The Journal of Experimental Medicine
Vol. 203, No. 13, December 25, 2006 2865–2877 www.jem.org/cgi/doi/10.1084/jem.20052246
Human CMV is a β herpes virus that estab-
lishes lifelong infection. Endothelial, renal epi-
thelial, and pulmonary tissue as well as myeloid
cells all contain latent CMV. Seroprevalence
increases with age and reaches 30–70% in de-
veloped countries (1). Although serious disease
can occur, it is rare. In most immunocompetent
individuals, infection is asymptomatic (2).
The human immune system dedicates tre-
mendous resources to the control of CMV. In
CMV-seropositive healthy subjects >60 yr of
age, the total number of CD8+ T cells is twice
that in age-matched healthy CMV-seronega-
tive subjects (3). The frequency of CD8+ T
cells specifi c for individual CMV-derived pep-
tide epitopes is often >1% of the total periph-
eral CD8+ T cell pool (4). CMV-specifi c
CD4+ T cells are also frequent. It has been esti-
mated that in 11% of healthy CMV-seropositive
individuals, between 10 and 40% of the total
peripheral CD4+ T cell pool is directed against
CMV epitopes (5). Similar results have been
reported in HIV-infected patients without ap-
parent CMV disease (6). An exhaustive analysis
of all 213 human CMV open reading frames
found that a median of 10% of the total periph-
eral blood memory CD4+ T cells pooled from
healthy CMV-seropositive individuals was di-
rected against CMV epitopes (7). From these
data, the frequency of CMV-specifi c CD4+ T
cells appears to be much greater than required
to ensure the production of antibodies and
functional CD8+ T cells.
The occurrence of CMV disease during
immunosuppressive treatments and AIDS dem-
onstrates the importance of cellular immunity
in the control of CMV infection. It is clear
from many studies that CD8+ T cells play a
role in the control of viral replication and may
require CD4+ T cell help to achieve eff ective
viral control (8–14). However, there is also
Acquisition of direct antiviral eff ector
functions by CMV-specifi c CD4+
T lymphocytes with cellular maturation
Joseph P. Casazza,1 Michael R. Betts,1,4 David A. Price,2
Melissa L. Precopio,1 Laura E. Ruff ,2 Jason M. Brenchley,2 Brenna J. Hill,2
Mario Roederer,3 Daniel C. Douek,2 and Richard A. Koup1
1Immunology Laboratory, 2Human Immunology Section, and 3Immunotechnology Section, Vaccine Research Center,
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD 20892
4Department of Microbiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104
The role of CD4+ T cells in the control of persistent viral infections beyond the provision of
cognate help remains unclear. We used polychromatic fl ow cytometry to evaluate the
production of the cytokines interferon (IFN)-후, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-훂, and inter-
leukin (IL)-2, the chemokine macrophage infl ammatory protein (MIP)-1훃, and surface
mobilization of the degranulation marker CD107a by CD4+ T cells in response to stimula-
tion with cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specifi c major histocompatibility complex class II peptide
epitopes. Surface expression of CD45RO, CD27, and CD57 on responding cells was used to
classify CD4+ T cell maturation. The functional profi le of virus-specifi c CD4+ T cells in
chronic CMV infection was unique compared with that observed in other viral infections.
Salient features of this profi le were: (a) the simultaneous production of MIP-1훃, TNF-훂,
and IFN-후 in the absence of IL-2; and (b) direct cytolytic activity associated with surface
mobilization of CD107a and intracellular expression of perforin and granzymes. This poly-
functional profi le was associated with a terminally differentiated phenotype that was not
characterized by a distinct clonotypic composition. Thus, mature CMV-specifi c CD4+ T cells
exhibit distinct functional properties reminiscent of antiviral CD8+ T lymphocytes.
Richard A. Koup:
Abbreviations used: B-LCL,
B lymphoblastoid cell;
rhodamine; MIP, macrophage
infl ammatory protein.
The online version of this article contains supplemental material.
2866 CD4+ T CELL FUNCTION IN CHRONIC CMV INFECTION | Casazza et al.
increasing evidence that CD4+ T cells may also play a direct
role in the control of CMV infection. In mice, salivary tissue
is exempt from CD8+ T cell control of infection, and CMV-
specifi c CD4+ T cells are required for the clearance of CMV
from that tissue (15). In humans, reports have shown a corre-
lation between the presence of CMV-specifi c CD4+ T cells
and control of disease. Gamadia et al. (16) showed that CMV-
specifi c CD4+ T cells are essential for protection against dis-
ease in primary infection, even in the presence of functional
CMV-specifi c CD8+ T cells. Tu et al. (17) detected lower
levels of CMV-specifi c CD4+ T cells after primary infection
in children with persistent shedding of CMV compared with
children who did not shed virus; this diff erence was observed
even when the levels of CMV-specifi c CD8+ T cells were
comparable to those present in seropositive children and
adults who did not shed virus. However, the mechanism
through which such CD4+ T cells exert their antiviral eff ect
Cytotoxic CD4+ T cells can be generated in vitro (18–
24); however, most viruses infect a broad range of target cells
in vivo that do not express MHC class II and therefore can-
not be targeted by CD4+ T cells. Nevertheless, several au-
thors have suggested recently that CD4+ T cells may have a
direct eff ect on the control of viral infection in vivo. Suni
et al. (25) reported a CD4+ CD8dim subset of T cells that can
lyse whole CMV antigen-loaded EBV-transformed B lym-
phoblastoid cells (B-LCLs) ex vivo. Appay et al. (26) reported
the presence of increased numbers of perforin-containing
CD4+ T cells in HIV-infected individuals and showed that
these cells can kill. Zaunders et al. (27) described Gag-specifi c
CD4+ T cells in an HIV-infected long-term nonprogressor
that express both granzymes A and B, as well as exhibited
specifi c cytotoxicity after a brief time in culture. van Leeuwen
et al. (28) have reported that CMV-specifi c ex vivo killing by
CD4+ T cells in PBMCs isolated from a chronically infected
individual is associated with a CD28− phenotype.
We hypothesized that CD4+ T cells found during chronic
subclinical CMV infection may express a specifi c eff ector
phenotype. To determine if CMV-specifi c CD4+ T cells had
functional characteristics consistent with antiviral eff ector
cells, we conducted a detailed characterization of CMV-specifi c
CD4+ T cell function in human CMV infection using poly-
chromatic fl ow cytometry. Specifi cally, within each MHC
II–restricted antigen-specifi c response, we measured the pro-
duction of IFN-γ and TNF-α, two cytokines often used to
quantify CMV-specifi c CD4+ T cells (29); IL-2, a cytokine
associated with helper function (30); macrophage infl amma-
tory protein (MIP)-1β, a proinfl ammatory chemokine (31);
and surface mobilization of CD107a, a marker of degranula-
tion associated with cytolytic function (32). In conjunction,
Figure 1. Polyfunctional CMV-specifi c CD4+ T cell responses.
(A) Representative plots from subject 7 showing functional profi les in re-
sponse to cognate antigen (top) and background responses in the absence
of cognate antigen (bottom). (B) Total frequency of individual peptide-specifi c
CD4+ T cell functions. The frequencies of surface mobilization of CD107a and
production of IFN-γ, IL-2, MIP-1β, and TNF-α are shown for subject 1 (○),
subject 2 (◇), subject 3 (■), subject 4 with peptide P P W Q A G I L A R N L V P M V (×),
subject 4 with peptide I I K P G K I S H I M L D V A (+), subject 5 (◆), subject 6 (□),
and subject 7 (●) in the total CD4+ population using box plots with the
data for each individual superimposed. The line in the middle of the box
represents the median, the top box represents the second quartile, and the
box below represents the third quartile. (C) Frequency of normalized func-
tional species in subjects shown in B. The mean percentage of the total
CD4+ response for each of 31 functional species is shown ± SD.
JEM VOL. 203, December 25, 2006
we classifi ed CMV-specifi c CD4+ T cell responses based on
the surface expression of CD45RO, a marker of memory T
cells, CD27, which is irreversibly lost with prolonged expo-
sure to antigen (26, 33), and CD57, a marker of terminal dif-
ferentiation (34). Specifi c functional responses were also
analyzed with respect to T cell clonotype composition. The
results provide a detailed picture of CMV-specifi c CD4+ ef-
fector T cells and indicate a potential role for these cells in the
control of CMV replication.
Measurement of functional responses to specifi c
PBMCs from 34 CMV-seropositive healthy volunteers par-
ticipating in the NIH research apheresis program were
screened with fi ve previously described CMV epitopes. Indi-
viduals with a frequency of IFN-γ peptide–specifi c CD4+ T
cells of 0.2% or greater were studied further. Eight diff erent
CMV epitope-specifi c CD4+ T responses were found in
seven subjects (Table I). Peptide-specifi c CD4+ T cell re-
sponses were polyfunctional. Stimulation with cognate epit-
opes resulted in the production of IFN-γ, TNF-α, and
MIP-1β, as well as surface mobilization of CD107a (Fig. 1, A
and B). In addition, IL-2 production was detected in seven of
the eight responses. The functional hierarchy was dominated
by production of IFN-γ and TNF-α, followed by MIP-1β
and surface mobilization of CD107a. IL-2 production was
the least common functional outcome (Fig. 1 B). In all con-
trol stimulations, backgrounds for each individual function
were minimal (Fig. 1 A).
Comparison of these responses between diff erent indi-
viduals required normalization of the data (Table II). The to-
tal frequency of responding CD4+ T cells was set to 100%,
and the contribution of each functional subgroup was ex-
pressed as a percentage of the total response (Fig. 1 C). Nota-
bly, cells that mobilized CD107a and produced IFN-γ,
MIP-1β, and TNF-α were most frequent (mean 22 ± 14%
of the total response). The next most frequent functional sub-
group showed no evidence of surface mobilization of
CD107a, but it produced IFN-γ, MIP-1β, and TNF-α
(mean 20 ± 11% of the total response). Cells that produced
IFN-γ and TNF-α only (mean 15 ± 6% of the total re-
sponse) or IFN-γ alone (mean 12 ± 8% of the total response)
were still prominent. Almost all responding cells produced
IFN-γ and TNF-α. Interestingly, cells that produced IL-2
alone (2 ± 4% of the total response) were rare.
Maturational phenotype of responding CD4+ T cells
We further characterized the CMV-specifi c CD4+ T cells
by including maturational markers, allowing simultaneous
measurement of function and maturational phenotype
(Table II). Prolonged stimulation of CD27+CD45RO+
memory CD4+ T cells has been shown to result in the ir-
reversible loss of CD27 expression in vitro (35). Other
studies with multiple viral pathogens have suggested that
loss of CD27 in vivo is accompanied by changes in CD4+
Table I. Age and sex of CMV-seropositive subjects and total frequency of response to peptide epitopes
Peptide (Class II restriction)
Q E F F W D A N D I Y R I F A (DR52)
L L Q T G I H V R V S Q P S L (DR15)
L L Q T G I H V R V S Q P S L (DR15)
P P W Q A G I L A R N L V P M V (DR11)
I I K P G K I S H I M L D V A (DR53)
P Q Y S E H P T F T S Q Y R I Q (DR11)
P Q Y S E H P T F T S Q Y R I Q (DR11)
Q E F F W D A N D I Y R I F A (DR52)
Total response represents the sum of all CD4+ T cells showing surface mobilization of CD107, or production of IFN-γ, IL-2, MIP-1β, or TNF-α in response to stimulation with
the peptide indicated.
Table II. Total CD4+ T cell response and percentage of the total response found in the naive, CD27+ memory, CD27− memory,
CD27−CD45RO−, and terminally differentiated effector CD4+ T cell compartments
Percentage total response mean ± SD
1 ± 1
15 ± 10
77 ± 10
1 ± 2
28 ± 18
Total cells mean ± SD
23 ± 18
42 ± 10
25 ± 12
4 ± 3
16 ± 12
CD27+ memory (CD27+/CD45RO+)
CD27− memory (CD27−/CD45RO+)
Terminally differentiated effector cells (CD57+/CD27−/CD45RO+)
Values are given as mean ± SD.
2868 CD4+ T CELL FUNCTION IN CHRONIC CMV INFECTION | Casazza et al.
T cell function (30, 36–39). For the purposes of this study,
we classifi ed cells as naive (CD45RO−CD27+), CD27+
memory cells (CD45RO+CD27+), or CD27− memory
(CD45RO+CD27−). In addition, surface expression of
CD57 was used as a marker of terminally diff erentiated ef-
fector cells (34).
In our cohort, naive, CD27+ memory, CD27− memory,
and CD27− CD45RO− cells accounted for 23 ± 18%, 42 ±
11%, 25 ± 12%, and 4 ± 3% of the peripheral blood CD4+
T cell pool, respectively (values expressed as mean ± SD;
Table II). The vast majority of the CD4+ peptide–specifi c T
cell responses were contained within the CD27− memory
(77 ± 10%) and CD27+ memory (15 ± 10%) subsets (Table II).
In addition, a substantial but widely variable percentage of
the responding CD4+ T cells were terminally diff erentiated
eff ector cells (28 ± 18%).
To explore the relationship between functional response
and maturational phenotype in more detail, we mapped indi-
vidual functional species to their respective phenotype. This
is represented visually by mapping individual response pro-
fi les (Fig. 2 A) onto density plots showing CD27 versus
CD57 expression (Fig. 2 B), a format that provides optimal
resolution given that ?95% of responding cells on average
were CD45RO+. Inspection of these plots shows that MIP-
1β–producing CD4+ cells are found at a greater frequency in
terminally diff erentiated CD57+ CD4+ T cells than non–
MIP-1β antigen-specifi c cells. This is most pronounced in
IFN-γ–, MIP-1β–, and TNF-α–producing cells that also
mobilize CD107a. Comparison of IFN-γ–, MIP-1β–, and
TNF-α–producing cells also show that these cells have a
higher frequency of CD57 positivity than cells that produce
IFN-γ and TNF-α alone. Indeed, we found that antigen-
specifi c CD4+ T cells that produced MIP-1β contained a
signifi cantly higher proportion of terminally diff erentiated
cells compared with cells that lacked production of MIP-1β
but were otherwise functionally identical (P < 0.05; not de-
picted). To describe further the relationship between func-
tion and maturational phenotype, we compared the frequency
of each response in the diff erent phenotypic subsets (Fig. 2 C).
Memory CD4+ T cells that were CD27− were more likely
than memory CD4+ T cells that were CD27+ to mobilize
CD107a (P ≤ 0.05) and produce MIP-1β (P ≤ 0.01) and
TNF-α (P ≤ 0.05). IL-2 was produced by a greater propor-
tion of responding CD27+ memory CD4+ T cells than
CD27− memory CD4+ T cells (P ≤ 0.05). MIP-1β produc-
tion was the only function found to diff er between terminally
and nonterminally diff erentiated eff ector CD4+ T cells; it
was increased in terminally diff erentiated cells (P ≤ 0.05).
To study further the relationship between maturation and
cytolytic function, we measured the presence of granzyme A,
granzyme B, and perforin in CD27+ memory cells as well as
in terminally and nonterminally diff erentiated CD27− mem-
ory CD4+ T cells in our cohort. Granzyme A was found fre-
quently in CD27+ memory CD4+ T cells (13 ± 5%), but
granzyme B and perforin were not (2 ± 1 and 1 ± 2%, re-
spectively). These cytotoxic proteins were more commonly
detected in CD27− memory CD4+ T cells (Fig. 3). The fre-
quency of granzyme A (95 ± 5%), granzyme B (78 ± 15%),
and perforin (53 ± 33%) in terminally diff erentiated CD27−
CD4+ T cells was markedly higher than the frequency of
granzyme A (41 ± 15%), granzyme B (14 ± 9%), and perforin
Figure 2. Mapping functional CMV-specifi c CD4+ T cell responses
to maturational phenotype. (A) Individual responses for subject 1. The
31 possible response profi les are shown on the x axis, and the total fre-
quency of each response profi le is shown on the y axis. The dominant
response profi les are color coded. (B) The maturational phenotypes of the
CD4+ T cells expressing each of the dominant response profi les shown in
A are overlaid on CD27 versus CD57 plots in which the phenotype of the
total CD4+ T cell population is shown in gray. Responding cells are repre-
sented as 10% probability contour plots. (C) Functional responses for
subject 1 (□), subject 2 (■), subject 3 (◇), subject 4 with peptide P P W Q A-
G I L A R N L V P M V (○), subject 4 with peptide I I K P G K I S H I M L D V A (△), subject
5 (▲), subject 6 (●), and subject 7 (◆) are shown with medians repre-
sented by a horizontal bar. To facilitate comparison between different
CD4+ T cell subsets (CD45RO+CD27+ and CD45RO−CD27−; and
CD45RO+CD27−CD57− and CD45RO+CD27−CD57+), data were norma-
lized based on the total frequency of responding cells within each
JEM VOL. 203, December 25, 2006
(8 ± 9%) in nonterminally diff erentiated CD27− CD4+ T
cells (P < 0.01%). Furthermore, in two subjects, the fre-
quency of terminally diff erentiated CD27− memory CD4+ T
cells containing granzyme A, granzyme B, and perforin was
Surface mobilization of CD107a by CD4+ T cells
is associated with loss of cytolytic granules
The high frequency of CD4+ T cells showing surface mobi-
lization of CD107a was unexpected because surface mobili-
zation of CD107a by CD8+ T cells identifi es cells that can
release cytolytic granules (32, 40, 41), a function not often
associated with CD4+ T cells. For subject 1, one third of the
response to the epitope Q E F F W D A N D I Y R I F A was con-
tained within the TCRVβ12 subset. This response accounted
for 16% of the total TCRVβ12 subset. This allowed us to
determine if loss of granzyme A occurred concurrently with
surface mobilization of CD107a. After incubation of PBMCs
with 2 μg/ml of peptide Q E F F W D A N D I Y R I F A for 5 h, a
population of CD107a+ granzyme A–low CD4+ T cells
emerged. Cells with the brightest CD107a-associated fl uo-
rescence had the lowest granzyme A content (Fig. 4 A). Sim-
ilar results were seen with granzyme B (Fig. 4 B). Concurrent
with surface expression of CD107a, the population of CD4+
T cells that were CD107− and did not contain granzyme A
or granzyme B increased by 11 and 9%, respectively, com-
pared with CD4+ T cells from the same individual incubated
without peptide. Unlike granzyme A, perforin was only pres-
ent in 9% of CD4+ T cells from subject 1 and was almost un-
detectable in TCRVβ12+ CD4+ T cells. These data suggest
that CD107a expression occurs concurrently with loss of
granzyme A and granzyme B. These data also suggest that
granzyme A and granzyme B are lost in these incubations
without expression of CD107a. Whether this indicates that
surface expression of CD107a does not identify all cells that
degranulate, or if another mechanism is responsible for the
loss of granzyme A and B in these cells, is not clear.
We next demonstrated that the CMV-specifi c CD4+ T
cells were capable of specifi c target cell lysis ex vivo using
PBMCs from subject 7. In this subject, 50% of the CD4+ T
cells responding to the peptide epitope Q E F F W D A N I Y R I-
F A showed evidence of surface mobilization of CD107a.
65% of the degranulating CD4+ T cells mapped to the termi-
nally diff erentiated eff ector subset, and 85% of CD57+ CD4+
T cells contained perforin (Fig. 5, A and B). Autologous
B-LCLs from subject 7 were stained with either CFSE or
CFSE-stained B-LCLs were loaded with the target peptide
Q E F F W D A N D I Y R I F A , whereas CMTMR-stained B-LCLs
were not loaded with peptide. PBMCs were added to an equal
mixture of peptide-loaded CFSE- and CMTMR-stained
B-LCLs that were not loaded with peptide. The percentage
of CFSE- and CMTMR-stained B-LCLs was determined
upon the mixing of B-LCLs with PBMCs and at 8, 16, and
24 h after mixing. Loss of antigen-loaded B-LCLs increased
linearly with the number of PBMCs added (Fig. 5 C). Deple-
tion of CD4+ T cells from PBMCs before the incubation of
PBMCs with B-LCLs resulted in almost no loss of antigen-
loaded B-LCLs during 24 h of incubation. The addition of
1E06 CD4+ T cells/ml, isolated by elutriation and then puri-
fi ed by positive selection on a MACS column to B-LCLs, re-
sulted in a threefold increase in the rate of the killing of
B-LCLs loaded with the peptide Q E F F W D A N D I Y R I F A
Figure 3. Frequency of granzyme A, granzyme B, and perforin in
CD57− and CD57+ CD27− memory CD4+ T cells. The frequency of
granzyme A, granzyme B, and perforin in CD57− and CD57+ CD27− mem-
ory CD4+ T cells is shown using box plots, with individual data values
superimposed for subject 1 (□), subject 2 (■), subject 3 (◇), subject 4
(○), subject 5 (▲), subject 6 (●), and subject 7 (◆).
Figure 4. Degranulation of epitope-specifi c CD4+ T cells.
(A) Concurrent loss of granzyme A with surface mobilization of CD107a
in response to peptide Q E F F W D A N D I Y R I F A during a 5-h incubation (right)
compared with the αCD28/49d control stimulation in the absence of
peptide (left) from TCRVβ12+ CD4+ T cells from subject 1. (B) Concurrent
loss of granzyme B with surface mobilization of CD107a in response to
peptide Q E F F W D A N D I Y R I F A during a 5-h incubation (right) compared
with the αCD28/49d control stimulation in the absence of peptide (left)
from TCRVβ12+ CD4+ T cells from subject 1.
2870 CD4+ T CELL FUNCTION IN CHRONIC CMV INFECTION | Casazza et al.
compared with that observed when 3E06 PBMCs/ml were
incubated with antigen-loaded B-LCLs (Fig. 5 D). Parallel
incubation in which 1E06 CD4+ T cells/ml were added to
30,000 unstained B-LCLs/ml loaded with the peptide Q E F F-
W D A N D I Y R I F A resulted in production of IFN-γ of 0.2%
of CD4+ T cells (Fig. 5 E). This response was entirely within
the CD4+ T cell subset. Incubation of PBMCs with 30,000
B-LCLs that had not been loaded with peptide resulted in
IFN-γ production by 0.03% of CD4+ T cells. Incubation
of B-LCLs loaded with the P P W Q A G I L A R N L V P M V , to
which no response was detected, did not result in B-LCL
killing. Similar rates of killing were observed whether
peptide-loaded B-LCLs were stained with CMTMR or CFSE
(not depicted). No CD8+ T cell response to the peptide
Q E F F W D A N D I Y R I F A was present in subject 7.
To ensure that the CD4+ T cell killing shown with sub-
ject 7 was not an anomaly, we screened PBMCs from 10
HIV-infected individuals coinfected with CMV for their re-
sponses to overlapping pp65 peptides. None of these subjects
had evidence of CMV end organ disease. We identifi ed two
individuals in whom the majority of the CD4+ T cells that
mobilized CD107a in response to stimulation with pp65
were highly associated with CD57 positivity. Peptide epit-
opes were identifi ed using pp65 matrices constructed from
138 15 mers overlapping by 11 (42). The responses of these
CD4+ pp65-specifi c T cells were studied further. The fi rst
subject was a 53-yr-old male with a CD4 count of 656 and a
viral load of 553 copies/ml who had not taken antiretroviral
drugs for >4 yr. In this individual, 0.45% of the CD4+ T cell
population responded to pp65489–503, A G I L A R N L V P M V A T V .
Figure 5. Killing of antigen-loaded autologous B-LCLs by epitope-
specifi c CD4+ T cells. (A) Mapping of CD4+ T cells from subject 7 that
degranulate in response to peptide Q E F F W D A N D I Y R I F A (red dots) to the
CD45RO+CD27− CD4+ T cell compartment and the CD57+ compartment.
(B) Mapping of perforin to the CD27−CD45RO+ and CD27−CD45RO−
compartment and the CD57+ compartments. (C) Loss of antigen-loaded
B-LCLs during incubation with PBMCs. Killing of B-LCLs was determined
by loss of antigen-loaded, dye-stained B-LCLs as a percentage of the total
amount of CFSE-stained antigen-loaded and CMTMR-stained unloaded
B-LCLs in incubations containing none (●) and 1E06 PBMCs (■), 2E06
PBMCs (◆), and 4E06 PBMCs/ml (▲). Lines are the least square fi ts of the
data forced to intersect the y axis at the average of the initial percentage
of CFSE-stained B-LCLs for all four incubations. Rate of decrease per mil-
lion PBMCs is shown in the inset. (D) Killing of peptide-loaded B-LCLs in
incubations containing none (●), 3E06 PBMCs after the depletion of
CD4+ T cells (■), 3E06 PBMCs (▲), and 1E06 CD4+ enriched PBMCs (◆).
CD4-depleted PBMC CD4+ T cells contained >15× less CD4+ T cells
compared with CD8+ T cells than nondepleted PBMCs. CD4+-enriched
PBMC CD4+ T cells represented >99% of CD3+ cells. Both PBMCs and
B-LCLs are from subject 7. Lines are the least square fi ts of the data
forced to intersect the y axis at the average of the initial percentage of
CFSE-stained B-LCLs for all four incubations. (E) Production of IFN-γ by
CD4+-enriched T cells after a 6-h incubation with 30,000 B-LCLs either
without peptide or loaded with peptide Q E F F W D A N D I Y R I F A . IFN-γ–
producing CD3+ T cells are overlaid on a histograph showing CD4+ and
CD8+ T cells. These assays were performed without costimulation and run
in parallel with the killing experiments shown in C.
JEM VOL. 203, December 25, 2006
Two diff erent assays performed on two diff erent days with
diff erent cell preparations showed CD4+ T cells killing. In
one assay that contained 1.6 E06 CD4+ T cells and 30,000
peptide-loaded autologous B-LCLs, peptide-loaded B-LCLs
were decreased by 13%. In the second incubation that con-
tained 1.0 E06 PBMCs and 30,000 autologous peptide-
loaded B-LCLs, peptide-loaded B-LCLs decreased by 11%.
The second HIV-infected subject was a 43 yr old on antiret-
roviral therapy with a CD4+ T cell count of 612 and a viral
load of <50 copies/ml. In this individual, 0.34% of the CD4+
T cell population responded to the peptide pp65505–520, G Q-
N L K Y Q E F F W D A N D . In this individual, killing assays were
performed three times with three diff erent cell preparations
on three diff erent days. Two incubations contained 2.0E06
CD4+ T cells per 30,000 peptide-loaded autolgous B-LCLs,
and one incubation contained 1E06 CD4+ T cells per 30,000
peptide-loaded autolgous B-LCLs. In the two incubations
containing 2E06 CD4+ T cells per 30,000 autologous pep-
tide-loaded B-LCLs, decreases in peptide-loaded B-LCLs of
13.2 and 5.2% were observed during a 24-h incubation. In
the incubation containing 1E06 CD4+ T cells/ml, an 8.8%
decrease in antigen-loaded B-LCLs was observed.
We also tried to show expression of CD95L by peptide-
specifi c CD4+ T cells in subject 7. Although we were able to
see CD95L expression with staphylococcal enterotoxin B
stimulation, we could not see evidence of surface mobili-
zation CD95L in response to stimulation with the peptide
Q E F F W D A N D I Y R I F A .
Comparison of functional response profi les in different
Virus-specifi c CD4+ T cell responses have been reported to
exhibit diff erent functional responses in diff erent infections
(30, 38, 39, 43, 44). We therefore conducted similar func-
tional profi ling studies of responding CD4+ T cells in HIV-
infected long-term nonprogressors and individuals infected
with vaccinia virus during a smallpox vaccine trial (Fig. 6).
Multifunctional responses, including the production of MIP-
1β and surface expression of CD107a, were substantially
more frequent in CD4+ T cell populations specifi c for CMV
pp65 than in those specifi c for either HIV-1 Gag in long-
term nonprogressors or vaccinia virus in vaccine recipients.
Clonotype analysis of degranulating CD4+ T cells
We next asked whether terminally diff erentiated degranulat-
ing CD4+ T cells represent a clonally restricted subset of the
total CD4+ T cell response to a given epitope. To accom-
plish this, we needed to sort live, unpermeabilized CD4+ T
cells that did and did not degranulate (45). Although not rou-
tinely used in this study, surface mobilization of CD154
identifi es almost all activated CD4+ T cells (46). Our data
support these fi ndings in CMV-specifi c CD4+ T cells. Using
CMV-derived peptides, we found that surface expression of
CD154 in our cohort occurred concomitantly with IFN-γ
production (not depicted) and was limited almost exclusively
to the CD27+ and CD27− memory CD4+ T cell pools.
Therefore, by using surface mobilization of CD154 and
CD107a, we were able to sort responding CD4+ T cells into
degranulating and nondegranulating populations suitable for
After stimulation with cognate peptide, CD107a+CD154+
(degranulating) and CD107a−CD154+ (nondegranulating)
CD4+ T cells were sorted and subjected to clonotype analysis
(Fig. 7). In each case, the sorted CD4+ T cell population was
oligoclonal; the three dominant CD107a+CD154+ clono-
types accounted for the majority of the degranulating popula-
tion (subject 7, 61%; subject 1, 82%; subject 2, 81%). Although
the clonotypes sequenced for the degranulating and nonde-
granulating responses were similar, the frequency of clono-
types was diff erent in these subsets. Clonotypes that were
represented more frequently within the degranulating CD4+
T cell population occurred less frequently in the nondegran-
ulating subset. The frequency of clonotypes determined by
molecular analysis was substantiated by fl ow cytometric stud-
ies with TCRVβ mAbs in two subjects (1 and 7), thereby
validating the quantitative nature of the RT-PCR method in
this setting (not depicted). In sum, these data are consistent
Figure 6. Functional response patterns for CD4+ T cells with
different viral specifi cities. PBMCs from (A) subjects with chronic CMV
stimulated with overlapping pp65 peptides (n = 5); (B) HIV-infected long-
term nonprogressors stimulated with overlapping Gag peptides (n = 11);
and (C) smallpox vaccinees stimulated with whole vaccinia virus 1 mo
after vaccination (n = 6). In each panel, the 31 possible response profi les
are shown on the x axis, and the percentage of the total response is
shown on the y axis. The mean percentage of the total CD4+ response for
each of 31 functional species is shown ± SD.
2872 CD4+ T CELL FUNCTION IN CHRONIC CMV INFECTION | Casazza et al.
with the acquisition of lytic function by terminally diff erenti-
ated eff ector memory phenotypes that are unrelated to clo-
The role of CD4+ T cells in B cell maturation, immunoglo-
bin class-switching, and licensing of antigen-presenting cells
to promote the expansion of functional CD8+ cytotoxic T
lymphocytes is well established. Less is known about the role
of CD4+ T cells in the direct control of infection. Here, we
demonstrate that highly diff erentiated CD4+ T cells, specifi c
for CMV pp65, mediate antiviral eff ector functions. Specifi -
cally, we fi nd that: (a) CD27− memory CD4+ T cells can
degranulate in response to cognate antigen; (b) a greater pro-
portion of CD4+ T cells contains granzyme A, granzyme B,
and perforin as they mature; (c) CD4+ T cells from an indi-
vidual in which degranulation occurred in a subset of cells
with a high frequency of perforin killed target cells bearing
the cognate CMV pp65-derived MHC class II–restricted ep-
itope; and (d) the frequency of CD4+ T cells that degranulate
and produce MIP-1β increases with maturational status. In
addition, we sorted activated CD4+ T cells into degranulat-
ing and nondegranulating populations and showed that de-
granulating CD4+ T cells were not clonotypically unique.
Although our data show epitope-specifi c killing of B-
LCLs by CD4+ T cells from subject 7, the subject in whom
the majority of the surface mobilization of CD107a occurred
in a population of CD4+ T cells with a high frequency of
perforin expression, our data do not show a direct link be-
tween surface mobilization of CD107a, perforin, and gran-
zyme content and killing. In fact, it is possible that
perforin-independent pathways may be involved in CD4+ T
cell killing that we have shown in three individuals. Although
we looked for other pathways and could not provide evi-
dence that they were operative, it is still possible that the ex-
pression of FAS ligand was below our ability to detect, or a
TNF-α–dependent mechanism was responsible for the ob-
Although we cannot say with certainty what the mecha-
nism of CMV antigen-specifi c killing is, we have shown
Figure 7. Clonotypic composition of peptide-responsive
CD4+CD107a+CD154+ and CD4+CD154+ T cell populations. Func-
tional responses to cognate antigen stimulation and sort gates are shown
in the left panels for subject 7 (A), subject 1 (B), and subject 2 (C). The
corresponding TCRBV usage, CDR3 amino acid sequence, and TCRBJ usage
of the depicted CD4+ T cell populations are shown in the right panels
with the percentage frequency of each clonotype and the total number of
JEM VOL. 203, December 25, 2006
ample evidence of ex vivo killing. We have shown killing
with three diff erent individuals using three diff erent peptide
epitopes. In each case killing was shown with repeated assays.
In subject 7, we demonstrated killing twice with purifi ed
CD4+ T cells and fi ve diff erent times with concentrations of
PBMCs ranging from 1 to 4E06/ml. In the two individuals
infected with HIV, CMV epitope-specifi c killing was shown
in two and three diff erent assays, respectively. In all of our as-
says, the ratio of peptide-loaded B-LCLs to nonloaded B-
LCLs was determined at either three or four diff erent time
points. In addition, to assure that the observed killing was not
artifactual, we loaded autologous B-LCLs with an irrelevant
peptide and failed to show killing using PBMCs from subject
7. In almost all cases, and at least once for each person in
which killing was demonstrated, we ran parallel control incu-
bations using the same antigen-loaded and -unloaded stained
autologous B-LCLs that were used in the killing assays. In
these assays no eff ector cells were added. This assured that
there was not a signifi cant diff erence in the rate of growth
between B-LCLs caused by either the peptide used or by
staining with CMTMR or CSFE. In all of the above-men-
tioned incubations, when incubations were performed under
the appropriate circumstances, killing was observed. We did
not observe killing in all cases. We tried to show killing using
cells from subjects 1 and 6. In subject 1, using 1E06 CD4+ T
cells prepared by either positive or negative selection, we
failed to show killing in two diff erent assays. In subject 6, us-
ing either 1E06 PBMCs or 1E06 CD4+ T cells prepared by
negative selection, we also failed to see any evidence of kill-
ing in two diff erent assays.
Several reports have tried to describe functional capacity
using changes in the expression of surface markers (26, 39,
47, 48). These reports have used a combination of reversible
and irreversible surface markers. Many of these markers have
well-established functional roles themselves. We followed
three easily measured surface markers: CD45RO, the iso-
form of CD45 associated with the transition from naive to
memory cell, CD27, a costimulatory marker irreversibly lost
with exposure to cognate epitope, and CD57, a marker of
replicative incompetence. As others have suggested, our data
show frequent production of IFN-γ, and TNF-α, and de-
creased IL-2 frequencies as CD4+ T cells mature (49, 50).
Similarly we fi nd that CD4+ T cells show an increased fre-
quency of degranulation and MIP-1β production with matu-
ration. Nonetheless, ascribing all functionality to maturation
appears to be an over simplifi cation. The amount of perforin
present in CD4+ T cells varies greatly in CD57+ T cells.
Similarly, it seems clear from the data presented in Fig. 6 that
degranulation occurs at diff erent frequencies in response to
diff erent pathogens, even with similar levels of expression
of CD27 and CD57. Whether these diff erences are due to
diff erent milieus at initial encounter of cognate epitope, or
to changes that occur during chronic stimulation, remains to
The delay in the development of cytotoxic function and
MIP-1β production to the stage at which CD4+ T cells ac-
quire an eff ector phenotype is attractive teleologically. Such
a delay in the development of these functions would serve to
protect MHC class II–presenting cells in lymphoid tissue
from damage during periods when CD4+ T cell help is re-
quired to develop and maintain an eff ective immune re-
sponse. At the same time, eff ector CD4+ T cells could
contribute to the control of pathogens in peripheral tissues.
Indeed, in many ways the functional progression that we
demonstrate here during CMV-specifi c CD4+ T cell diff er-
entiation is similar to that seen in CD8+ CTL development
(37), even though eff ector CD4+ T cells in the periphery
should still be able to supply help through the CD154–CD40
pathway. The persistent expression of CD154/40L, even in
cells that are CD57+, suggests the importance of this ligand in
CD4+ T cell function. Although much speculation is possi-
ble, we can certainly conclude that the pattern of response
described here is more complicated than has been previously
suggested for most virus-specifi c CD4+ T cells (51, 52).
The clonotypic data indicate a more varied CD4+ clonal
response to CMV than suggested previously by others (53).
Rather than one dominant clonotype, we see a more bal-
anced response with at least three or four prevalent clono-
types in each epitope-specifi c CD4+ T cell population. There
are several possible reasons for this diff erence in the apparent
number of antigen-responsive clones. First, sorting antigen-
responsive CD4+ T cells by CD107a and CD154 readouts
may identify lower frequency clones than previously
reported. It is also possible that the selection of subjects
with a high response frequency to a specifi c epitope could
select for more polyclonal MHC class II–restricted CD4+ T
Overall, our data indicate that as pp65-specifi c CD4+ T
cell clonotypes progress from CD27+ memory to a termi-
nally diff erentiated eff ector memory phenotype, they acquire
greater eff ector, and specifi cally cytotoxic, potential. The
role of these CD4+ T cells in providing help is unclear. The
relatively low frequency of IL-2–producing CD4+ T cells
compared with IFN-γ, TNF-α, and MIP-1β production
suggests that the primary role of CMV pp65-specifi c CD4+
T cells during chronic infection is not one of supplying CD4+
T cell help. The role of the CD40L–CD95 pathway in these
cells remains unclear. Our fi ndings do not apply to all CD4+
T cells specifi c to every virus (Fig. 6) and may not necessarily
apply to other CMV proteins. However, our data support a
model where certain unique antiviral eff ector functions of
virus-specifi c CD4+ T cells are elaborated after an appropri-
ate maturational state has been achieved. It remains to be de-
termined whether the expression of these functions is
dependent on key characteristics of the pathogen to which
the CD4+ T cells are targeted, or the immunologic milieu in
which those T cells become initially or subsequently stimu-
lated during the course of the infection.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Subjects. PBMCs were obtained from CMV-seropositive healthy volun-
teers participating in the NIH research apheresis program (Table I) and from
2874 CD4+ T CELL FUNCTION IN CHRONIC CMV INFECTION | Casazza et al.
healthy HIV-infected volunteers participating in the vaccine research centers
(VRC) apheresis protocol or by venapucture from HIV-infected volunteers
participating in the VRC positive and negative protocol. When elutriated
lymphocytes were prepared, mononuclear cells prepared by apheresis were
further purifi ed by elutriation using a Gambro Elutra. Lymphocytes prepared
in this manner were routinely >85% lymphocytes. Signed informed consent
approved by the NIH Institutional Review Board was obtained in each case.
PBMCs were obtained by standard Ficoll-Hypaque (GE Healthcare) density
gradient centrifugation and cryopreserved in FCS (Invitrogen) containing
10% DMSO (Fisher Scientifi c) using a Cryomed Freezer (model 7454;
Thermo Electron Corporation). All PBMC preparations were screened for
responses to fi ve previously identifi ed CMV-specifi c MHC class II–restricted
epitopes (54, 55). Subjects with CD4+ T cell responses to a single peptide
>0.2%, as determined by intracellular production of IFN-γ, were used for
Peptides. Peptides representing CMV-derived epitopes (54, 55) were syn-
thesized and purifi ed by Bio-Synthesis Inc. and were >80% pure by high
performance chromatography (Table II). 138 15 mers overlapping by 11
spanning the entire pp65 protein were obtained from JPT Peptide Technol-
ogy and were >70% pure. All peptides were dissolved in DMSO and stored
at −20°C. The fi nal concentration of each peptide in PBMC assays was
Antibodies. Directly conjugated mAbs specifi c for the molecules listed
were obtained from the following: IL-2-allophycocyanin (APC), CD3-Cy-
7APC, CD20-APC, CD107a-FITC, CD95-PE, CD154-PE, IFN-γ–FITC,
MIP-1β–PE, TNF-α–PECy7, perforin-FITC, granzyme A–PE, and gran-
zyme A-FITC from BD Biosciences; CD45RO–Texas red–PE (TRPE) and
TCRVβ12-PE from Beckman Coulter; and granzyme B-APC and CD4-
PECy5.5 from Caltag. The following antibodies were conjugated in our
laboratory according to standard protocols (http://drmr.com/abcon/index.
html): CD4–Cascade blue, CD8–quantum dot (QD) 655, CD27–Cascade
blue, CD14-PECy5, CD19-PECy5, CD57-QD545, and CD107a–Alexa
680. Unconjugated mAbs were obtained from BD Biosciences, Cascade
blue and Alexa 680 were obtained from Invitrogen; Cy5 was obtained
from GE Healthcare, and quantum dots were obtained from Quantum
Cell stimulation and staining. Cell stimulation and staining were per-
formed using a modifi cation of the method described by Betts et al. (32).
Purifi ed PBMCs were thawed, resuspended at 2 × 106 cells/ml in complete
RPMI media (RPMI 1640 supplemented with 10% heat-inactivated FCS,
100 U/ml penicillin G, 100 μg/ml streptomycin sulfate, and 1.7 mM so-
dium glutamamine; R10), and rested for 2 h at 37°C in the presence of
10 U/ml DNase I (Roche Diagnostics). Cells were then washed with R10
and readjusted to 2 × 106 cells/ml. Costimulatory antibodies (αCD28 and
αCD49d; 1 μg/ml fi nal concentration; Becton Dickinson), monensin (0.7
μg/ml fi nal concentration; BD Biosciences), brefeldin A (10 μg/ml fi nal
concentration; Sigma-Aldrich), αCD107a–Alexa 680 (pretitered volume),
and in some cases αCD154-PE (pretitered volume) were added to cells,
which were then transferred in 1-ml aliquots to polystyrene tubes containing
5 μl of each peptide or peptide mix. A negative control containing PBMCs
from the same individual but with no added peptide was included for each
assay. Cells were incubated for 5.5 h at 37°C. For Vaccinia virus–specifi c re-
sponses, 2 × 106 PBMCs were infected with Vaccinia virus (multiplicity of
infection = 1) in 200 μl R10 for 1 h at 37°C. R10 was then added to adjust
the total volume to 1 ml, and the cells were incubated for an additional 3 h
before the addition of brefeldin A, monensin, and αCD107a–Alexa 680.
Cells were then mixed and incubated at 37°C for an additional 5 h. Negative
control tubes, without the addition of vaccinia virus, were included for all
samples. After incubation, cells were washed once with PBS containing 1%
bovine serum albumin and 0.1% sodium azide, and surface stained with the
appropriate directly conjugated antibodies for 20 min in the dark at 4°C. The
cells were then washed again and permeabilized using the cytofi x/cytoperm
kit (BD Biosciences) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. After in-
tracellular staining for CD3, CD4, IFN-γ, MIP-1β, IL-2, and TNF-α, the
cells were washed one fi nal time and fi xed in PBS containing 1% paraformal-
dehyde. Fixed cells were stored at 4°C until the time of collection.
Maximal responses were obtained between 5 1/2 and 8 h. During this
time, no change in the ratio of responses was observed with the increases
in all functions being proportional to each other. Although total CD107a
responses continued to increase between 5 1/2 and 8 h, mean fl orescence
started to decrease during this time. To maximize the accuracy of CD107a
gating, an incubation time of 5 1/2 h was used for all multicolor
fl ow experiments.
In incubations in which cells were purifi ed by either positive or nega-
tive selection, purifi cation was performed using MACS methodology as rec-
ommended by the manufacturer (Miltenyi Biotec). CD4+ T cells purifi ed by
positive selection were >99.5% pure based on total CD3+ expression. In all
cases, cells were allowed to rest for at least 2 h before assay.
Flow cytometric analysis. Cells were analyzed with either a modifi ed
fl ow cytometer (LSRII; BD Immunocytometry Systems) equipped for the
detection of 17 fl uorescent parameters, or with a FACSCalibur (BD Immuno-
cytometry). For four-color fl ow cytometry, between 100,000 and 250,000
events were collected from each sample, and for polychromatic fl ow cytom-
etry, between 500,000 and 1,000,000 total events were collected from each
sample. Electronic compensation was conducted with antibody capture
beads (BD Biosciences) stained separately with individual mAbs used in the
test samples. Data analysis was performed using FlowJo version 6.0 (TreeS-
tar). For polychromatic analysis, initial gating of each sample set used a for-
ward scatter area versus a forward scatter height plot to gate out cell
aggregates. The cells were then gated through a forward scatter area versus a
side scatter height plot to isolate small lymphocytes. After this, CD14+ and
CD19+ cells were removed from the analysis to reduce background staining
with αCD107a. Finally, cells were gated through a CD3 versus Cascade blue
plot to remove dead cells (Cascade blue bright staining can be used as a sur-
rogate marker of viability; unpublished data). Data are reported after back-
ground correction using costimulated cells from the same individuals in the
absence of peptide for comparison. Importantly, nonspecifi c background be-
comes extremely low when combinations of functions are being examined,
nearly always reaching zero events when three or more functions are being
examined simultaneously. The background tends to be higher for single-
positive responses, particularly for CD107a. Cut-off for a positive responses
was 10 events.
CD95L staining. CD95 staining was performed using a coculture method
similar to that used for CD107. PBMCs were incubated with and without
peptide in R10 containing 10 ng/ml Galardin (Sigma-Aldrich) and costimu-
latory antibodies (αCD28 and αCD49d; 1 μg/ml fi nal concentration for 5 h,
and either or both fl uorescently labeled CD107a and CD95L). Cells were
washed and surface stained for CD3 and CD4. When IFN-γ was stained,
cells were permeabilized and stained as described previously (56).
Killing assays. The killing assay used was a modifi cation of the previously
published VITAL assay (57, 58). EBV-transformed B-LCLs were prepared
using standard procedures (59) and cryopreserved until needed. B-LCLs
were stained with either CFSE (34) or CMTMR (57), as described previ-
ously. Stained cells were then added to either R10 medium or R10 supple-
mented with 2 μg/ml of the peptide epitope of interest. After incubation for
1 h, cells were counted and washed twice with R10. The B-LCLs were then
mixed to contain equal numbers of peptide-loaded CFSE-stained B-LCLs
and unloaded control CMTMR-stained B-LCLs, or equal numbers of pep-
tide-loaded CMTMR-stained B-LCLs and unloaded control CFSE-stained
B-LCLs. Next, 300,000 of these mixed cells were washed one fi nal time and
combined with PBMCs or CD4+ T cells in a total volume of 5 ml. 1-ml ali-
quots were added to 4.5 ml polypropylene tubes. Final concentrations of an-
tigen-loaded B-LCLs and unloaded control B-LCLs were 30,000/ml each in
all assays. PBMCs and CD4+ T cells concentrations varied as noted in
JEM VOL. 203, December 25, 2006
Results. Tubes were then placed in a 37°C, 5% CO2 incubator. Incubation
mixtures were processed at 0, 8, 16, and 24 h. For processing, cells were
washed once in PBS containing 1% bovine serum albumin and 0.1% sodium
azide, and stained for 30 min with αCD20-APC at 4°C. Cells were then
washed again, fi xed with 1% paraformaldehyde, and analyzed using a FACS-
Calibur fl ow cytometer (BD Immunocytometry).
Cell sorting. PBMCs were prepared and rested as described above, and
then incubated for 5 h in R10 supplemented with αCD28 and αCD49d
(each at 1 μg/ml fi nal concentration), monensin (0.7 μg/ml fi nal concentra-
tion), αCD107a–Alexa 680 (pretitered volume), αCD154-PE (pretitered
volume), and 2 μg/ml of peptide in a modifi cation of the method described
by Chattopadhyay et al. (46) and Betts et al. (32). Cells were then washed
once more with R10, and propidium iodide (Sigma-Aldrich) was added to a
fi nal concentration of 5 μg/ml as a viability marked immediately before sort-
ing. Cells were sorted at 25 pounds per square inch using a modifi ed FACS
DIVA (Becton Dickinson). Instrument set-up was performed according to
the manufacturer’s instructions. Electronic compensation was conducted
with antibody capture beads (BD Biosciences) stained separately with the in-
dividual mAbs used in the test samples. Small CD3+, CD4+, CD14−, and
CD19− lymphocytes that were CD154+/CD107a+ or CD154+/CD107a−
were collected separately and frozen in RNAlater (Ambion) for clono-
Clonotype analysis. Thawed cells were lysed and subjected to mRNA ex-
traction (Oligotex kit; QIAGEN). A template switch–anchored RT-PCR
using a 3′ TCRB constant region primer (5′-G C T T C T G A T G G C T C A A A-
C A C A G C G A C C T C -3′) was then performed as described previously (45,
60). Amplifi ed products were ligated into pGEM-T Easy vector (Promega)
and cloned by transformation of competent DH5α Escherichia coli. Selected
colonies were amplifi ed by PCR using standard M13 primers and then se-
quenced from an insert-specifi c primer using fl uorescent dye terminator
chemistry (Applied Biosystems). A minimum of 50 clones was generated and
analyzed per sample. Pseudogenes and “nonfunctional” sequences that could
not be resolved after inspection of the individual chromatograms were dis-
carded from the analysis. Nucleotide comparisons were used to establish
clonal identity. All sequences that were only found once in each cell popula-
tion were disregarded. Data analysis was performed using Sequencher Ver-
sion 4.2 (Gene Codes Corporation). The International Immunogenetics
nomenclature system is used throughout this work (61).
Statistical analysis. Comparison between groups was performed using a
criterion of signifi cance of P ≤ 0.05. All statistical tests were conducted us-
ing SPSS for Windows, and all means are reported ± the SD. Pair-wise
comparisons were made using a Wilcoxon signed rank statistic.
Online supplemental material. Figs. S1 and S2 show CMV epitope–spe-
cifi c CD4+ T cell killing assays for two diff erent individuals, both infected
with HIV. In addition, the mapping of CD4+ T cells with respect to surface
expression of CD27, CD45RO, and CD57 is shown for CD4+ T cells that
surface mobilize CD107a in response to stimulation with cognate epitope.
Similar fi gures are shown for perforin containing CD4+ T cells. Figs. S1 and S2
are available at http://www.jem.org/cgi/content/full/jem.20052246/DC1.
All DIVA analyses were performed by David Ambrozak. We also wish to acknowledge
David Ambrozak for assistance with polychromatic fl ow analysis.
D.A. Price is a Medical Research Council (UK) Senior Clinical Fellow. This
research was supported by the Intramural Research Program of the NIH, NIAID.
The authors have no confl icting fi nancial interests.
Submitted: 8 November 2005
Accepted: 13 November 2006
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