Increased stress and smaller anterior hippocampal volume

Article · December 2006with11 Reads
DOI: 10.1097/01.wnr.0000246322.58814.b8 · Source: PubMed
Abstract
Animal studies indicate that stress negatively impacts hippocampal structure; little is known, however, regarding the relationship between stress and hippocampal morphology in healthy humans. Twenty-one healthy adults underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging examinations and completed the Derogatis Stress Profile. Greater psychological stress at the time of the scan correlated significantly and more strongly with anterior than posterior hippocampal volume. These findings suggest that psychological stress may be associated with structural alterations in the anterior hippocampal formation and that this relationship may differ along the rostrocaudal axis of the hippocampus. Our results may also have implications for neuropsychiatric disorders that have implicated stress and hippocampal abnormalities in their pathogenesis.
    • It is also of interest that, to our knowledge, no studies have directly related cognitive performance to psychosocial measures of stress in FEP. Previous published papers show a link between psychosocial stress and changes in the structure of important brain regions associated with cognitive function, such as the hippocampus (Szeszko et al. 2006; Gianaros et al. 2007). Moreover, several studies show an association between a history of childhood trauma and poorer scores on several cognitive tasks when assessed in adulthood (Perez & Widom, 1994).
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cognitive impairment, particularly in memory and executive function, is a core feature of psychosis. Moreover, psychosis is characterized by a more prominent history of stress exposure, and by dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. In turn, stress exposure and abnormal levels of the main HPA axis hormone cortisol are associated with cognitive impairments in a variety of clinical and experimental samples; however, this association has never been examined in first-episode psychosis (FEP). In this study, 30 FEP patients and 26 controls completed assessment of the HPA axis (cortisol awakening response and cortisol levels during the day), perceived stress, recent life events, history of childhood trauma, and cognitive function. The neuropsychological battery comprised general cognitive function, verbal and non-verbal memory, executive function, perception, visuospatial abilities, processing speed, and general knowledge. Patients performed significantly worse on all cognitive domains compared to controls. In patients only, a more blunted cortisol awakening response (that is, more abnormal) was associated with a more severe deficit in verbal memory and processing speed. In controls only, higher levels of perceived stress and more recent life events were associated with a worse performance in executive function and perception and visuospatial abilities. These data support a role for the HPA axis, as measured by cortisol awakening response, in modulating cognitive function in patients with psychosis; however, this association does not seem to be related to the increased exposure to psychosocial stressors described in these patients.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2011
    • In addition, there was a more severe reduction in his anterior and medial temporal lobes and the diencephalon (cf. Bluhm et al., 2009; Gianaros et al., 2007; Szeszko et al., 2006 ). Treating the patient psychopharmaceutically and with psychotherapy resulted in a reinstatement of most of his old memories and a reinstatement of his ability to encode new episodic events long term (Markowitsch et al., 2000).
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Brain damage was traditionally seen as the product of a neurological disease or injury. Nevertheless, modern brain imaging techniques have provided increasing evidence for alterations in brain tissue and metabolism for a number of psychiatric disorders. Though for a while "dissociated" (Spiegel, 2006) from the clinical and scientific arena, dissociative disorders have in the last several years received a renewed interest among several groups of researchers, who embarked on the work of disentangling their neural correlates. We review data from our own research as well as others, which point to distinct changes in brain regions underlying dissociative amnes(t)ic disorders. These changes may consist of overall reductions in brain metabolism or more selective alterations primarily in the right temporo-frontal cortices. Recent evidence with refined magnetic resonance imaging techniques furthermore reveals selective fiber degenerations in these regions. While these changes may persist and probably even intensify in some patients, they may be reversible in others – especially if treatment is carried out successfully within short time after onset. Implications of these findings for the pathogenetic conceptualization of dissociative amnes(t)ic disorders are outlined.
    Article · Jan 2010
    • If the hippocampus is lesioned, cache recovery is reduced to chance (Krushinskayna, 1966; Sherry and Vaccarino, 1989). While the mammalian hippocampus is critical for rapid learning of complex spatial and temporal relations , it is a sensitive brain region, responsive to a broad array of variables, including: stress (Gould et al., 1997; McEwen, 1999; Bremner, 2006; Szeszko et al., 2006), hypoxia (Cervosnavarro and Diemer, 1991; Ogawa et al., 2007; Maiti et al., 2008 ), isolation housing (Bianchi et al., 2006; Scaccianoce et al., 2006; Stranahan et al., 2006; Ibi et al., 2008 ), demen- Correspondence to: B.A. Tarr (bat24@cornell.edu). Contract grant sponsor: National Institutes of Health Grants; contract grant number: MH56093 (to T.J.D.).tia (Caselli et al., 2006; Hua et al., 2008 ), posttraumatic stress disorder (Karl et al., 2006), psychiatric illness (Sheline et al., 2003; Campbell et al., 2004; Videbech and Ravnkilde, 2004; Duman and Monteggia, 2006; Dhikav and Anand, 2007), and exercise (Kiraly and Kiraly, 2005 ).
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In many naturalistic studies of the hippocampus wild animals are held in captivity. To test if captivity itself affects hippocampal integrity, adult black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapilla) were caught in the fall, injected with bromodeoxyuridine to mark neurogenesis, and alternately released to the wild or held in captivity. The wild birds were recaptured after 4-6 weeks and perfused simultaneously with their captive counterparts. The hippocampus of captive birds was 23% smaller than wild birds, with no hemispheric differences in volume within groups. Between groups there was no statistically significant difference in the size of the telencephalon, or in the number and density of surviving new cells. Proximate causes of the reduced hippocampal volume could include stress, lack of exercise, diminished social interaction, or limited caching opportunity-a hippocampal-dependent activity. The results suggest the avian hippocampus-a structure essential for rapid, complex relational and spatial learning-is both plastic and sensitive, much as in mammals, including humans.
    Article · Dec 2009
    • Stress causes measurable physiological changes in virtually all systems ever examined (cardiovascular, immunologic, etc.), including altering intestinal function (Yang et al., 2006) that may subsequently influence nutrient absorption. In addition, studies in the last 5 years have demonstrated reduced hippocampal size in individuals with various mental and stress-related disorders, as well as in healthy adults scoring relatively high on a self-report measure of stress (Szeszko et al., 2006). Hence, when considering the data on methylation and mood, it is important to be open to the possibility of bidirectional causality: Perhaps congenital impairments in methylation reactions result in depression, and perhaps depression impairs methylation reactions.
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this article, the authors explore the breadth and depth of published research linking dietary vitamins and minerals (micronutrients) to mood. Since the 1920s, there have been many studies on individual vitamins (especially B vitamins and Vitamins C, D, and E), minerals (calcium, chromium, iron, magnesium, zinc, and selenium), and vitamin-like compounds (choline). Recent investigations with multi-ingredient formulas are especially promising. However, without a reasonable conceptual framework for understanding mechanisms by which micronutrients might influence mood, the published literature is too readily dismissed. Consequently, 4 explanatory models are presented, suggesting that mood symptoms may be expressions of inborn errors of metabolism, manifestations of deficient methylation reactions, alterations of gene expression by nutrient deficiency, and/or long-latency deficiency diseases. These models provide possible explanations for why micronutrient supplementation could ameliorate some mental symptoms.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2007
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    Full-text · Conference Paper · Jul 1991 · Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We reviewed the indications for age and breeds of dogs who received transvenous endocardial artificial pacemaker (AP) implantation (n = 105) and complications and survival thereafter at a single institution over a 6-year period. A third-degree atrioventricular (AV) block (59%) and sick sinus syndrome (SSS; 27%) were the most common indications, along with a high-grade second-degree AV block (9%) and atrial standstill (5%). The most common breeds identified were Labrador Retriever (n = 16; 11 with a third-degree AV block), American Cocker Spaniel (n = 14; 10 with SSS), and Miniature Schnauzer (n = 13; all with SSS). Common presenting complaints were syncope (n = 66) and exercise intolerance or lethargy (n = 25). Half of the dogs (n = 52) had a history of acute onset of clinical signs (<2 weeks). Mean survival time for the 60 dogs who died during the study period was 2.2 years (range, 0.1-5.8 years). Major complications occurred in 13% of dogs and included lead displacement (n = 7), sensing problems that led to syncope (n = 3), infection at the pacemaker site (n = 1), bleeding (n = 1), and ventricular fibrillation during implantation (n = 1; successfully defibrillated). Minor complications occurred in 11 dogs (11%). The success rate of transvenous AP implantation was comparatively high (all dogs survived the first 48 hours), and the complication rate was comparatively low when compared with a previous multicenter study, most likely because of how commonly the procedure was performed and supervisory experience.
    Article · Jul 2006
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