Effects of a carbohydrate-restricted diet with and without supplemental soluble fiber on plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and other clinical markers of cardiovascular risk

Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269-4017, USA.
Metabolism (Impact Factor: 3.89). 02/2007; 56(1):58-67. DOI: 10.1016/j.metabol.2006.08.021
Source: PubMed


Carbohydrate-restricted diets (CRDs) promote weight loss, reductions in plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) levels, and increases in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels but may cause undesirable low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) responses in some people. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of adding soluble fiber to a CRD on plasma LDL-C and other traditionally measured markers of cardiovascular disease. Using a parallel-arm, double-blind, placebo-controlled design, 30 overweight and obese men (body mass index, 25-35 kg/m(2)) were randomly assigned to supplement a CRD with soluble fiber (Konjac-mannan, 3g/d) (n = 15) or placebo (n = 15). Plasma lipids, anthropometrics, body composition, blood pressure, and nutrient intake were evaluated at baseline and at 6 and 12 weeks. Compliance was excellent as assessed by 7-day weighed dietary records and ketonuria. Both groups experienced decreases in (P < .01) body weight, percent body fat, systolic blood pressure, waist circumference, and plasma glucose levels. After 12 weeks, HDL-C and TAG improved significantly in the fiber (10% and -34%) and placebo (14%, -43%) groups. LDL-C decreased by 17.6% (P < .01) at week 6 and 14.1% (P < .01) at week 12 in the fiber group. Conversely, LDL-C reductions were significant in the placebo group only after 12 weeks (-6.0%, P < .05). We conclude that although clearly effective at lowering LDL-C, adding soluble fiber to a CRD during active and significant weight loss provides no additional benefits to the diet alone. Furthermore, a CRD led to clinically important positive alterations in cardiovascular disease risk factors.

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    • "Subjects were asked to refrain from consuming eggs that were not associated with the intervention. All subjects attended a group meeting before the intervention with registered dietitians, where detailed instructions on keeping diet records and following a CRD similar to those used in our previous studies [11] [18] were discussed. Subjects were not given guidelines about energy restriction. "
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    ABSTRACT: Carbohydrate-restricted diets (CRDs) have been shown to reduce body weight, whereas whole egg intake has been associated with increased satiety. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of additional dietary cholesterol and protein provided by whole eggs while following a CRD on insulin resistance and appetite hormones. Using a randomized blind parallel design, subjects were allocated to an egg (640 mg/d additional dietary cholesterol) or placebo (0 mg/d additional dietary cholesterol) group for 12 weeks while following a CRD. There were significant reductions in fasting insulin (P < .025) and fasting leptin concentrations (P < .01) for both groups, which were correlated with the reductions in body weight and body fat (P < .05 and P < .01, respectively). Both groups reduced insulin resistance as measured by the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (P < .025). There was a significant decrease in serum glucose levels observed after the intervention. We did not observe the expected increases in plasma ghrelin levels associated with weight loss, suggesting a mechanism by which subjects do not increase appetite with CRD. To confirm these results, the subjective measures of satiety using visual analog scale showed that both groups felt more "full" (P < .05), "satisfied" (P < .001), and "wanted to eat less" (P < .001) after the intervention. These results indicate that inclusion of eggs in the diet (additional dietary cholesterol) did not modify the multiple beneficial effects of CRD on insulin resistance and appetite hormones.
    Full-text · Article · May 2009 · Nutrition research
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    • "Diets promoting weight loss and reducing atherogenic lipid profiles have typically been founded on the belief that lowering total dietary fat with particular attention to saturated fats would produce the most effective change in lipids and weight. However, increasingly, data gathered over the last few years challenges that notion and, in fact, indicate that better weight loss, better satiety, and better lipid profiles may result when the diet is low in carbohydrate and no restriction on fat content is adopted [4] [8] [22] [30] [31] [32] [33] [34] [35]. In this short 8-week study, improved lipid profiles with respect to LDL patterns and the similar compliance to such dietary plans suggests that further examination of such a pattern is worthy and must be examined in the context of long-term health. "
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    ABSTRACT: Diets designed to promote weight loss and improve atherogenic lipid profiles traditionally include a reduction in total fat and, in particular, saturated fats. This study was designed to test the efficacy of a low-fat diet vs a carbohydrate (CHO)-restricted (low-CHO) diet in hypertriglyceridemic patients on lipid profile, weight loss, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and satiety. Twenty-eight hypertriglyceridemic subjects (based on fasting triacylglycerol [TG] levels exceeding 1.69 mmol/L) were randomized to either the low-CHO or low-fat diet for 8 weeks. Fasting bloods were acquired at weeks 0 and 8 and analyzed for lipids and hs-CRP. Body weight and other anthropometric measures were also obtained. Three random 24-hour food recalls were used to assess compliance during the trial and 2 recalls before randomization to permit individualized dietary education. A significant time-by-treatment interaction was observed (P = .045), wherein the small low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations were reduced by 46% in the low-CHO-assigned subjects and increased by 36% for those assigned the low-fat plan. The observed decrease in TG (18%) among low-CHO subjects, in contrast to the 4% increase for low-fat group, was not significant, nor were there significant differences in hs-CRP, overall dietary compliance, satiety, or the magnitude of body weight loss between groups (low-CHO group, -3.8% vs low-fat group, -1.6%). Favorable reductions in small low-density lipoprotein concentrations after 8 weeks suggest that a moderately restricted carbohydrate diet (20% CHO as energy) can promote a less atherogenic lipid profile when compared to the low-fat diet.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2008 · Nutrition research
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    • "The CRD was similar to those implemented in our previous studies[14], we conducted this study to determine the effects of egg intake in conjunction with a CRD on the variables for the classification of the metabolic syndrome [19] and on body composition and inflammation markers presented in this manuscript. Briefly, subjects (n = 28) were matched by age and BMI (body mass index) and then randomly assigned, single blinded, to eggs (EGG, n = 15) (640 mg cholesterol) or placebo (SUB, n = 13) (no added cholesterol) for twelve weeks. "
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    ABSTRACT: Carbohydrate restricted diets (CRD) consistently lower glucose and insulin levels and improve atherogenic dyslipidemia [decreasing triglycerides and increasing HDL cholesterol (HDL-C)]. We have previously shown that male subjects following a CRD experienced significant increases in HDL-C only if they were consuming a higher intake of cholesterol provided by eggs compared to those individuals who were taking lower concentrations of dietary cholesterol. Here, as a follow up of our previous study, we examined the effects of eggs (a source of both dietary cholesterol and lutein) on adiponectin, a marker of insulin sensitivity, and on inflammatory markers in the context of a CRD. Twenty eight overweight men [body mass index (BMI) 26-37 kg/m2] aged 40-70 y consumed an ad libitum CRD (% energy from CHO:fat:protein = 17:57:26) for 12 wk. Subjects were matched by age and BMI and randomly assigned to consume eggs (EGG, n = 15) (640 mg additional cholesterol/day provided by eggs) or placebo (SUB, n = 13) (no additional dietary cholesterol). Fasting blood samples were drawn before and after the intervention to assess plasma lipids, insulin, adiponectin and markers of inflammation including C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-8 (IL-8), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1(VCAM-1). Body weight, percent total body fat and trunk fat were reduced for all subjects after 12 wk (P < 0.0001). Increases in adiponectin were also observed (P < 0.01). Subjects in the EGG group had a 21% increase in this adipokine compared to a 7% increase in the SUB group (P < 0.05). Plasma CRP was significantly decreased only in the EGG group (P < 0.05). MCP-1 levels were decreased for the SUB group (P < 0.001), but unchanged in the EGG group. VCAM-1, ICAM-1, TNF-alpha, and IL-8 were not modified by CRD or eggs. A CRD with daily intake of eggs decreased plasma CRP and increased plasma adiponectin compared to a CRD without eggs. These findings indicate that eggs make a significant contribution to the anti-inflammatory effects of CRD, possibly due to the presence of cholesterol, which increases HDL-C and to the antioxidant lutein which modulates certain inflammatory responses.
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