Stability of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Epworth Sleepiness Questionnaires over 1 year in early middle-aged adults: The CARDIA Study

Department of Health Studies, University of Chicago, 5841 S. Maryland Ave, MC2007, Chicago, IL 60637, USA.
Sleep (Impact Factor: 4.59). 12/2006; 29(11):1503-6.
Source: PubMed


To describe the stability of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) scores over 1 year among a population-based sample of black and white early middle-aged adults.
More than 600 participants, aged 38 to 50 years, from the Chicago site of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study.
The PSQI and ESS were completed twice, approximately 1 year apart, between 2003 and 2005. Seven PSQI 4-level component scores, a global PSQI score, and the ESS scores were calculated. A PSQI global score greater than 5 was classified as poor quality sleep, and an ESS score greater than 10 was classified as high daytime sleepiness.
The mean+/-SD PSQI score was 5.7+/-3.1 in Year 1 and 5.9+/-3.1 in Year 2. The mean ESS score was 7.4+/-4.3 in Year 1 and 7.2+/-4.2 in Year 2. The Pearson correlation coefficient for the PSQI score in both years in the full sample was .68 and ranged from .54 among black men to .72 among black women. The Pearson correlation coefficient for the ESS score in both years in the full sample was .76 and ranged from .70 among black men to .80 among white men. In the full sample, 76% had the same PSQI dichotomous classification, and 85% had the same ESS dichotomous classification in both years.
These results suggest that the PSQI and ESS are stable measures of sleep quality and sleepiness over the past year in early middle-aged adults.

    • "Carpenter & Andry- kowski[53], in their samples of bone marrow and renal transplant recipients, found no significant sex differences in global or subscale PSQI scores, but all participants fell above the cut-off designating " poor quality sleep " (i.e., >5). Knutson et al.[61], in their race-sex comparison within the general population, also reported no significant differences between white women and men, and black women and men. They did however find a significant difference in the scores of white women and black men when first measured, a difference that was no longer present when measured one year later. "

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    • "Studies that examined differences in PSQI global score between healthy subjects and patients suffering from a variety of disorders known to be associated with poor sleep, showed significant differences between groups [9] [22] [45] [49] [51] [56] [60] [68] [71] [79]. Studies that examined differences within groups of people (i.e., race, age, sex, different symptom clusters within the same population, etc.) showed non-significant differences [49] [50] [53] [58] [61] [64] [67] [73]. "
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