Article

Gifted Students With Learning Disabilities Who Are They?

Department of Psychology, Syracuse University, NY 13244, USA.
Journal of Learning Disabilities (Impact Factor: 1.9). 12/2006; 39(6):515-27. DOI: 10.1177/00222194060390060401
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

More than 20 years ago, psychologists first described gifted students with learning disabilities (LD). In the past decade, several sets of identification criteria have been proposed for this population. Many of the suggested assessment practices are unsupported by research in psychoeducational assessment, and some have been directly contradicted by recent research. We argue that an uncritical acceptance of the concept of concomitant giftedness and LD has led to unsound identification procedures and to interventions that are not targeted properly. Specific recommendations for future research and implications for current clinical practice are discussed.

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    • "However, since the achievement–ability discrepancy has been heavily debated (e.g., Lovett & Lewandowski, 2006), it was used only to nominate children for participation in the study, as it is the only definition that leaves room for the possibility of masking or compensation of LD in a high IQ population (see Assouline, Foley, & Whiteman, 2010, for an elaborate discussion). Further inclusion was based on a comprehensive evaluation of a child's academic and cognitive strengths and weaknesses, integrating multiple sources of information , which may unveil specific underlying deficits needed for correct identification of LD, here dyslexia, in gifted children (Assouline et al., 2010; Brody & Mills, 1997; Lovett & Lewandowski, 2006; McCoach et al., 2001; Nielsen, 2002). Prior to focusing on the combination of giftedness and dyslexia, both elements will be introduced in more detail. "
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated how gifted children with dyslexia might be able to mask literacy problems and the role of possible compensatory mechanisms. The sample consisted of 121 Dutch primary school children that were divided over four groups (typically developing [TD] children, children with dyslexia, gifted children, gifted children with dyslexia). The test battery included measures of literacy (reading/spelling) and cognitive abilities related to literacy and language (phonological awareness [PA], rapid automatized naming [RAN], verbal short-term memory [VSTM], working memory [WM], grammar, and vocabulary). It was hypothesized that gifted children with dyslexia would outperform children with dyslexia on literacy tests. In addition, a core-deficit model including dyslexia-related weaknesses and a compensational model involving giftedness-related strengths were tested using Bayesian statistics to explain their reading/spelling performance. Gifted children with dyslexia performed on all literacy tests in between children with dyslexia and TD children. Their cognitive profile showed signs of weaknesses in PA and RAN and strengths in VSTM, WM, and language skills. Findings indicate that phonology is a risk factor for gifted children with dyslexia, but this is moderated by other skills such as WM, grammar, and vocabulary, providing opportunities for compensation of a cognitive deficit and masking of literacy difficulties.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Journal of Learning Disabilities
    • "However, since the achievement–ability discrepancy has been heavily debated (e.g., Lovett & Lewandowski, 2006), it was used only to nominate children for participation in the study, as it is the only definition that leaves room for the possibility of masking or compensation of LD in a high IQ population (see Assouline, Foley, & Whiteman, 2010, for an elaborate discussion). Further inclusion was based on a comprehensive evaluation of a child's academic and cognitive strengths and weaknesses, integrating multiple sources of information , which may unveil specific underlying deficits needed for correct identification of LD, here dyslexia, in gifted children (Assouline et al., 2010; Brody & Mills, 1997; Lovett & Lewandowski, 2006; McCoach et al., 2001; Nielsen, 2002). Prior to focusing on the combination of giftedness and dyslexia, both elements will be introduced in more detail. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study investigated how gifted children with dyslexia might be able to mask literacy problems and the role of possible compensatory mechanisms. The sample consisted of 121 Dutch primary school children that were divided over four groups (typically developing [TD] children, children with dyslexia, gifted children, gifted children with dyslexia). The test battery included measures of literacy (reading/spelling) and cognitive abilities related to literacy and language (phonological awareness [PA], rapid automatized naming [RAN], verbal short-term memory [VSTM], working memory [WM], grammar, and vocabulary). It was hypothesized that gifted children with dyslexia would outperform children with dyslexia on literacy tests. In addition, a core-deficit model including dyslexia-related weaknesses and a compensational model involving giftedness-related strengths were tested using Bayesian statistics to explain their reading/spelling performance. Gifted children with dyslexia performed on all literacy tests in between children with dyslexia and TD children. Their cognitive profile showed signs of weaknesses in PA and RAN and strengths in VSTM, WM, and language skills. Findings indicate that phonology is a risk factor for gifted children with dyslexia, but this is moderated by other skills such as WM, grammar, and vocabulary, providing opportunities for compensation of a cognitive deficit and masking of literacy difficulties.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Journal of Learning Disabilities
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    • "The most asynchronous of all gifted children, according to Silverman (1998; 2009), are gifted children with learning disabilities. These children are often referred to as twice exceptional, or as gifted and disabled, and can be thus identified if " ability [is]…substantially above average and …his or her achievement is substantially below average when compared to peers of the same age " (Lovett & Lewandowski, 2006, p. 524). "
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    ABSTRACT: Eleven mothers of gifted children were interviewed, with questions focused around maternal problems as they related to children's attachment, socio-emotional adjustment, and perhaps even their IQs. The interviews were transcribed and NVivo 9 qualitative software was used to help manage the data and coding process. Findings indicate that children were more likely to have clinical or borderline internalising problems if their mothers had been depressed, and if the children had been serially misunderstood in a variety of primary social contexts - at home, by peers, and in those educational settings that failed to provide appropriately for their advanced and different educational needs. A model is included of the primary social contexts and causes involved in misunderstanding gifted children. The article concludes with recommendations for successful preventative strategies based on information gained from the narratives of participating mothers.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · Australasian Journal of Gifted Education
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