Progressive Deafness and Altered Cochlear Innervation in Knock-Out Mice Lacking Prosaposin
After a yeast two-hybrid screen identified prosaposin as a potential interacting protein with the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunit alpha10, studies were performed to characterize prosaposin in the normal rodent inner ear. Prosaposin demonstrates diffuse organ of Corti expression at birth, with gradual localization to the inner hair cells (IHCs) and its supporting cells, inner pillar cells, and synaptic region of the outer hair cells (OHCs) and Deiters' cells (DCs) by postnatal day 21 (P21). Microdissected OHC and DC quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR and immunohistology localizes prosaposin mRNA to DCs and OHCs, and protein predominantly to the apex of the DCs. Subsequent studies in a prosaposin knock-out (KO) (-/-) mouse showed intact but slightly reduced hearing through P19, but deafness by P25 and reduced distortion product otoacoustic emissions from P15 onward. Beginning at P12, the prosaposin KO mice showed histologic organ of Corti changes including cellular hypertrophy in the region of the IHC and greater epithelial ridge, a loss of OHCs from cochlear apex, and vacuolization of OHCs. Immunofluorescence revealed exuberant overgrowth of auditory afferent neurites in the region of the IHCs and proliferation of auditory efferent neurites in the region of the tunnel of Corti. IHC recordings from these KO mice showed normal I-V curves and responses to applied acetylcholine. Together, these results suggest that prosaposin helps maintain normal innervation patterns to the organ of Corti. Furthermore, prosaposin's overlapping developmental expression pattern and binding capacity toward the nAChR alpha10 suggest that alpha10 may also play a role in this function.
Available from: Tamara Alliston
- "Hearing tests were performed on control and ColI(2.3)+/Rs1+ littermates at 6 and 10–12 weeks of age in a soundproof chamber as described –. Briefly, mice were anesthetized by intraperitoneal injection of a mixture of ketamine hydrochloride (Ketaset, 100 mg/kg) and xylazine hydrochloride (Xyla-ject, 10 mg/kg). "
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ABSTRACT: Normal hearing requires exquisite cooperation between bony and sensorineural structures within the cochlea. For example, the inner ear secretes proteins such as osteoprotegrin (OPG) that can prevent cochlear bone remodeling. Accordingly, diseases that affect bone regulation can also result in hearing loss. Patients with fibrous dysplasia develop trabecular bone overgrowth resulting in hearing loss if the lesions affect the temporal bones. Unfortunately, the mechanisms responsible for this hearing loss, which could be sensorineural and/or conductive, remain unclear. In this study, we used a unique transgenic mouse model of increased Gs G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling induced by expression of an engineered receptor, Rs1, in osteoblastic cells. These ColI(2.3)+/Rs1+ mice showed dramatic bone lesions that histologically and radiologically resembled fibrous dysplasia. We found that ColI(2.3)+/Rs1+ mice showed progressive and severe conductive hearing loss. Ossicular chain impingement increased with the size and number of dysplastic lesions. While sensorineural structures were unaffected, ColI(2.3)+/Rs1+ cochleae had abnormally high osteoclast activity, together with elevated tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (Rankl) mRNA expression. ColI(2.3)+/Rs1+ cochleae also showed decreased expression of Sclerostin (Sost), an antagonist of the Wnt signaling pathway that normally increases bone formation. The osteocyte canalicular networks of ColI(2.3)+/Rs1+ cochleae were disrupted and showed abnormal osteocyte morphology. The osteocytes in the ColI(2.3)+/Rs1+ cochleae showed increased expression of matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP-13) and TRAP, both of which can support osteocyte-mediated peri-lacunar remodeling. Thus, while the ossicular chain impingement is sufficient to account for the progressive hearing loss in fibrous dysplasia, the deregulation of bone remodeling extends to the cochlea as well. Our findings suggest that factors regulating bone remodeling, including peri-lacunar remodeling by osteocytes, may be useful targets for treating the bony overgrowths and hearing changes of fibrous dysplasia and other bony pathologies.
Available from: Grayson William Marshall
- "Cochlear histology studies were carried out on nX3 mice (Akil et al, 2006). Qualitative hair cell analysis was performed on dissected cochleae by microscopic visualization of rhodamine–phalloidin staining (nX3; Seal et al, 2008). "
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ABSTRACT: Physical cues, such as extracellular matrix stiffness, direct cell differentiation and support tissue-specific function. Perturbation of these cues underlies diverse pathologies, including osteoarthritis, cardiovascular disease and cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms that establish tissue-specific material properties and link them to healthy tissue function are unknown. We show that Runx2, a key lineage-specific transcription factor, regulates the material properties of bone matrix through the same transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ)-responsive pathway that controls osteoblast differentiation. Deregulated TGFβ or Runx2 function compromises the distinctly hard cochlear bone matrix and causes hearing loss, as seen in human cleidocranial dysplasia. In Runx2+/⁻ mice, inhibition of TGFβ signalling rescues both the material properties of the defective matrix, and hearing. This study elucidates the unknown cause of hearing loss in cleidocranial dysplasia, and demonstrates that a molecular pathway controlling cell differentiation also defines material properties of extracellular matrix. Furthermore, our results suggest that the careful regulation of these properties is essential for healthy tissue function.
Available from: Lawrence R Lustig
- "Following our earlier protocols (Akil et al., 2006), the C57BL/6 mice of groups 1 and 2 were anesthetized and the cochleae were isolated, dissected, perfused through the round window with 2% paraformaldehyde and 2% glutaraldehyde in 0.1 M phosphate buffer, pH 7.4, and incubated in the same fixative overnight at 4°C. The cochleae were subsequently rinsed with 0.1 M PB and post fixed in 1% osmium tetroxide for 1 h. "
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ABSTRACT: The goal of this study was to determine the role of an influx copper transporter, CTR1, in the ototoxicity induced by cisplatin, a potent anticancer platinum analog used in the treatment of a variety of solid tumors. As determined through reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR), quantitative RT-PCR, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry, mouse CTR1 (Ctr1) was found to be abundantly expressed and highly localized at the primary sites of cisplatin toxicity in the inner ear, mainly outer hair cells (OHCs), inner hair cells, stria vascularis, spiral ganglia, and surrounding nerves in the mouse cochlea. A CTR1 substrate, copper sulfate, decreased the uptake and cytotoxicity of cisplatin in HEI-OC1, a cell line that expresses many molecular markers reminiscent of OHCs. Small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of Ctr1 in this cell line caused a corresponding decrease in cisplatin uptake. In mice, intratympanic administration of copper sulfate 30 min before intraperitoneal administration of cisplatin was found to prevent hearing loss at click stimulus and 8, 16, and 32 kHz frequencies. To date, the utility of cisplatin remains severely limited because of its ototoxic effects. The studies described in this report suggest that cisplatin-induced ototoxicity and cochlear uptake can be modulated by administration of a CTR1 inhibitor, copper sulfate. The possibility of local administration of CTR1 inhibitors during cisplatin therapy as a means of otoprotection is thereby raised.
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