how to match the future demand for potatoes with lower inputs and environmental costs. In the present study, we compared the integrated efficiencies of the six Chinese potato-production regions by analyzing the normalization scores of the Partial Factor Productivity of new nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) inputs (PFPN and PFPP), and greenhouse gas (GHG) intensity (GHGI) indicators, to reply to the first question. Then we predicated the national potato demand based on the historical trends of per capita tuber consumption in China’s urban and rural areas, and estimated the national new N and P inputs, irrigation water consumption, and total GHG emissions when meeting the future potato demand, by scenario analysis, to answer the second question. We found that the Chinese mean per capita tuber consumption is expected to rise to the recommended standard (50 g cap.⁻¹ d⁻¹) by 2026. If current increasing trends continue, potato yield will need to increase by 42.2% relative to 2015. The normalization score of the PFPN, PFPP, and GHGI indicators shows that northeast (NE, 3.0), northwest (NW, 1.4), and southwest (SW, 1.1) China have considerable advantages for growing potatoes, compared to the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River (MLRYR, 0.3), southeast China (SE, 0.4) and north China (NC, 0.1). Chinese potato production has the potential for mitigating total potato-sown area, new N and P inputs, irrigation water consumption, and total GHG emissions by 1.6–7.7%, 2.2–11.1%, 2.3–11.2%, 1.0–5.1% and 6.7–33.3%, respectively, relative to a business-as-usual scenario, with no compromise in yield. The combined measures include converting a small proportion of maize land to potato production in the NE, NW and SW regions, properly increasing winter potato planting after the late-rice season in MLRYR, SW and SE, and enhancing potato yield by adopting optimized agricultural practices in the six production regions. The proportions and combinations in which these three measures are promoted depend on the degree of difficulty for each region. Our results can not only help guide potato farming toward lower inputs and cleaner production in China by regionalized cooperation, but can also provide regionalized parameters for resource inputs and GHG emissions for further simulation models of Chinese potato production.
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Background and aims: Previous studies have suggested weight-regulatory properties for several dairy nutrients, but population-based studies on dairy and body weight are inconclusive. We explored cross-sectional associations between dairy consumption and indicators of overweight. Methods and results: We included 114,682 Dutch adults, aged ≥18 years. Dairy consumption was quantified by a food frequency questionnaire. Abdominal overweight was defined as waist circumference (WC) ≥88 cm (women) or ≥102 cm (men) (n = 37,391), overweight as BMI ≥25-30 kg/m2(n = 44,772) and obesity as BMI ≥30 kg/m2(n = 15,339). Associations were quantified by logistic (abdominal overweight, no/yes), multinomial logistic (BMI-defined overweight and obesity) and linear regression analyses (continuous measures of WC and BMI), and they were adjusted for relevant covariates. Total dairy showed a positive association with abdominal overweight (OR Q1 ref vs. Q5: 1.09; 95% CI: 1.04-1.14) and with BMI-defined overweight (OR Q5 1.13; 95% CI: 1.08-1.18) and obesity (OR Q5 1.09; 95% CI: 1.02-1.16). Skimmed, semi-skimmed and non-fermented dairy also showed positive associations with overweight categories. Full-fat dairy showed an inverse association with overweight and obesity (OR Q5 for obesity: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.73-0.83). Moreover, inverse associations were observed for yoghurt and custard and positive associations for milk, buttermilk, flavoured yoghurt drinks, cheese and cheese snacks. Fermented dairy, curd cheese and Dutch cheese did not show a consistent association with overweight categories. Conclusions: Total, skimmed, semi-skimmed and non-fermented dairy; milk; buttermilk; flavoured yoghurt drinks; total cheese and cheese snacks showed a positive association with overweight categories, whereas full-fat dairy, custard and yoghurt showed an inverse association with overweight categories.
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Objective: To study associations between dairy fat intake and development of central obesity. Design: A prospective population-based cohort study with two surveys 12 years apart. Setting: Nine municipalities selected from different parts of Sweden representing the rural areas in the country. Subjects: 1782 men (farmers and non-farmers) aged 40-60 years at baseline participated in a baseline survey (participation rate 76%) and 1589 men participated at the follow-up. 116 men with central obesity at baseline were excluded from the analyses. Main outcome measures: Central obesity at follow-up defined as waist hip ratio ≥ 1. Results: 197 men (15%) developed central obesity during follow-up. A low intake of dairy fat at baseline (no butter and low fat milk and seldom/never whipping cream) was associated with a higher risk of developing central obesity (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.05-2.24) and a high intake of dairy fat (butter as spread and high fat milk and whipping cream) was associated with a lower risk of central obesity (OR 0.52, 95% CI 0.33-0.83) as compared with medium intake (all other combinations of spread, milk, and cream) after adjustment for intake of fruit and vegetables, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, age, education, and profession. The associations between dairy fat intake and central obesity were consistent across body mass index categories at baseline. Conclusion: A high intake of dairy fat was associated with a lower risk of central obesity and a low dairy fat intake was associated with a higher risk of central obesity.
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Context Components of the insulin resistance syndrome (IRS), including obesity, glucose intolerance, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, are major risk factors for type 2 diabetes and heart disease. Although diet has been postulated to influence IRS, the independent effects of dairy consumption on development of this syndrome have not been investigated.Objective To examine associations between dairy intake and incidence of IRS, adjusting for confounding lifestyle and dietary factors.Design The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study, a population-based prospective study.Setting and Participants General community sample from 4 US metropolitan areas of 3157 black and white adults aged 18 to 30 years who were followed up from 1985-1986 to 1995-1996.Main Outcome Measure Ten-year cumulative incidence of IRS and its association with dairy consumption, measured by diet history interview.Results Dairy consumption was inversely associated with the incidence of all IRS components among individuals who were overweight (body mass index ≥25 kg/m2) at baseline but not among leaner individuals (body mass index <25 kg/m2). The adjusted odds of developing IRS (2 or more components) were 72% lower (odds ratio, 0.28; 95% confidence interval, 0.14-0.58) among overweight individuals in the highest (≥35 times per week, 24/102 individuals) compared with the lowest (<10 times per week, 85/190 individuals) category of dairy consumption. Each daily occasion of dairy consumption was associated with a 21% lower odds of IRS (odds ratio, 0.79; 95% confidence interval, 0.70-0.88). These associations were similar for blacks and whites and for men and women. Other dietary factors, including macronutrients and micronutrients, did not explain the association between dairy intake and IRS.Conclusions Dietary patterns characterized by increased dairy consumption have a strong inverse association with IRS among overweight adults and may reduce risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Figures in this Article Risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease is affected by a number of medical and lifestyle factors. In recent years, increasing attention has been focused on a constellation of risk factors termed the insulin resistance syndrome (IRS), also known as the metabolic syndrome or syndrome X.1- 2 In this syndrome, obesity, insulin resistance, and hyperinsulinemia are thought to cause glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia (low serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and high serum triglyceride concentrations), hypertension, and impaired fibrinolytic capacity.3 An increasing incidence of IRS in all racial, ethnic, and social class groups in the United States can be inferred from the increasing prevalence of obesity4- 5 and type 2 diabetes6- 8 over the last 3 decades. Recently, this syndrome has been observed in youth,9- 11 and age-adjusted prevalence among adults has been estimated at 24%.12 An increase in the prevalence of IRS may partly explain the recent plateau or increase in cardiovascular disease rates, after several decades of decline.13 Although various environmental influences, including smoking and physical inactivity, are known to promote insulin resistance, the effect of dietary composition on IRS is poorly understood. For most of the past 3 decades, the US Department of Agriculture and the American Heart Association have recommended low-fat diets in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. Recently, however, some have questioned these recommendations out of concern that high-carbohydrate consumption might promote IRS.14- 17 Other dietary factors that have been linked to components of IRS include the ratios of monounsaturated or polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids,15,18- 19 dietary fiber,20- 21 and glycemic index.22- 24 Dairy consumption is another dietary factor that might affect IRS. Milk intake has decreased significantly over the past 3 decades25- 27 as the prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes has increased. Epidemiologic and experimental studies suggest that dairy products may have favorable effects on body weight in children28 and adults.29- 31 In addition, dairy and/or calcium may decrease the risk for hypertension,32- 33 coagulopathy,34 coronary artery disease,35- 36 and stroke.37- 38 An inverse cross-sectional association between dairy intake and IRS was observed in men but not in women although the influence of physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake, and other lifestyle factors was not considered.39 The purpose of this study was to examine, in a prospective fashion, the independent association between dairy consumption and IRS, after taking into account physical activity level, macronutrient and fiber intake, and other potentially confounding variables.
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We evaluated whether the adipose tissue content of 2 fatty acids of exogenous origin specific for ruminant fat, 15:0 and 17:0, reflect average long-term dairy fat consumption in free-living subjects. In 81 healthy women aged 30-77 y, we compared the relative content of these 2 fatty acids in subcutaneous adipose tissue with relative intake (% of total fat) based on four 1-wk weighed diet records made 3-4 mo apart and on a food-frequency questionnaire reflecting average past year consumption. The mean (+/-SD) daily milk fat intake was 20.0 +/- 9.1 g and fat from ruminant meat was 3.0 +/- 1.5 g according to food records, representing 29.2 +/- 8.9% and 4.6 +/- 2.2% of total fat, respectively. The intake of 15:0 and 17:0, which are 1.05% and 0.61% of milk fat and 0.43% and 0.83% of ruminant meat fat, was 0.22 +/- 0.10 and 0.15 +/- 0.06 g, respectively. Content of 15:0 and 17:0 in adipose tissue was 0.35% and 0.24% and relative dietary intake was 0.33% and 0.22% according to the food records and 0.32% and 0.21%, respectively, according to the food-frequency questionnaire. Correlation coefficients between 15:0 content in adipose tissue and intake from dairy foods only, according to food records, were 0.63 (Pearson) and 0.59 (Spearman); corresponding values for 17:0 were 0.42 and 0.45, respectively. Content of 15:0 and 17:0 in subcutaneous adipose tissue might be a valid biological marker of long-term milk fat intake in free-living individuals in populations with high consumption of dairy products.
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Recent data from this laboratory demonstrate that increasing adipocyte intracellular Ca(2+) results in a coordinated stimulation of lipogenesis and inhibition of lipolysis. We have also noted that increasing dietary calcium of obese patients for 1 year resulted in a 4.9 kg loss of body fat (P<0.01). Accordingly, we tested the possibility that calcitrophic hormones may act on adipocytes to increase Ca(2+) and lipid metabolism by measuring the effects of 1, 25-(OH)(2)-D in primary cultures of human adipocytes, and found significant, sustained increases in intracellular Ca(2+) and a corresponding marked inhibition of lipolysis (EC(50) approximately 50 pM; P<0.001), suggesting that dietary calcium could reduce adipocyte mass by suppressing 1,25-(OH)(2)-D. To test this hypothesis, we placed transgenic mice expressing the agouti gene specifically in adipocytes on a low (0.4%) Ca/high fat/high sucrose diet either unsupplemented or with 25 or 50% of the protein replaced by non-fat dry milk or supplemented to 1.2% Ca with CaCO(3) for 6 wk. Weight gain and fat pad mass were reduced by 26-39% by the three high calcium diets (P<0.001). The high calcium diets exerted a corresponding 51% inhibition of adipocyte fatty acid synthase expression and activity (P<0.002) and stimulation of lipolysis by 3. 4- to 5.2-fold (P<0.015). This concept of calcium modulation of adiposity was further evaluated epidemiologically in the NHANES III data set. After controlling for energy intake, relative risk of being in the highest quartile of body fat was set to 1.00 for the lowest quartile of Ca intake and was reduced to 0.75, 0.40, and 0.16 for the second, third, and fourth quartiles, respectively, of calcium intake for women (n=380;P<0.0009); a similar inverse relationship was also noted in men (n=7114; P<0.0006). Thus, increasing dietary calcium suppresses adipocyte intracellular Ca(2+) and thereby modulates energy metabolism and attenuates obesity risk.
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Menopause is a time of increased risk of obesity in women. The effect of menopause in African American women, in whom obesity is already highly prevalent, is unknown. We compared dietary intakes and energy expenditure (EE) between middle-aged, premenopausal African American and white women participating in a longitudinal study of the menopausal transition. Dietary intakes by food record, EE by triaxial accelerometer, physical activity by self-report, and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were compared in 97 white and 52 African American women. Twenty-four-hour and sleeping EE were measured by whole-room indirect calorimetry in 56 women. Sleeping EE (adjusted for lean and fat mass) was lower in African American than in white women (5749 +/- 155 compared with 6176 +/- 75 kJ/d; P = 0.02); however, there was no significant difference in 24-h EE between groups. Reported leisure activity over the course of a week was less in African American than in white women (556 +/- 155 compared with 1079 +/- 100 kJ/d; P = 0.02), as were the daily hours spent standing and climbing stairs. Dietary intakes of protein, fiber, calcium, magnesium, and several fatty acids were significantly less in African Americans, whereas there were no observed ethnic differences in intakes of fat or carbohydrate. Body fat within the whole group was positively correlated with total, saturated, and monounsaturated fat intakes and inversely associated with fiber and calcium intakes. Fiber was the strongest single predictor of fatness. Ethnic differences in EE and the intake of certain nutrients may influence the effect of menopausal transition on obesity in African American women.
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To determine if total calcium (Ca(2+)) intake and intake of Ca(2+) from dairy sources are related to whole-body fat oxidation. : Cross-sectional study. A total of 35 (21 m, 14 f) non-obese, healthy adults (mean+/-s.d., age: 31+/-6 y; weight: 71.2+/-12.3 kg; BMI: 23.7+/-2.9 kg m(-2); body fat: 21.4+/-5.4%). Daily (24 h) energy expenditure (EE) and macronutrient oxidation using whole-room indirect calorimetry; habitual Ca(2+) intake estimated from analysis of 4-day food records; acute Ca(2+) intake estimated from measured food intake during a 24-h stay in a room calorimeter. Acute Ca(2+) intake (mg. kcal(-1)) was positively correlated with fat oxidation over 24 h (r=0.38, P=0.03), during sleep (r=0.36, P=0.04), and during light physical activity (r=0.32, P=0.07). Acute Ca(2+) intake was inversely correlated with 24-h respiratory quotient (RQ) (r=-0.36, P=0.04) and RQ during sleep (r=-0.31, P=0.07). After adjustment for fat mass, fat-free mass, energy balance, acute fat intake, and habitual fat intake, acute Ca(2+) intake explained approximately 10% of the variance in 24-h fat oxidation. Habitual Ca(2+) intake was not significantly correlated to fat oxidation or RQ. Total Ca(2+) intake and Ca(2+) intake from dairy sources were similarly correlated with fat oxidation. In backwards stepwise models, total Ca(2+) intake was a stronger predictor of 24 h fat oxidation than dairy Ca(2+) intake. Higher acute Ca(2+) intake is associated with higher rates of whole-body fat oxidation. These effects were apparent over 24 h, during sleep and, to a lesser extent, during light physical activity. Calcium intake from dairy sources was not a more important predictor of fat oxidation than total Ca(2+) intake.
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Recent data suggest that variations in calcium intake may influence lipid metabolism and body composition. The association between daily calcium intake and body composition and plasma lipoprotein-lipid concentrations was studied cross-sectionally in adults from phase 2 of the Québec Family Study. Adults aged 20-65 y (235 men, 235 women) were studied. Subjects who consumed vitamin or mineral supplements were excluded. Subjects were divided into 3 groups on the basis of their daily calcium intake: groups A (< 600 mg), B (600-1000 mg), and C (> 1000 mg). Daily calcium intake was negatively correlated with plasma LDL cholesterol, total cholesterol, and total:HDL cholesterol in women and men after adjustment for variations in body fat mass and waist circumference (P < 0.05). In women, a significantly greater ratio of total to HDL cholesterol (P < 0.05) was observed in group A than in group C after correction for body fat mass and waist circumference. In women, body weight, percentage body fat, fat mass, body mass index, waist circumference, and total abdominal adipose tissue area measured by computed tomography were significantly greater (P < 0.05) in group A than in groups B and C, even after adjustments for confounding variables. Comparable trends were observed in men, but not after adjustment for the same covariates. A low daily calcium intake is associated with greater adiposity, particularly in women. In both sexes, a high calcium intake is associated with a plasma lipoprotein-lipid profile predictive of a lower risk of coronary heart disease risk compared with a low calcium intake.
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Increasing 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in response to low-calcium diets stimulates adipocyte Ca2+ influx and, as a consequence, stimulates lipogenesis, suppresses lipolysis, and increases lipid accumulation, whereas increasing dietary calcium inhibits these effects and markedly accelerates fat loss in mice subjected to caloric restriction. Our objective was to determine the effects of increasing dietary calcium in the face of caloric restriction in humans. We performed a randomized, placebo-controlled trial in 32 obese adults. Patients were maintained for 24 weeks on balanced deficit diets (500 kcal/d deficit) and randomized to a standard diet (400 to 500 mg of dietary calcium/d supplemented with placebo), a high-calcium diet (standard diet supplemented with 800 mg of calcium/d), or high-dairy diet (1200 to 1300 mg of dietary calcium/d supplemented with placebo). Patients assigned to the standard diet lost 6.4 +/- 2.5% of their body weight, which was increased by 26% (to 8.6 +/- 1.1%) on the high-calcium diet and 70% (to 10.9 +/- 1.6% of body weight) on the high-dairy diet (p < 0.01). Fat loss was similarly augmented by the high-calcium and high-dairy diets, by 38% and 64%, respectively (p < 0.01). Moreover, fat loss from the trunk region represented 19.0 +/- 7.9% of total fat loss on the low-calcium diet, and this fraction was increased to 50.1 +/- 6.4% and 66.2 +/- 3.0% on the high-calcium and high-dairy diets, respectively (p < 0.001). Increasing dietary calcium significantly augmented weight and fat loss secondary to caloric restriction and increased the percentage of fat lost from the trunk region, whereas dairy products exerted a substantially greater effect.
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Hyperproinsulinaemia reflects both beta cell dysfunction and insulin resistance in cross-sectional studies, but it is not known whether changes in proinsulin concentrations are related to insulin resistance over time. As trans10cis12 (t10c12)-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation induces insulin resistance in obese men, we used this fatty acid to investigate the effects on plasma proinsulin, insulin, C-peptide and adiponectin concentrations, including their associations with change in insulin sensitivity. We randomised (double-blind) 57 non-diabetic abdominally obese men to receive either 3.4 g t10c12CLA, CLA-isomer mixture or control oil for 12 weeks. Insulin sensitivity (hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp), intact proinsulin, insulin, the proinsulin : insulin ratio, C-peptide, glucose and adiponectin were assessed before and after supplementation. Supplementation with t10c12CLA increased proinsulin (p<0.01), the proinsulin : insulin ratio (p<0.05) and C-peptide concentrations (p<0.001) in comparison with control subjects. Adiponectin, however, did not change significantly. The change in proinsulin, but not the proinsulin : insulin ratio, was related to impaired insulin sensitivity (r= -0.58, p<0.0001), independently of changes in insulin, C-peptide, glucose, adiponectin and BMI. Conversely, the correlation between insulin sensitivity and specific insulin (r=-0.46, p<0.001) did not remain significant after adjustment for proinsulin. Induced hyperproinsulinaemia was also correlated to adiponectin concentrations ( r= -0.34, p<0.01). In obese men, t10c12CLA induces hyperproinsulinaemia that is related to impaired insulin sensitivity, independently of changes in insulin concentrations. These results are of clinical interest, as hyperproinsulinaemia predicts diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The use of weight-loss supplements containing this fatty acid is worrying.
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To assess the relationship between consumption of dairy products and body mass index (BMI) in Tehranian adults. Cross-sectional study. A total of 462 healthy subjects (223 men and 239 women) aged over 16 y selected randomly from among participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS). Dietary data were collected by means of a food frequency questionnaire for 1 y and two 24-h dietary recalls. Height and weight were measured and BMI was calculated. Physical activity was assessed by the Lipid Research Clinic (LRC) questionnaire. Consumption of dairy products was 3.7+/-1.0 and 2.9+/-1.2 servings per day in men and women, respectively. As the servings of dairy consumption increased per day, the proportion of normal-weight subjects rose and that of obese ones declined. As BMI increased, the proportion of subjects with lower consumption of dairy products increased, whereas that of those with higher consumption decreased. There was a significant inverse correlation between the servings of dairy consumption per day and BMI after controlling for the effect of age, physical activity, energy, carbohydrate, dietary fiber, protein and fat intake (r=-0.38, P<0.05). After adjustment for potential confounding variables, men and women in the top quartile of dairy consumption had lower chances for being overweight (OR=0.78, 95% CI=0.43-0.92 for men and OR=0.89, 95% CI=0.53-0.95 for women) and obese (OR=0.73, 95% CI=0.40-0.83 for men and OR=0.69, 95% CI=0.34-0.80 for women) compared to those in the first quartile. The results suggest an inverse relationship between dairy consumption and BMI. It is recommended that further studies address this issue by focusing on the dairy components responsible for this effect.
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Observational studies have shown an inverse association between dietary calcium intake and body weight, and a causal relation is likely. However, the underlying mechanisms are not understood. We examined whether high and low calcium intakes from mainly low-fat dairy products, in diets high or normal in protein content, have effects on 24-h energy expenditure (EE) and substrate oxidation, fecal energy and fat excretion, and concentrations of substrates and hormones involved in energy metabolism and appetite. In all, 10 subjects participated in a randomized crossover study of three isocaloric 1-week diets with: low calcium and normal protein (LC/NP: 500 mg calcium, 15% of energy (E%) from protein), high calcium and normal protein (HC/NP: 1800 mg calcium, 15E% protein), and high calcium and high protein (HC/HP: 1800 mg calcium, 23E% protein). The calcium intake had no effect on 24-h EE or fat oxidation, but fecal fat excretion increased approximately 2.5-fold during the HC/NP diet compared with the LC/NP and the HC/HP diets (14.2 vs 6.0 and 5.9 g/day; P < 0.05). The HC/NP diet also increased fecal energy excretion as compared with the LC/NP and the HC/HP diets (1045 vs 684 and 668 kJ/day; P < 0.05). There were no effects on blood cholesterol, free fatty acids, triacylglycerol, insulin, leptin, or thyroid hormones. A short-term increase in dietary calcium intake, together with a normal protein intake, increased fecal fat and energy excretion by approximately 350 kJ/day. This observation may contribute to explain why a high-calcium diet produces weight loss, and it suggests that an interaction with dietary protein level may be important.
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Recent epidemiologic research suggests that dairy product intake or its components (calcium, vitamin D, and amount or source of protein) are associated with lower body weight or body fat. Clinical intervention trials designed to test this association during weight loss are promising, but still controversial. Few data are available on the effect of calcium or dairy products on prevention of weight gain in long-term trials. The mechanisms proposed to mediate the putative effect of dietary calcium are primarily the formation of fecal fatty acid complexes to reduce fat absorption and the regulation of energy metabolism, including lipolysis from adipocytes and fatty acid oxidation, through the calciotropic hormones, parathyroid hormone, and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. Increased energy expenditure, increased satiety, or a shift from fat to lean mass must accompany these changes in lipid metabolism to achieve changes in fat mass; however, measurable changes in these other parameters either have not been tested or have not been noted uniformly. If dairy products or their components have an effect on altering fat mass, it is likely to be a small change that may have a substantial effect on the incidence of obesity over time.
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Increased dietary calcium is associated with changes in body composition. One proposed mechanism is that dietary calcium increases fat oxidation, potentially via regulation of serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations. The objectives of the study were to determine whether acute or chronic increased dairy calcium intakes alter postprandial whole-body fat oxidation and whether the increased intake is related to changes in PTH concentrations. Normal-weight women aged 18-30 y were randomly assigned to a low (<800 mg/d, control; n = 10) or high (1000-1400 mg/d; n = 9) dietary calcium intake group for 1 y. Whole-body fat oxidation was assessed by measuring respiratory gas exchange after each subject consumed 2 isocaloric liquid meals containing 100 or 500 mg Ca at baseline and 1 y. Fasting serum PTH was measured at baseline and 1 y. The mean 1-y change in fat oxidation was higher in the high-calcium group than in the low-calcium control group after a low-calcium meal (0.10 +/- 0.05 compared with 0.005 +/- 0.04 g/min; P < 0.001) and a high-calcium meal (0.06 +/- 0.05 compared with 0.03 +/- 0.04 g/min; P < 0.05). The 1-y change in serum log PTH was negatively associated with the 1-y change in postprandial fat oxidation after a high-calcium meal (partial r = -0.46, P < 0.04) when controlled for the1-y change in total body fat mass. The results suggest that a chronic diet high in dairy calcium increases whole-body fat oxidation from a meal, and increases in fasting serum PTH relate to decreases in postprandial whole-body fat oxidation.
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Dietary supplements containing conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) are widely promoted as weight loss agents available over the counter and via the Internet. In this review, we evaluate the efficacy and safety of CLA supplementation based on peer-reviewed published results from randomized, placebo-controlled, human intervention trials lasting more than 4 weeks. We also review findings from experimental studies in animals and studies performed in vitro. CLA appears to produce loss of fat mass and increase of lean tissue mass in rodents, but the results from 13 randomized, controlled, short-term (<6 months) trials in humans find little evidence to support that CLA reduces body weight or promotes repartitioning of body fat and fat-free mass in man. However, there is increasing evidence from mice and human studies that the CLA isomer trans-10, cis-12 may produce liver hypertrophy and insulin resistance via a redistribution of fat deposition that resembles lipodystrophy. CLA also decreases the fat content of both human and bovine milk. In conclusion, although CLA appears to attenuate increases in body weight and body fat in several animal models, CLA isomers sold as dietary supplements are not effective as weight loss agents in humans and may actually have adverse effects on human health.
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In this study, the concentration of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a natural potential anticarcinogen, in different commercial Swedish dairy products, i.e. two types of pasteurized milk, five cream products, seven fermented milk products and six types of cheeses, was determined. The concentration of CLA (cis-9,trans-11 isomer) was 5.8–5.9 mg g-1 fat in pasteurized milk, 4.6–6.2 in fermented milk, 6.1–6.2 in cream products, and 5.0–7.1 in cheeses. The variation in the concentration of CLA in processed products was smaller than that previously reported in raw milk. No effect of manufacture, starter culture or ripening time on the concentration of CLA in two common types of Swedish hard cheeses (Grevé and Herrgårdsost) was observed.
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Five clinical studies of calcium intake, designed with a primary skeletal end point, were reevaluated to explore associations between calcium intake and body weight. All subjects were women, clustered in three main age groups: 3rd, 5th, and 8th decades. Total sample size was 780. Four of the studies were observational; two were cross-sectional, in which body mass index was regressed against entry level calcium intake; and two were longitudinal, in which change in weight over time was regressed against calcium intake. One study was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of calcium supplementation, in which change in weight during the course of study was evaluated as a function of treatment status. Significant negative associations between calcium intake and weight were found for all three age groups, and the odds ratio for being overweight (body mass index, >26) was 2.25 for young women in the lower half of the calcium intakes of their respective study groups (P: < 0.02). Relative to placebo, the calcium-treated subjects in the controlled trial exhibited a significant weight loss across nearly 4 yr of observation. Estimates of the relationship indicate that a 1000-mg calcium intake difference is associated with an 8-kg difference in mean body weight and that calcium intake explains approximately 3% of the variance in body weight.
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Relationships between micronutrients and dairy product intake and changes in body weight and composition over two years were investigated. Two year prospective non-concurrent analysis of the effect of calcium intake on changes in body composition during a two year exercise intervention. 54 normal weight young women, 18 to 31 years of age. Mean intakes of nutrients of interest were determined from three-day diet records completed at baseline and every six months for two years. The change in total body weight and body composition (assessed by dual x-ray absorptiometry) from baseline to two years was also determined. Total calcium/kilocalories and vitamin A together predicted (negatively and positively, respectively) changes in body weight (R2 = 0.19) and body fat (R2 = 0.27). Further, there was an interaction of calcium and energy intake in predicting changes in body weight, such that, only at lower energy intakes, calcium intake (not adjusted for energy) predicted changes in body weight. Regardless of exercise group assignment, calcium adjusted for energy intake had a negative relationship and vitamin A intake a positive relationship with two year changes in total body weight and body fat in young women aged 18 to 31 years. Thus, subjects with high calcium intake, corrected by total energy intake, and lower vitamin A intake gained less weight and body fat over two years in this randomized exercise intervention trial.
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Milk is often seen as a potential promotor of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease because it is a source of cholesterol and saturated fatty acids. But there are several studies indicating that milk and milk products may not affect adversely blood lipids as would be predicted from its fat content and fat composition. There are even factors in milk and milk products which may actively protect from this condition by improving several risk factors. Calcium, bioactive peptides and as yet unidentified components in whole milk may protect from hypertension, and folic acid, vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) and B12 (cyanocobalamin) or other unidentified components of skim milk may contribute to low homocysteine levels. Conjugated linoleic acid may have hypolipidaemic and antioxidative and thus antiatherosclerotic properties. Epidemiological studies suggest that milk and milk products fit well into a healthy eating pattern emphasizing cereals and vegetables.
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A high intake of saturated fat is an important risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD) and type 2 diabetes. However the declining rates of CHD in many affluent societies and the steady increase in type 2 diabetes worldwide suggest that these important causes of serious morbidity and premature mortality have differing risk or protective factors worldwide. Changed macronutrient composition, reduced cigarette smoking, and improved treatment of risk factors and acute cardiac events might explain the reduction in risk of CHD, whereas the increasing rates of obesity are probably the most important explanation for the increase in diabetes. Coronary risk factors associated with diabetes could outweigh improvements in conventional cardiovascular risk factors such that the decline in CHD could be stopped or reversed unless rates of obesity can be reduced. Reduced intake of saturated fatty acids and other lifestyle interventions aimed at lowering rates of obesity are the changes most likely to reduce the epidemic numbers of people with type 2 diabetes and CHD.
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To assess the possible impact of increased intakes of dairy products or calcium on body weight or composition, a MEDLINE search was conducted to identify randomized trials of supplementation with calcium or dairy products. Nine studies of dairy product supplementation were located: In seven, no significant differences in the change in body weight or composition were detected between treatment and control groups. However, two studies conducted in older adults observed significantly greater weight gain in the dairy product groups. The interpretation of these findings is complicated by the inability to accurately determine the extent of dietary compensation for the increment in energy intake provided by the added dairy products. This is not an issue in the interpretation of studies of calcium supplementation, of which 17 were identified. Only one study found greater weight loss in the supplemented group; in the remaining studies, changes in body weight and/or body fat were strikingly similar between groups. In conclusion, the data available from randomized trials of dairy product or calcium supplementation provide little support for an effect in reducing body weight or fat mass. However, the studies reviewed were not specifically designed or powered to address this issue; such studies are required.
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Energy intake (EI) is the foundation of the diet, because all other nutrients must be provided within the quantity of food needed to fulfill the energy requirement. Thus if total EI is underestimated, it is probable that the intakes of other nutrients are also underestimated. Under conditions of weight stability, EI equals energy expenditure (EE). Because at the group level weight may be regarded as stable in the timescale of a dietary assessment, the validity of reported EI can be evaluated by comparing it with either measured EE or an estimate of the energy requirement of the population. This paper provides the first comprehensive review of studies in which EI was reported and EE was measured using the doubly labeled water technique. These conclusively demonstrate widespread bias to the underestimation of EI. Because energy requirements of populations or individuals can be conveniently expressed as multiples of the basal metabolic rate (BMR), EE:BMR, reported EI may also be expressed as EI:BMR for comparison. Values of EI:BMR falling below the 95% confidence limit of agreement between these two measures signify the presence of underreporting. A formula for calculating the lower 95% confidence limit was proposed by Goldberg et al. (the Goldberg cutoff). It has been used by numerous authors to identify individual underreporters in different dietary databases to explore the variables associated with underreporting. These studies are also comprehensively reviewed. They explore the characteristics of underreporters and the biases in estimating nutrient intake and in describing meal patterns associated with underreporting. This review also examines some of the problems for the interpretation of data introduced by underreporting and particularly by variable underreporting across subjects. Future directions for research are identified.
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Data suggest that a diet deficient in calcium is associated with higher body weight and that augmenting calcium intake may reduce weight and fat gain or enhance loss. Our aim was to determine whether calcium supplementation during a weight loss intervention affects body fat or weight loss. Data were combined from three separate 25-wk randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trials of 1000 mg/d calcium supplementation in 100 premenopausal and postmenopausal women. The primary outcome measures were change in body weight and fat mass adjusted for baseline values. There were no significant differences in body weight or fat mass change between the placebo and the calcium-supplemented groups in the pooled analysis (adjusted mean +/- SE; body weight, placebo -6.2 +/- 0.7 vs. Ca -7.0 +/- 0.7 kg; fat mass, placebo -4.5 +/- 0.6 vs. Ca -5.5 +/- 0.6 kg), and no significant interactions of calcium supplementation with menopausal/diet status. Analysis as separate trials also found no significant differences between the placebo and the calcium groups. Calcium supplementation did not significantly affect amount of weight or fat lost by women counseled to follow a moderately restricted diet for 25 wk. Nevertheless, the magnitude and direction of the differences for group means are consistent with a hypothesized small effect.
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Studies in mice have indicated that feeding diets containing 0.5-1% conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) considerably reduces body fat. These findings have attracted much interest because of the potential use of CLA as a tool to promote weight loss in humans. Several CLA studies in humans have now been published, and the objective of the present review was to give an overview of these experiments. Most of the studies were done in free-living subjects and were not strictly controlled for nutrient and energy intakes. None of the studies found a significant reduction in body weight, and only 2 studies showed a significant but relatively small body fat-lowering effect. Some studies suggested that CLA may have a tendency to increase lean body mass. Furthermore, there are indications from animal studies that CLA may have effects on plasma lipids. However, only one study in humans showed a significant HDL-cholesterol-lowering effect of CLA; in all the other studies, there were no significant effects on plasma total, LDL-, and HDL-cholesterol concentrations or on plasma triacylglycerol concentrations. Thus, the results of the studies in humans indicate that the effect of CLA on body fat is considerably less than that anticipated from mice studies and that CLA has no major effect on plasma lipids.
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Dietary calcium plays a key role in the regulation of energy metabolism and obesity risk. This appears to be mediated primarily by dietary calcium modulation of circulating calcitriol, which in turn regulates adipocyte intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i). Increased [Ca2+]i stimulates lipogenic gene expression and activity and inhibits lipolysis, resulting in increased adipocyte lipid accumulation. Since calcitriol stimulates adipocyte Ca2+ influx, low calcium diets promote adiposity, while dietary calcium-suppression of calcitriol reduces adiposity. These concepts are confirmed in controlled rodent studies as well as by epidemiological and clinical trial data, all of which confirm protection from obesity with high calcium intakes. Moreover, dairy sources of calcium exert markedly greater effects which are most likely attributable to additional bioactive compounds in dairy which act synergistically with calcium to attenuate adiposity.
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Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is reported to have weight-reducing and antiatherogenic properties when fed to laboratory animals. However, the effects of CLA on human health and, in particular, the effects of individual CLA isomers are unclear. This study investigated the effects of 3 doses of highly enriched cis-9,trans-11 (0.59, 1.19, and 2.38 g/d) or trans-10,cis-12 (0.63, 1.26, and 2.52 g/d) CLA preparations on body composition, blood lipid profile, and markers of insulin resistance in healthy men. Healthy men consumed 1, 2, and 4 capsules sequentially, containing either 80% cis-9,trans-11 CLA or 80% trans-10,cis-12 CLA for consecutive 8-wk periods. This phase was followed by a 6-wk washout and a crossover to the other isomer. Body composition was not significantly affected by either isomer of CLA. Mean plasma triacylglycerol concentration was higher during supplementation with trans-10,cis-12 CLA than during that with cis-9,trans-11 CLA, although there was no influence of dose. There were significant effects of both isomer and dose on plasma total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations but not on HDL-cholesterol concentration. The ratios of LDL to HDL cholesterol and of total to HDL cholesterol were higher during supplementation with trans-10,cis-12 CLA than during that with cis-9,trans-11 CLA. CLA supplementation had no significant effect on plasma insulin concentration, homeostasis model for insulin resistance, or revised quantitative insulin sensitivity check index. Divergent effects of cis-9,trans-11 CLA and trans-10,cis-12 CLA appear on the blood lipid profile in healthy humans: trans-10,cis-12 CLA increases LDL:HDL cholesterol and total:HDL cholesterol, whereas cis-9,trans-11 CLA decreases them.