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Abstract

Excessive transepidermal water loss (TEWL) is the one of the causes of dry skin, and skin moisturizers have been used to overcome it. The purpose of this research was to study the moisturizing effect of sericin, a silk protein. Because silk sericin has resemblance with the natural moisturizing factor (NMF), it has been studied for its application in skin cosmetics. Sericin gels were prepared using sericin solution and with pluronic and carbopol as stabilizers. The gels were applied on the skin of healthy human volunteers and its moisturizing efficiency was evaluated by measuring the skin hydroxyproline content, impedance, TEWL, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results. Decrease in skin impedance, increase in hydroxyproline level, and hydration of epidermal cells revealed the moisturizing effect of sericin, whereas decrease in the value of TEWL may be attributed to occlusive effect, which prevents water loss from the upper layer of the skin. Skin surface topography revealed the smoothness of the upper layer of the skin as a result of moisturization. Increase in the intrinsic moisturization of skin by sericin may be attributed to restoration of the amino acids and its occlusive effect. Thus, it would become a promising and important moisturizing ingredient in moisturizing formulations.

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... Accordingly, sericin has been used in cosmetics [59]. When a sericin gel is applied to the skin, the hydration level is increased [98]. Sericin treated skin shows a higher level of hydroxylproline than skin treated with distilled water [98]. ...
... When a sericin gel is applied to the skin, the hydration level is increased [98]. Sericin treated skin shows a higher level of hydroxylproline than skin treated with distilled water [98]. Many elderly people suffer from xerostomia. ...
Article
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Sericin is a 10-to-400 kDa hydrophilic protein with high serine content and is a silk constituent together with fibroin. It is produced in the middle silk gland of the silkworm and encoded by four sericin genes. The molecular weight of sericin and its biological activity vary depending on the extraction method employed. Its chemical structure, in terms of random coil and β-sheet conformations, also differs with the extraction method, thereby extending its applications in various fields. Sericin, which was discarded in the textile industry in the past, is being applied and developed in the biomedical field, owing to its biological properties. In particular, many studies are underway in the field of tissue engineering, evaluating its applicability in burn dressing, drug delivery, bone regeneration, cartilage regeneration, and nerve regeneration.
... Sericin gel is prepared by using sericin solution with pluronic and carbopol as a stabilizer to prevent water loss from the upper layer of the skin. It forms a moisturizing, semi-occlusive, protective, antiwrinkle film on the skin surface imparting an immediate, long lasting, smooth, silky feeling (Padamwar et al., 2005) [68] . The configuration of sericin is very close to the one of human beings. ...
... Sericin gel is prepared by using sericin solution with pluronic and carbopol as a stabilizer to prevent water loss from the upper layer of the skin. It forms a moisturizing, semi-occlusive, protective, antiwrinkle film on the skin surface imparting an immediate, long lasting, smooth, silky feeling (Padamwar et al., 2005) [68] . The configuration of sericin is very close to the one of human beings. ...
Article
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Sericulture is such an activity which can be used for multiple purposes. It implies significant quantities of secondary and waste products such as perforated silk cocoons, Bombyx mori chrysalides, larval dejections, mulberry plant waste, superseded cocoons, surplus mulberry leaf, root and fruits biomass etc,. Therefore, silkworm rearing can now be transformed into the functional industry by processing the secondary and waste products which increase farmer's income. In order to ensure a profitable activity, it is necessary to process these secondary and waste products to obtain biologically active substances with important uses in various industries. For utilization of by-products generated from sericulture, in-depth research towards utility and optimization is the prime need in placing this industry on a sound footing. This review is intended to focus on recent advances in comprehensive utilization, diversification and value addition of sericulture resources in broadening the sustainability of sericulture industry.
... These groups can crosslink, copolymerize and also be combined with other polymers [15] . Likewise, this protein is composed of 45.8% of hydroxy amino acids, 42.3% of polar amino acids and 12.2% of nonpolar amino acids [16] , the highest proportion being serine, aspartic acid, glycine and threonine [17] . SS is composed of 70% hydrophilic amino acids, which confers the ability to be partially soluble and to absorb large amounts of water [18] . ...
... Some studies have mentioned that random coil structure easily changes to b-sheets, due to constant moisture absorption and mechanical stretch of the protein [17,28] . On the other hand, as temperature decreases, the random coils of sericin in solution are transformed into b-sheets [7] , decreasing its water solubility. ...
Article
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Silk sericin is a natural polymer produced by silkworm Bombyx mori; which has the function of covering the fibroin filaments so that they remain linked together as well as maintaining the structural integrity of the cocoon. Despite its properties and benefits, sericin is currently discarded during textile production as it is considered a side product of silk cocoons during the degumming process. Among the most important biological properties of sericin are good oxygen permeability, moisture-regulating capacity, resistance to UV radiation, ability to promotes cell growth, biocompatibility and mitogenic effect. All these characteristics make sericin a promising polymer to be used in biomedical applications, especially in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Some studies report that sericin favors the biological nature of keratinocytes and fibroblasts, potentializing it as a biomaterial for the repair of epithelial tissue, mainly utilized as wound dressing. Given the importance that sericin can have in the field of bioengineering, and that its use can favor the sericulture agroindustry, this manuscript reviews recent studies of this protein for its application in tissue engineering, specifically for cutaneous regeneration. • Highlights • Research on SS represents a promising and developing field. • SS decreases cell adhesion and favors the proliferation of keratinocytes and fibroblasts. • SS has been shown to have a mitogenic effect in some mammalian cells. • SS can be crosslinked, copolymerized, and mixed with other polymers.
... The extraction methods for these preparations were WaterSS and AlkaliSS. Padamwar et al. (2005) evaluated the effects of sericin gel on the skin in healthy volunteers. The results showed that the hydration of sericin gel-treated skin was significantly higher than that of normal skin, while there was no significant difference between gel base-treated skin and normal skin. ...
... Sericin was formulated in the form of gel and its performance was evaluated on healthy human volunteers. The sericin gel showed skin moisturization effects, including increase in hydroxyproline content, lower skin impedance, and reducing water evaporation (Padamwar et al. 2005). ...
Chapter
Sericin is a natural product from the silkworm. Sericin is one of the major protein components in the cocoons of Lepidopteron insects. The microstructure of silk gland sericin has been observed in silkworm. The molecular mass of sericin has been observed using sodium dodecyl sulfate and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Cocoon sericin could be separated into three layers based on its solubility properties from extraction methods such as temperature, pressure, urea, acid, or alkali solution. The amino acid composition of sericin has been reported from parts of silkworms and cocoons, including the silk gland, cocoon, floss, and peduncle. Sericin proteins are translated from sericin genes, which are produced from MSG cells. These genes have a specific purpose for their localization. The secondary structure of sericin has been observed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. It has been reported that the silkworm species and isolation method affected to the sericin structure.
... [38][39][40] Sericin has antibacterial, anti-cancer, moisturizing, and ultraviolet (UV) resistant properties, so it is a valuable raw material for several industries, including cosmetics, textile, food, biomaterials, and biomedicines. [41][42][43][44][45][46][47][48] Therefore, it is of great importance to recover this protein from the silk effluents. The conventional degumming with soap at alkaline pH generates wastewaters with high organic content and the soap needs to be separated from the protein, requiring additional treatment steps. ...
Article
In this paper, firstly the effects of environmentally friendly degumming methods on the morphology and structure of fibers have been investigated. Then the dyeing behaviors of environmentally friendly degummed silk fibers were analyzed. In the dyeing process, acid and reactive dyes were used at various dye concentrations. To analyze dyeing characteristics of these fibers, investigations of washing fastness and measurements of color parameters were carried out. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of degummed silk fibers showed that the high temperature (HT) degumming method was more successful than the other methods, but the results were comparable. Weight loss values were also supported by SEM images. Scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis of degummed fibers showed that particles remaining on the surface were the most likely to indicate sericin residue. Fourier transform infrared spectra of raw and degummed fibers with different methods demonstrated typical absorption bands appointed to the peptide bonds (-CONH-) and no major differences were observed. When band intensity was examined, the most intense bands belong to the HT degumming process. The differential scanning calorimetry curves of conventionally and alternatively degummed silk fibers showed two endotherms at around 100℃ and 320℃ because of water loss and β-sheet fibroin decomposition, respectively. The acid and reactive dyeing of the degummed fibers by environmentally degumming methods gave similar color strength and washing fastness values compared with conventionally degummed fibers.
... Silk fibroin, obtained from silk, has a close affinity to human skin and can moisturize skin, because it is rich in various amino acids and trace elements [9]. Also, silk fibroin can increase the moisture content of the cuticle, promote the synthesis of collagen and repair the barrier dysfunction of the skin epidermis, which results in relieving dry and itchy skin [10]. Studies also have shown that silk fibroin can not only replenish water of skin but also prevent it from evaporation [11]. ...
... Sericin, which is composed of 18 different amino acids (Cao and Zhang 2016) and is highly hydrophilic, has strongly polar amino, hydroxyl, and carboxyl side groups (Padamwar and Pawar 2004;Kundu et al. 2008). Sericin has found places in areas, such as cell culture additives (Minoura et al. 1995;Takahashi et al. 2003), cosmetic Padamwar et al. 2005), dietary food (Sasaki et al. 2000a, b;Zhaorıgetu et al. 2001;Yang et al. 2009), biomedical (Soong and Kenyon 1984;Dewair et al. 1985;Panilaitis et al. 2003), and anticoagulants (Tamada et al. 2004) due to its properties like biocompatibility, biodegradability, UV resistance, resistance to oxidation, moisture absorption and abilities to scavenge radicals and attack microbes Kundu et al. 2008;Joseph and Raj 2012;Shahid et al. 2013). Moreover, sericin has become an essential biopolymer in the textile industry. ...
Article
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A large amount of salt has been used in reactive dyeing of cotton. In this study, the reduction in the amount of salt used in reactive dyeing of cotton fabric after the sericin application by different methods was investigated in detailed. The effects of different cross-links (citric acid and butane tetracarboxylic acid) for the bonding of the sericin to the cotton fabric were also investigated. The results were evaluated in terms of color coordinates and color strength, washing and rubbing fastness, and crease recovery angle. Presence of the sericin onto cotton fabric after the application was evidenced with FT-IR spectra. The application of sericin and subsequent dyeing resulted in similar color depths to the conventional dyeing even with half the salt used in conventional reactive dyeing. The presence of cross-links in the pre-treatment baths did not reveal significant differences in color strengths compared to used only sericin. The fastness values of reactive dyed fabrics after sericin application had similar fastness values with traditional dyed ones. Crease recovery angles showed an increase after sericin pre-treatment. Sericin application before reactive dyeing could be one of the best alternative ways to reduce salt usage in reactive dyeing. Graphical abstract Open image in new window
... The melanin and erythema levels of sericin cream-treated area were also less than cream basetreated area after 6 weeks [5]. Padamwar et al. reported that the skin treated with sericin gel showed less TEWL than skin without treatment [33]. Moreover, silk sericin dressing also accelerated wound healing and improved wound quality in patients [20]. ...
Article
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Bacterial cellulose wound dressings containing silk sericin and PHMB (BCSP) were developed in our previous studies. It had good physical properties, efficacy, and safety. For further use as a medical material, this dressing was investigated for its efficacy and safety in split-thickness skin graft (STSG) donor-site wound treatment compared to Bactigras® (control). Moreover, the inflammatory responses to both dressings were also deeply investigated. For in vivo study, expressions of anti-inflammatory cytokines were intensely considered in the tissue interfacing area. The result showed that IL-4 and TGF-β from BCSP-treated tissue had advantages over Bactigras®-treated tissue at 14 and 21 days post-implantation. For clinical study, a single-blinded, randomized controlled study was generated. The half of STSG donor site wound was randomly assigned to cover with BCSP or Bactigras®. Twenty-one patients with 32 STSG donor site wounds were enrolled. The results showed that wound-healing time was not significantly different in both dressings. However, wound quality of BCSP was better than Bactigras® at healing time and after 1 month (p < 0.05). The pain scores of BCSP-treated wound were statistically significant lower than Bactigras®-treated wound (p < 0.05). No sign of infection or adverse event was observed after treatment with both dressings. In conclusion, the inflammation responses of the dressing were clearly clarified. The advantages of BCSP were wound-quality improvement, pain reduction, and infection protection without adverse events. It was fit to be used as the alternative treatment of STSG donor site wound.
... In addition, sericin has anti-oxidant, anti-coagulant activity [18] and can enhance the attachment and proliferation of mammalian cells such as human fibroblasts [19]. Sericin has attracted a huge deal of attentions for its excellent properties in cosmetics [20] and biomedical application [21]. However, sericin is naturally fragile which limits its applications [22]. ...
Article
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Antibacterial materials are of great importance in preventing bacterial adhesion and reproduction in daily life. Silver nanoparticle (AgNP) is a broad-spectrum antibacterial nanomaterial that has attracted significant attentions for its ability to endow natural materials with antibacterial ability. Silk sericin (SS) has a great advantage for biomaterial application, as it is a natural protein with excellent hydrophilicity and biodegradability. In this study, we prepared AgNPs and polyelectrolyte membrane (PEM) modified SS/Agar films through the layer-by-layer adsorption technique and ultraviolet-assisted AgNPs synthesis method. The film was well characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Other properties such as water contact angle, wettability and tensile strength, the release of silver were also studied. The antimicrobial activity of AgNPs-PEM-SS/Agar film was investigated against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus as the model microorganisms by the inhibition zone and bacterial growth curve assays. The results suggested that the AgNPs-PEM-SS/Agar film had excellent mechanical performance, high hydrophilicity, prominent water absorption ability, as well as outstanding and durable antibacterial activity. Therefore, the prepared novel AgNPs-PEM-SS/Agar composite film is proposed as a potentially favorable antibacterial biomaterial for biomedical applications.
... Sericin is a natural polymer composed of 18 amino acids, most of which have polar side chains such as hydroxyl, carboxyl, and amino groups, which strongly influence their physical and biological properties [2]. Sericin has interesting physical attributes of elasticity and tensile strength, and exhibits various biological activities, including antioxidant, moisturizing, antitumor, cell proliferation promoting, and collagen production supporting activities [3][4][5][6][7]. It has the ability to improve cell proliferation when used as a supplement in cell cultures media of human epithelial cells, human embryonic kidney transformed cells, human hepatoblastoma cells, and murine hybridoma cells [6]. ...
Article
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Sericin, a natural protein from silk cocoon, has been reported for various biological properties in the biomaterials field. Modified forms of sericin have been studied for bone tissue engineering, while its unmodified form has been scarcely reported. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate physical and biological properties of unmodified sericin for potential use in bone surgery. Sericin was extracted from silk cocoons using a chemical-free boiling method. Sericin extract showed distinct bands with molecular weight ranging from 25 to 42 kDa including smear bands. Fourier transform infrared spectra presented characteristic peaks of amide I, II, and III, confirming the chemical composition of sericin. Based on biological activity, sericin extract at a concentration of 40 μg/mL increased the proliferation of osteoblast cells up to 135%, compared with the untreated control. Moreover, increase in antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, both clinical isolates and the reference strain ATCC 29213, was demonstrated for sericin extract with normal saline, while no anti-bacterial activity was observed for sericin with broth. It was found that sericin with normal saline showed higher zeta potential than sericin without normal saline, indicating higher system stability. This was confirmed by the average particle size of sericin extract with NaCl (3,249.3±226.1 nm) showing approximately 10 times smaller than sericin solution (29,015.9 ± 8,085.6 nm). Furthermore, sericin extract at the minimal inhibitory concentration significantly reduced the biofilm formation of S. aureus up to 95%. The study indicates biological activities of sericin, which could be applied as a dual-functional bioactive material to support bone regeneration and treat bone infections.
... During silk textile process, sericin should be removed; the goal of this procedure is to obtain silk fibers with shiny aspect, soft handle, and elegant drape [3]. There are different extraction methods to remove sericin from silk, like a) hot aqueous solution of sodium carbonate [4], b) aqueous solution of urea at 85 °C [5], c) autoclaving [6], among others; all of them are based on protein solubility in water. Extraction methods have a high influence on the extraction yield of the raw material, and they have an important effect on the sericin characteristics [7]. ...
Article
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During silk transformation process one of the byproducts obtained is silk sericin (SS). Although sericin is currently treated as a waste in Colombia, in recent years it has been attributed with important biological properties, such as corrosion resistance, antimicrobial activity, ultraviolet radiation (UV) protection, easy absorption and release of moisture, among others. Therefore, many researchers are looking for alternative uses to develop value-added products in the biomedical, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industries. This work has as a goal to create knowledge about properties of the sericin produced in Colombia by characterizing extracted silk sericin (SS) from cocoons (SSC) and yarns (SSY) as raw materials. Sericin was extracted by using water under pressure in an autoclave (121 °C for 30 min, and a liquor ratio 1:30 (w/v)), and dehydrated by freeze-drying. Sericin samples extracted and dehydrated were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). From the results it has been concluded that textile silk process can affect the properties of sericin samples, and therefore, the raw material chosen for the extraction (cocoons or yarns) plays an important role on the characteristics of extracted samples.
... It was reported that sericin, however, has benefits, including natural infection resistance, high UV and oxidation resistance, inhibition of UVB-induced apoptosis in human skin keratinocyte, wound healing property, wound coagulant, excellent biocompatibility, and high water retention. [9][10][11][12][13][14][15] Due to several biological properties, sericin has been studied in biomedical and tissue engineering applications. Recently, collagen-sericin hydrogel was fabricated, and it has stable, flexible, and nonimmunogenic properties as required for dermal substitute. ...
... There are three distinct proteins: fibroin, corresponding to 70-80% of the dry matter and corresponding to the main component of the textile silk yarn; Sericin (known as natural gum), in concentrations between 20-30% being the adhesive agent that holds fibroin in the conformation of the cocoon and a glycoprotein, denominated P25, in small concentrations, but with function in the maintenance of the integrity of the thread silk. Complementary components such as ash, polysaccharides and lipids can be detected [4]. ...
Article
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This work makes a comparative study between the corona treatment and the traditional degumming process. For silk waste to be dyed, they must have good water absorption and mechanical strength. The results of the physical properties such as hydrophilicity and tensile strength are presented in relation to the two processes. The corona treatment promotes hydrophilicity and tensile strength compatible with the traditional degumming process, but with much less treatment time and no effluent generation.
... Forms a proactive and moisturizing surface that gives to the skin a silky, smooth feeling. (Padamwar et al., 2005) 1% (p/p) sericin and 4% (p/p) D-glucose lotion. Moisturizer. ...
... Forms a proactive and moisturizing surface that gives to the skin a silky, smooth feeling. (Padamwar et al., 2005) 1% (p/p) sericin and 4% (p/p) D-glucose lotion. Moisturizer. ...
Article
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Sericin is a protein found in silk. This one has different biological functions such as oxidation resistance, antibacterial and antimicrobial activity, and solar ultraviolet radiation (UV) protection, easy absorption and moisture release, inhibition of tyrosine and kinase's activity and cellular additivity, anticoagulants and anticancer properties, and also promotes cell growth and wound healing. In this scientific review article will be reviewed general characteristics of both the fiber of silksilk worm Bombyx mori, and specifically of silk sericin (physico-chemical composition, structural properties and extraction methods). The potential use of sericin in food, drug and cosmetics applications will be also detailed, due to its valuable bioactive properties
... However, useful properties of sericin as a biomaterial have been reported recently. Specifically, sericin is highly resistant to oxidation (Suzuki et al., 2004), is UV resistant (Sarovart et al., 2003), and has a moisturizing effect on skin (Padamwar et al., 2005). In addition, Tsubouchi et al. (2005) reported that sericin improves the attachment of cultured human skin fibroblasts. ...
Article
Recently, silk sericin has been studied extensively for biomedical and cosmetic applications because of its unique properties, including UV resistance and wound healing ability. For use in applications, sericin is fabricated in various forms including films and gels. However, the mechanical properties of sericin are too weak. In this basic study on improving the mechanical properties of sericin, a silk sericin aqueous solution was separated into two layers by centrifugation. The solution viscosity, molecular conformation, and mechanical properties of each separation layer of the sericin were examined. Sericin from the lower layer had a higher solution viscosity and film mechanical properties (strength and strain) than that from the upper layer, implying that sericin from the lower layer had a higher molecular weight than that from the upper layer. The molecular conformation of the sericin films varied depending on the casting solvent. In aqueous solution, the sericin film from the lower layer showed a {\beta}-sheet conformation, whereas that from the upper layer displayed a random coil conformation. All the sericin films showed a highly {\beta}-sheet-crystallized state when cast in formic acid, regardless of the separation layer.
... Serine can preserve the skin moisture by generating a film on the surface of skin [88]. It was reported that 2% silk sericin gel can decrease transepidermal water loss and improve the smoothness of the skin [109]. ...
Article
Wound healing is a natural process of body reaction to repair itself after injury. Nonetheless, many internal and external factors such as aging, comorbidity, stress, smoking, alcohol drinking, infections, malnutrition, or wound environment significantly affect the quality and speed of wound healing. The unsuitable conditions may delay wound healing process and cause chronic wound or scar formation. Therefore, many researches have attempted to search for agents that can accelerate wound healing with safety and biocompatibility to human body. Widely studied wound healing agents are those derived from either natural sources including plants and animals or chemical synthesis. The natural products seem to be safer and more biocompatible to human tissue. This review paper demonstrated various kinds of the animal-derived products including chitosan, collagen, honey, anabolic steroids, silk sericin, peptides, and proteoglycan in term of mechanisms of action, advantages, and disadvantages when applied as wound healing accelerator. The benefits of these animal-derived products are wound healing promotion, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial activity, moisturizing effect, biocompatibility, and safety. However, the drawbacks such as allergy, low stability, batch-to-batch variability, and high extraction and purification costs could not be avoided in some products.
... Padamwar et al. [121] studied in vivo moisturizing effect of sericin on human skin and found its action to decrease the impedance and increase in the level of hydroxyproline and hydration of the epidermal cells. The increase in hydration was attributed to the occlusive effect of sericin, which prevented the transepidermal water loss, responsible for skin dryness. ...
Article
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Silk sericin is a natural polymer produced by silkworm, Bombyx mori , which surrounds and keeps together two fibroin filaments in silk thread used in the cocoon. The recovery and reuse of sericin usually discarded by the textile industry not only minimizes environmental issues but also has a high scientific and commercial value. The physicochemical properties of the molecule are responsible for numerous applications in biomedicine and are influenced by the extraction method and silkworm lineage, which can lead to variations in molecular weight and amino acid concentration of sericin. The presence of highly hydrophobic amino acids and its antioxidant potential make it possible for sericin to be applied in the food and cosmetic industry. The moisturizing power allows indications as a therapeutic agent for wound healing, stimulating cell proliferation, protection against ultraviolet radiation, and formulating creams and shampoos. The antioxidant activity associated with low digestibility of sericin that expands the application in the medical field, such as antitumour, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory agent, anticoagulant, acts in colon health, improving constipation and protects the body from obesity through improved plasma lipid profile. In addition, the properties of sericin allow its application as a culture medium and cryopreservation, in tissue engineering and for drug delivery, demonstrating its effective use, as an important biomaterial.
... On the other hand, SS accounts for 25 to 30% of the silkworm cocoon and it is formed by 18 amino acids, mostly of which have polar side chains such as hydroxyl, carboxyl and amino groups, which can cross-link, co-polymerize and be combined with other polymers [12]. Likewise, this protein is composed of 45.8% of hydroxy amino acids, 42.3% of polar amino acids and 12.2% of nonpolar amino acids [7], the highest proportion being serine, aspartic acid, glycine and threonine [13]. SS is composed of 70% hydrophilic amino acids, which provide it the ability to be partially soluble and to absorb large amounts of water [14]. ...
Article
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The use of silk proteins sericin (SS) and fibroin (SF) has been increased for biomedical applications. In order to improve their behavior inside of biological environment, silk biomaterials must be treated after their manufacturing by means of diverse methods. These include ethanol post-treatments to increase their crystallinity, mechanical properties and water stability. In this study, the effect of ethanol post-treatments on the properties of silk protein materials was evaluated. Defective cocoons and silk fibrous waste (SW) were used to obtain silk sericin sponges (S-SS) and silk fibroin films (F-SF), respectively. Two ethanol treatments were evaluated in SS and SF: immersion (I) and solvent vapor annealing (SVA). Morphological modifications induced by ethanol post-treatments were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Conformational structure of the samples was analyzed by attenuated total reflectance–Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR–FTIR), and the thermal properties were evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements. SEM images revealed that ethanol process induces changes in treated F-SF and S-SS, the material surfaces are more roughness, and these effects were more pronounced in samples treated by I than that subjected to SVA. As a result of the ethanol treatments, the ATR–FTIR and DSC results showed an increment in relative content of β-sheet structures in both silk protein materials. The results suggest that ethanol post-treatments induce conformational transitions and morphological modifications in S-SS and F-SF that should be considered to select the post-treatment conditions according to the biomedical application requirements.
... Sericin or silk sericin (SS) which is also known as degumming protein or silk protein is collected from silk cocoons. These proteins have demonstrate a number of advantageous effects including enhancement of barrier function of the stratum corneum and increased collagen production [251]. It also causes enhancement in the wound healing process by activating the fibroblast proliferation and leads to enhanced collagen production, [252][253][254]. ...
... Bark [47,52,58] Cinnamomum zeylenicum [53,56] 5-8 gms [19,47,52,58] Carminative, Antiseptic, Cardiac tonic, expectorant [48,55,57,58] Cardiac ailments, gastric weakness, flatulence, diarrhea, cough [46,48,49,50,51,57,58] Anti oxidant, Anti inflammatory, Anti diabetic, Anti bacterial, Anti fungal, Anti microbial, Immuno modulatory [95] Behman Safaid Roots [47,52,58] Centaurea behen [53,56] 5 gms in powdered form [19,47,52,58] Cardiac tonic, exhilarant [48,55,57,58] Palpitation, Cardiac debility, psychosis, premature ejaculation [46,48,49,50,51,57,58] Anti anxiety, Hepatoprotective, Anti angiogenic, anti microbial [96,97,98] Behman Surkh Roots [47,52,58] Salvia haematodes [53,56] 5 gms in powdered form [21,49,54,60] Cardiac tonic, exhilarant [48,55,57,58] Palpitation, Cardiac debility, psychosis, premature ejaculation [46,48,49,50,51,57,58] Anti anxiety, Hepatoprotective, Anti angiogenic, anti microbial [96,97,98] Darunaj Aqrabi Roots [47,52,58] Doronicum hookerii [53,56] 6 gms in powdered form [19,47,52,58] Cardiac tonic, Nervine tonic, antidote [48,55,57,58] Palpitation, Cardiac Debility, Nervine Weakness, Paralysis, Facial Palsy, Plague, Habitual abortion [46,48,49,50,51,57,58] Anti oxidant, Hepato protective [99,100] Ood Hindi Wood [47,52,58] Aquilaria agallocha [53,56] 5 gms in powdered form with honey [19,47,52,58] Nervine Tonic, Antiseptic, Expectorant [48,55,57,58] Anorexia, Nervine ...
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Unani System of medicine is one among the oldest systems that prevails till date with its efficient drugs derived from animal, plant and mineral resources. Over 2400 years ago, the father of medicine Hippocrates practiced it; however His medicine included a great deal of ancient Egyptian medicine as well as important components of the ancient Mesopotamian traditions. In modern medicine, Palpitation is described as an uncomfortable awareness of one's own heartbeat and is a clinical entity with varied etiology ranging from benign causes to serious arrhythmias. In Unani system of medicine, the modern equivalent term for palpitation is Khafaqān. A large number of drugs, single and compound formulations, have been mentioned in the context of the treatment of Khafaqān. Dawa ul Misk Motadil Sada is one of the most reputed poly pharmaceutical preparations of Unani system of Medicine used in Khafaqān, as cardiac tonic in arrhythmia and as general tonic.
... In particular calcium-based nanoparticles have shown to have therapeutic benefits when used in cutaneous wound repair (Kawai et al., 2011). On the other hand, sericin has high antioxidant potential (Prasong, 2011;Kumar and Mandal, 2017), antibacterial activity (Ramesan et al., 2016), mitogenic effect on cells (Terada et al., 2005), potential to inhibit inflammation (Aramwit et al., 2012a), and ability to retain hydration (Padamwar et al., 2005). In the study of Aramwit et al., a sericin-based therapeutic cream formulation improved healing by promoting collagen production and rapid re-epithelialization in rat skin wounds (Aramwit et al., 2009(Aramwit et al., , 2013. ...
Article
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Calcium phosphates (CaPs) have been widely used in the field of biomedical engineering as bone graft substitutes or as carriers for drug delivery applications. Recent developments have focused on combining CaPs with proteins to obtain functional biomaterials that accommodate a broader spectrum of functional requirements. Silk sericin was considered an unutilized protein by-product from the textile industry, generating tons of residues every year. However, much effort has been dedicated to its recovery after being associated with numerous biological properties such as antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-coagulation and regenerative activities. In the past years, sericin has also demonstrated to be suitable as a template for CaP mineralization. The present review focuses on the recent developments for the production of sericin/CaP composites, exploring their potential applications in bioengineering and opening new avenues in other research fields such as in the cosmetic, food and environmental sectors. In addition, this paper can also be useful as a guideline to design future research based on sericin/CaP biomaterials.
... Uncommon muscle contractions result in more superficial lines. After 28 days of use twice a day, the depth of wrinkles was reduced by 49% [17]. ...
Article
Perception of beauty is tied to the idea of youth. This is why a large number of peptides proposed in the field of cosmetics are used as anti-aging/anti-wrinkle products. Some peptides have been proven in their efficacy through clinical skin trials. This paper describes some peptides that are most frequently used in cosmeceutical products and their potential benefits and practical use in dermatology.
... India is bestowed with all four kinds of silk which provide immense opportunity to explore use of silk for non textile purposes, particularly in production and application of silk protein based biomaterials. Padamwar et al. [168] while studying in vivo effect of sericin on human skin reported prevention of transepidermal water loss, responsible for skin dryness confirming the moisturizing effect of sericin. The study indicated action of sericin in increasing the level of hydroxyproline and hydration of the epidermal cells. ...
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Traditional sericulture represents rearing of silkworm for production of silk that provides livelihood opportunity to millions of people in the country besides earning foreign exchange. The time has come to diversify the whole sericulture process for meaningful realization of its output under the present day scenario. The advent of modern biotechnology and its application have opened a new arena of the synthesized science for silk production. The vast potential of silk industry can effectively be exploited by the application of modern day biotechnological approaches like, marker assisted selection and expression of foreign protein through transgenic approaches. On the other hand, the silk quality has been enhanced using probiotics and providing artificial feed to the silkworm. The potential of silk has been further exploited for biomedical applications. In this communication the comprehensive account of biotechnological applications in sericulture and its byproducts for the development of sericulture industry are compiled while emphasizing the need of applying modern biotechnology for meaningful growth and development of sericulture and silk industry.
... The procedure for making sheet masks is carried out in the following stages: Sodium polyacrylate dissolved with distilled water in mortars, this is called part 1. Butylene glycol, glycerin, and PEG-40 hydrogenated castor The oil is melted by heating and then stirring until it is homogeneous, this is called section 2. Methyl paraben is dissolved using hot distilled water, called section 3. Mix sections 1, 2 and 3 in a mortar, then crushed until homogeneous. Finally add the black soybean seed extract, ethanol and perfume to the mixture, crushed until homogeneous [16,17]. ...
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The purpose of this sudy was to find out the mask sheet by using black soybean extract as a moisturizer and to know its ability to increase water content or moisture on the skin. Sheet masks were formulated with the addition of black soybean seed extract with a concentration of 1%, 3%, and 5%, then an evaluation of the formula was carried out in the form of homogeneity, pH, skin irritation test, stability, and the activity test to moisturize whites. The results of the evaluation of the formula showed that the sheet mask was homogeneous, pH value 6.1-6.8, did not irritate the skin, and was stable in storage for 4 weeks. The highest percentage increase in humidity occurred in the group using positive control followed by the Black Soybean Sheet Mask (BSSM) 5%. There is a significant difference between the positive control group, BSSM 3 and 5% against negative control, except BSSM 1%. In the second to fourth week, the 5% BSSM group showed an increase in numbers so that it did not differ significantly from positive control, so this was marked as the optimum concentration. The conclusion of this research is that black soybean seed extract can be formulated in sheet mask form and can increase skin moisture.
... Sericin obtained from silk has been used in different cosmetic products due to its moisturizing and antiaging effects ( Joseph and Raj, 2012). They enhance the hydration of epidermal structures by increasing the amount of hydroxyproline in them (Padamwar et al., 2005). ...
Article
Sericin, produced in the middle silk gland (MSG) of silkworms, is a group of glue proteins that coat and cement silk fibers. Several genes are known to encode sericin, but their spatiotemporal regulation has yet to be fully elucidated. Here, we report in detail the expression profiles of the promoters of two major sericin-coding genes, Sericin 1 (Ser1)and Sericin 3 (Ser3), by analyzing Gal4/UAS transgenic silkworms. We found that UAS-linked EGFP fluorescence in transgenic silkworms driven by Ser1-Gal4was detected in only the R3, R4 and R5 regions of MSG starting inday-3 fifth-instar larvae and was continuously expressed until silk gland degradation. In transgenic silkworms driven by Ser3-Gal4, EGFP fluorescence was detected at a low level in the R2 region of MSG since the last day of fifth-instar larvae, and the expression increased during the wandering stages and was continuously detected until silk gland degradation. The molecular detection of EGFP expression in each of the Gal4/UAS transgenic silkworms was consistent with fluorescence observations. These findings reveal clear differences in the regulatory characteristics of the promoters of Ser1and Ser3 and provide new insights into the regulatory mechanism of the expression of sericin-coding genes.
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Chronic, non-healing diabetic wounds put a massive economic burden on health services causing patient incompliance and discomfort. Thorough interpreting of chronic wound pathophysiology led to the fabrication of targeted systems of drug delivery that can improve and accelerate the wound healing process. Natural polymers or biopolymers are now explored for the fabrication of wound dressings. Hence, in this review article, the pathophysiological aspects of chronic wounds, current treatment approaches, and potential biomaterials employed for treating wounds are explicated. The main emphasis is on biopolymers which aid in creating innovative systems based on nanotechnology for effective skin generation in chronic wounds.
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By 2030, the preponderance of older individuals over younger ones will transform the shape of the age distribution graph into a rectangle rather than the current pyramid observed. This chapter summarizes the characteristics and in vitro and in vivo studies on effect of peptides and proteins on aging skin.
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Apart from food, other important needs in the care of human bodies are cosmetics and drugs. For long the latter two are obtained from chemical formulations and phytochemicals (commonly used in Ethnomedicine), use of bioactive compounds from insects (i.e. “ento medicine” and “ento cosmetics”) is a recent development in research, even though the bioactive compounds were discovered long ago. This chapter is a review on a number of substances extracted from various insect species that are useful in cosmetics, pharmaceutical industries as well as those that form part of prescription for healing in orthodox and traditional medicine. The review is based on information from scientific reports, Google, e-library, textbooks. A number of substances were found to have been incorporated into cosmetic and pharmaceutical products and as part of prescriptions for healing in orthodox medicine, many others at elementary stages of investigation, purification and development. The findings showed that insects have a lot of bioactive substances that need to be harnessed for the good man.
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Objective The objective of this work was to develop a peptide production process of the exact molecular weight propitious to topical application for cosmetics and to investigate the effects of enzymolysis-derived peptide on UVB-induced photoaging rat skin. Methods The chum salmon fish skins were hydrolyzed by alkaline protease and neutral protease and spray-dried at different conditions, and three kinds of molecular weight peptide (MFSOP) were obtained. A total of 66 ICR rats (female, 20 ± 1 g) were randomly divided into eleven groups, including the normal, model, and experimental groups. The three kinds of MFSOP were dissolved at different dosages (5‰, 2.5%, and 5%) and then applied on the ICR hairless back skins prior to exposing UVB irradiation of 3000mJ/cm² to them 4 h later. After 8 weeks, the rats were killed and the hair-shaved skins were tested for skin moisture, hyaluronic acid, hydroxyproline, antioxidant activity, and RNA expression. Results Three kinds of MFSOP were obtained, with the average molecular weights of 495.16, 1194.00, and 2032.46 Dalton, respectively. The MFSOPs, especially the MFSOP of average molecular weight of 1194.00 Dalton, played an important role in the recovery of the UVB-injured skin tissue in lock in moisture, in antioxidant activity and in promotion in collagen and elastin protein to some extent. Conclusion MFSOPs, especially MFSOP of average molecular weight of 1194.00 Dalton, derived from enzymolysis are potential materials to apply in cosmetics for the UVB9-induced anti-photoaging activity (lock in moisture, antioxidant activity, and promotion in collagen and elastin protein).
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Here, we aims to demonstrate a simple concept in biomaterials design by using natural resources solely as raw materials to fabricate elastic wound care dressing. Elasto-gel films comprise of silk sericin (SRC), natural rubber (NR), and chitin whisker (CTW) were developed. A glue-like protein SRC found in silk cocoons is beneficial for the treatment of wounds due to its superior skin moisturizing ability. However, the pure SRC film is generally difficult to be fabricated because of its weak structural feature. This limitation was overcome by using NR as a binder which consecutively rendered elasticity and strength of the films. CTW was chosen as another component to promote ability of the films for tissue restoration. Before the film formation, protein in the natural rubber latex (NRL) was removed to avoid allergic and cytotoxic problems. The enzyme-treated NR/SRC (ETNR/SRC) films having different blend compositions were fabricated by solution casting technique. The highest amount of the SRC to gain an easy to handle ETNR/SRC film was 30%. The ETNR/SRC/CTW films having 20% SRC were fabricated and studied in comparison. Essential properties of the films as elastic wound care dressings were investigated and effect of the materials chemistry on the observed properties were discussed.
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Sericin gels and sponges have attracted attention in the biomedical and cosmetic fields because sericin has useful properties including a high UV and oxidation resistance, inhibition of UVB-induced apoptosis in human skin keratinocyte, wound healing, and wrinkle resistance effects. In this study, the effects of sericin concentration and ethanol content on the gelation behavior, rheological properties, and sponge characteristics of sericin were examined. As the sericin concentration increased, the rate of gelation of sericin accelerated and gel strength increased significantly. This occurred up to an ethanol content of 15%. Above that, the rate of gelation and the gel strength decreased. There was no change in the gel-sol transition temperature of sericin with the sericin concentration, although more ethanol addition resulted in a decrease in the starting temperature of thermal gel disruption. The crystallinity index of the frozen and thawed sericin sponge did not change with the sericin concentration, whereas it increased with increasing ethanol content up to 15% and decreased above 15%. As the sericin concentration was increased, the porosity and swelling ratio of the sericin sponge decreased and the mechanical properties of sericin sponge were remarkably improved.
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Silk sericin is a protein produced by Bombyx mori (silkworm), and the protein surrounds and keeps together two fibroin filaments in the silk thread used in the cocoon. Nevertheless, the functional properties of sericin expand its application in the medical field. Sericin has remarkable properties such as a potent antioxidant ability, meaning that it can be applied in cosmetic applications. Due to diverse biological activities, sericin is used as a desirable biomaterial for tissue engineering to improve tissue function via the development of biological substitutes. To improve the properties of skin tissue repair, films and scaffolds have drawn the attention of researchers following sericin addition. Sericin coatings have been commonly found in the textile industry, with several purposes such as easy ironing, and nonfading fabric dye.
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Two core-shell structure poly methyl methacrylate-caprolactam (PMMA-CPL) and poly methyl methacrylate-caprolactam-sericin (PMMA-CPL-SS) nanoparticles were synthesized by emulsion polymerization. A latex blending process was performed on preparation of natural rubber (NR) blends, NR/PMMA-CPL and NR/PMMA-CPL-SS. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed that PMMA-CPL and PMMA-CPL-SS nanoparticles covering on the surface of NR particles homogeneously. SEM, AFM, ATR-FTIR and DSC were used to compare the difference between NR/PMMA-CPL-SS and NR/PMMA-CPL. The results showed that addition of SS improved the smoothness and reduced the amount of incompatible particles on the surface of NR/PMMA-CPL-SS film. Due to the introduction of CPL and SS, the number of escaping particles on the surface of NR was decreased during film forming process and the Tg of NR shifted to a higher temperature. The results indicated that the interfacial adhesion and compatibility of PMMA and NR were improved. Mechanical testing showed that PMMA-CPL nanoparticles could improve the mechanical property of NR. When the content of PMMA-CPL-SS was 10%, the tensile strength of NR/PMMA-CPL-SS film was increased by 19.6% compared to NR/PMMA-CPL. Moreover, the NR/PMMA-CPL-SS film exhibited a higher hydrophilic property after modification with PMMA-CPL-SS nanoparticles.
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Methods for the extraction of sericin from mulberry and non‐mulberry cocoons should be intensely investigated because they have effects on the physical, chemical, and biological properties of sericin. This chapter describes five different methods that are often used in sericin extraction, namely water extraction, acid extraction, alkali extraction, urea extraction, and alcohol extraction. The modification of the hydroxyl groups is important for the efficient alteration of sericin properties. Glutaraldehyde is a functional compound mainly used in the chemical modifications of proteins and polymers. This compound binds covalently to the amine groups of lysine or hydroxylysine in the protein molecules, creating a stable structure. Accordingly, the chemical modification of sericin with cross‐linking agents can be used for the reinforcement of the protein structures resulting in sericin stabilization. After processing, sericin can be formed as 2D or 3D structure for various applications.
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With many years of history in medical sciences, silk is a naturally occurring fibrous material which demonstrates great potential in tissue engineering. It is composed of fibroin and sericin, polymers that show promise as biomaterials. Qualifying both as a structural and functional polymer, fibroin possesses high mechanical strength, biocompatibility, and tailorable degradability, which, in addition to its versatile processing, explain its wide application in biomedical engineering. Current efforts are devoted to exploiting fibroin fibers as a reinforcing material in composite systems, or in the form of regenerated silk which displays novel and tunable properties. Sericin's various bioactivities are also being capitalized on to improve material function and modulate cell response in order to accelerate tissue repair and regeneration. This chapter explores the biosynthesis and basic properties of silk proteins, before detailing the processing and fabrication methods employed for the generation of silk compounds‐based biomaterials.
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Cashmere fiber is pretreated with oxygen low temperature plasma to increase the content of polar groups (-OH, -COOH) on the surface. Then by using aziridine crosslinker and polycarbodiimide crosslinker, the sericin with health-care function is grafted onto the surface of the pretreated cashmere fiber. Plasma treatment is optimized after the assessing of methylene blue staining and fiber tensile strength. The grafting rate of sericin indicates that both aziridine and polycarbodiimide crosslinker could play a bridging role. Compared with untreated fiber, oxygen plasma treatment can improve the grafting rate significantly. The chemical changes and morphological structures of the fiber surface are analyzed by infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope. After modification, cashmere exhibited good antibacterial and antioxidant properties. In addition, the fiber still has excellent dyeability while its crimp property and whiteness are slightly reduced.
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Background Moisturizer is an important component of many cosmetic products. It helps to maintain the skin's integrity and its barrier functions. Recently, magnetic masks that seek to improve the properties of the skin have been developed and have become a new cosmetic trend. However, scientific proof of their stated properties is lacking. Aims To test whether iron oxide contained in a face mask with magnetic properties in an oily matrix with a freeze‐dried aloe‐vera base increases moisturization of the skin and improves skin barrier function. Methods Formulations were prepared containing an oil phase (67.3% wt.) and a solid phase (32.7% wt.). The moisturizing properties of the mask were tested by measuring in vivo electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, contact angle, and visual appearance. Meanwhile, human panel tests were performed to evaluate the sensory perception of potential users. Results The moisturizing effect of the iron oxide mask is clearly superior to that of the other tested samples. Water retention and low transepidermal water loss (TEWL) were evidenced for the iron oxide magnetic mask. Its occlusive action on the skin resulted in larger water contact angles and enhances the barrier effect. A favorable sensory perception on the part of the users was obtained for the iron oxide magnetic mask. Conclusion The presence of iron oxide and the magnetic property of the mask enhance occlusive behavior, diminishing the TEWL. Sensory analysis of the iron oxide magnetic mask performed by human panel tests shows that they possess characteristics including neutral odor, and easy, pleasant‐feeling application.
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Marine seaweeds produce protective and defensive compounds, for example, carbohydrates and phenolic compounds that are a source of bioinspiration for molecules with cosmetic and human health applications. This chapter provides a general description of seaweeds, together with a brief overview of the adaptive and chemical defenses developed by these organisms. Among the great diversity of metabolites produced by seaweeds, we focus on specific carbohydrates (floridoside and mannitol) and phenolic compounds (mycosporine‐like amino acids and phlorotannins) produced by macroalgae. Particular attention is paid to their highly variable chemical structure and methods for their extraction and purification. Their mechanisms of action are discussed, focusing on osmoregulation, desiccation, and photoprotection, which affect seaweed ecophysiology. Finally, we review their utility for cosmetology as moisturizers, sunscreens, and antiaging agents, for human health as wound dressings, and for skin regeneration. We point out the challenges faced when using these natural compounds in the cosmetic and human health sectors and the problems linked to the exploitation of this natural resource.
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Sericin is a unique proteinaceous biopolymer obtained from cocoons of Bombyx Mori. It has become very popular since it is bestowed with numerous health benefits. Sericin is composed of 18 types of amino acids, out of which 8 amino acids play a significant role in human metabolic pathways. Sericin is easily amenable to make into novel dosage forms and also has been conferred with numerous therapeutic activities such as wound healing, antihypertensive, neuro-protective, antitumor, anti-diabetic, anti-wrinkle, anti-ageing and antioxidant amongst various others. This review summarizes the current status of sericin, as a therapeutic moiety with a focus on active constituents as well as their proposed mechanism in the treatment of various chronic diseases. It also summarizes previous and current invitro, in-vivo, cell lines studies and clinical trials based pieces of evidence corroborating the therapeutic activities of sericin.
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Silk sericin has been studied for application in the biomedical and cosmetic fields, given its good water retention and wound-healing properties. Although sericin can be obtained by extraction in hot water, this leads to molecular degradation. Recently, it was reported that raw silk can be used as a binder to prepare non-woven silk fabrics using character of sericin. Therefore, a better understanding of the characteristics of raw sericin is required for more effective utilization. In the present study, the effect of silkworm variety on the characteristics of raw sericin was examined. The amounts of sericin and non-protein materials were found to differ depending on the silkworm variety. The crystallinity indexes of the silk resulting from degumming and heat treatment varied slightly with the silkworm variety. The difference in the tensile strengths of silk yarns spun from raw and degummed silk filaments was found to be highly dependent on the silkworm variety, with the strength decreasing in the order N74 > Imbakgalwon > Baekokjam > Wonwon 126. The extent of increases in the tensile strength and elongation of the silk yarn after hot-press treatment was strongly influenced by the silkworm variety, given the amount of raw sericin differed with the silkworm variety. It is thought that the use of raw sericin from an appropriate silkworm variety will accelerate the development of sericin products in both the cosmetic and biomedical fields.
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İpek, fibroin (lifli protein) ve serisin (globüler, zamklama proteini) olarak isimlendirilen iki ana proteinden oluşmaktadır. Fibroin tekstil üretiminde ve çeşitli biyomalzeme uygulamalarında kullanılırken, serisin tekstil endüstrisinde bir atık malzeme olarak kabul edilmektedir. Serisin, belirsiz bir yapıya sahip çok bileşenli bir protein olması nedeniyle, fibroinden daha az dikkat çekmiştir, ancak bu proteinin de biyolojik aktiviteye sahip olduğu ve biyouyumlu olduğu yapılan çalışmalarla gösterilmiştir. Serisin değişken amino asit bileşimi ve çeşitli fonksiyonel grupları ile biyomedikal uygulamalar için ilgi çekici biyoaktif özelliklere sahiptir. Antioksidan karakteri, nemlendirme yeteneği ve memeli hücreleri üzerindeki mitojenik etkisi nedeniyle, serisinin hücre kültürü ve doku mühendisliğinde yararlı olduğu son yıllarda yapılan çalışmalarla gösterilmiştir. Ayrıca, keratinositler ve fibroblastlar üzerindeki olumlu etkileri, başta yara bakım malzemeleri olmak üzere deri dokusu onarımı için serisin bazlı biyomalzemelerin gelişmesine yol açmıştır. Ek olarak, serisin, kemik benzeri hidroksiapatit nükleasyonunu indükleme kabiliyeti nedeniyle kemik doku mühendisliği için kullanılma potansiyeline de sahip olduğu gösterilmiştir. Filmler, süngerler ve hidrojeller gibi kararlı ipek serisin biyomalzemeleri, çapraz bağlama veya diğer polimerler ile karıştırılarak hazırlanmaktadır. Serisin aynı zamanda ilaç salımı için de kullanılma potansiyeline sahiptir, çünkü kimyasal reaktivitesi ve pH yanıtı, serisin bazlı nano-mikropartiküllerin, hidrojellerin ve konjuge moleküllerin üretimini kolaylaştırmakta ve ilaçların biyoaktivitesini arttırmaktadır. Bu çalışmada, önemli bir protein olan ipek serisinin özellikleri ve kullanım alanları özetlenmiştir
Article
Synthetic hydroxyapatite (HAp) has been successfully produced with the aim of obtaining biomaterials that meet the biomechanical requirements for bone tissue engineering while being compatible with the surrounding biochemical and cellular environment. Combining proteins with HAp can generate improved composite biomaterials, which are environmentally friendly, renewable and biocompatible. In this context, HAp/protein-based composite materials have been widely exploited since the late 20th century to the present day. In this review, we explore the biomedical relevance of the association of HAp with several proteins of interest such as fibroin, sericin, fibrin and keratin. The processing strategies for their synthesis and effect on the obtained shape and physicochemical, mechanical and biological performance are herein discussed. This work can provide useful information for the design of HAp-based biomaterials with specific emphasis on bone tissue regeneration characteristics for biomedical applications.
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In this study, sericin–alginate particles are produced for use as a biosorbent to remove Cu(II) ions from an aqueous solution in a batch biosorption system. Sericin is a protein present in silkworm cocoons and is considered a byproduct of the silk industry. Its use in the production of biosorbents has emerged as an environmentally friendly alternative. Sericin–alginate particles are characterized using N2 physical adsorption analysis, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and point of zero charge. Additionally, they are evaluated via kinetic, isothermal, and thermodynamic biosorption tests. Kinetic modeling is performed using Lagergren pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Weber–Morris intraparticle diffusion, homogeneous solid diffusion, and external liquid-film diffusion models. For equilibrium modeling, the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin isotherm models are applied. The Cu(II) ions biosorption is spontaneous and exothermic, as biosorption capacity decreases with temperature: 87.27 mg g⁻¹ (20 °C), 82.54 mg g⁻¹ (40 °C), and 76.18 mg g⁻¹ (60 °C). Based on kinetic modeling, it is verified that internal mass transfer limits the biosorption rate. The Langmuir isotherm model shows a better fit for the biosorption equilibrium, indicating that biosorption occurs in the monolayer. Tests to evaluate the reusability of sericin–alginate particles are performed. It is discovered that even after five adsorption–desorption cycles, the biosorbent shows excellent biosorption capacity. The obtained results and a comparison of the biosorption capacity of different biomaterials demonstrate the high potential of the sericin–alginate particles as a biosorbent for Cu(II) ions.
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Skin, being one of the vital organs and a protective barrier needs to be pampered and taken care of from early childhood. It is the most visible and the widest exposed organ and by far reflects the general health condition and the aging process in humans. Both intrinsic and extrinsic factors contribute to this complex biological process of skin aging. In recent times, skin health and its beauty is perceived as an indicator of one’s health which has resulted in an increasing demand for anti-aging products. Exposure to UV radiation is considered to be one of the factors responsible for aging termed as photoaging. In this review, we have discussed the various factors which may accelerate the process of skin aging. Various approaches and strategies to delay the process of skin aging have been emphasized upon. The patents filed in the area of anti-aging and sunscreen products have also been reviewed to gain an insight into the new formulations which have been developed as an anti-aging product. There has been a tremendous rise in the cosmetic and cosmeceuticals market with products having a dual activity of anti-aging and sun protection. Research is constantly on the rise to ensure the safety of these products. Alternatives to the current topical application of sunscreen are being considered to overcome the drawback of reapplication of the sunscreen often which can be a boon to the cosmeceutical market.
Chapter
Protein is a major component in the food system and the demand for protein supply has increased substantially in recent decades. To ensure the sustainability of the protein supply, one of the key issues is to not only reduce by-products during food processing, but also, more importantly, to explore exhaustive utilization of waste-derived proteins by transforming “gutter to gold.” Although waste proteins may be used in various industries, the most promising way is to find new applications in pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Waste proteins are produced from different sources, including plant by-products, dairy waste, as well as blood, hides, skin, and visceral proteins after removal from animals. Each waste protein source has its unique physicochemical properties and characteristics for specialized applications. This chapter will discuss their current utilizations and promising futures at a source-to-source basis, with specific focus on applications in the fields of pharmaceuticals and cosmetics.
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A biomimetic approach of composition and natural function of natural moisturizing factor (NMF) with the amino acid content of silk fibroin was advantageously used to reconstruct the skin moisturizing system. The isolation of silk hydrolysate with water and sodium chloride treatment was complete in one hour. Lithium ion from LiBr effectively penetrated crystal domains of fibroin and gave desired solubility. Silk fibroin from Bombyx mori cocoons was non-allergic and biocompatible in skin and rabbit eye tests. The concentration dependent moisturizing efficacy of fibroin (1-5% w/v) in solution and cream form has been demonstrated by TEWL in vitro and in volunteers. As compared to dry and normal skin the fibroin containing cream revealed increased substantivity. The increased hydroxproline content was responsible for retaining higher moisture in the skin. This in turn maintained the skin in soft and supple state. The significant drop in impedance was observed within 1 hr of the application of fibroin and the effect was sustained for more than 6 hrs. Thus, increased hydration level in stratum corneum was achieved by fibroin treatment. The SEM of fibroin treated skin replicas showed a desired attribute of soft, smooth skin texture and improved flexibility. The increased state of hydration caused interdigitating of cell edges as evident in microphotographs. The rapid and sustained moisturizing efficiency observed with silk fibroin was well substantiated by the results of skin substantivity and impedance tests.
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Silk consists of two types of proteins, silk fibroin and sericin. Sericin contributes about 20-30 per cent of total cocoon weight. It is characterized by its high content of serine and 18 amino acids, including essential amino acids. There are different methods of isolation of sericin from silk thread. Solubility, molecular weight, and gelling properties of sericin depend on the method of isolation. It has wide applications in pharmaceuticals and cosmetics such as, wound healing, bioadhesive moisturizing, antiwrinkle and antiaging.
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The electrical properties of the epidermal stratum corneum were investigated by cellulose adhesive tape stripping. The distribution function of the relaxation times on the impedance locus of stratum corneum was deduced. It was found that this function of the thin layer does not satisfy the Cole-Cole circular arc, but the skin impedance remaining after some strippings compares favourably with the Cole-Cole circular arc. The various dispersions appearing in the skin impedance can be separated and evaluated. The average resistivity and dielectric constant of the stratum corneum and deeper tissues were determined. The direct current resitivity σ of the stratum corneum can be mathematically expressed by the exponential law ρ=ρo-αx where x is the distance from the skin surface. The maximum resistivity ρo on the outermost surface of the stratum corneum and the attenuation coefficient α are evaluated.
Article
The possibility of hydroxyproline residues stabilizing the collagen triple-helical structure by the formation of additional hydrogen bonds through their γ-hydroxyl group has been studied from structural considerations. It is not possible for this hydroxyl group to form a direct hydrogen bond with a suitable group in a neighbouring chain of the triple-helical protofibril. However, in the modified one-bonded structure, which is stabilized by additional hydrogen bonds being formed through water molecules as intermediaries (put forward in 1968 by Ramachandran, G. N. and Chandrasekharan, R.), it is found that the γ-hydroxyl group of hydroxyproline can form a good hydrogen bond with the water oxygen as acceptor, the hydrogen bond length being 2.82 Å. It is proposed that, in addition to stabilizing the collagen triple-helical structure due to the stereochemical properties of the pyrrolidine ring, hydroxyproline gives added stability by the formation of an extra hydrogen bond. Experimental studies on the determination of shrinkage and denaturation temperatures of native collagen and its synthetic analogues, as a function of their hydroxyproline content, are being undertaken to test this hypothesis.
Article
The epidermal stratum corneum behaves as a very important element for the skin impedance, and therefore adequate study of the electrical properties of the stratum corneum is required. The essential points of this paper are written with detailed consideration given to the following items : (1) The distribution function of relaxation times on vector impedance loci of the stratum corneum is induced, and it is found that this function of thin layer does not satisfy the Cole-Cole circular arc law. (2) The average dielectric constant and the average resistivity of the stratum corneum and the inner organization underlying granular cell layer are shown respectively, and the various dielectric dispersions in every part of the skin layer are made clear. (3) The resistivity distribution of the stratum corneum is given by a mathematical equation as follows : ρ=ρ0e-αχ where χ is the distance from the skin surface, and where values of attenuation coefficient α and resistivity ρ0 on the skin surface are show. The stratum corneum forming a large resistance layer can become a current barrier, compared with the inner organization underlying granular cell layer having considerably lower resistance.
Article
The objectives of this study were to investigate the impedance properties of human skin in vivo and to examine the effect of iontophoresis upon them. Having established the intra- and inter-individual variation in basal values of skin impedance, the effect of varying iontophoretic current density, ionic strength and counter-ion on the rate of recovery of skin impedance after iontophoresis was investigated. Passage of an iontophoretic current caused a significant reduction in the magnitude of the skin impedance. Increasing the current density caused an even greater reduction in the value of the skin impedance and slowed the rate of recovery. Reduction of the ionic strength resulted in an increase in the rate of recovery following iontophoresis. A significant increase in the rate of recovery was observed when CaCl2 replaced NaCl as the electrolyte. Although visual inspection revealed the presence of greater erythema when CaCl2 was used, there was an absence of the mild sensation experienced by volunteers when using NaCl. The last part of the study established a correlation between transepidermal water loss and impedance analysis as complementary methods for probing skin barrier function in vivo. The data were fitted to an equivalent circuit consisting of a resistor in parallel with a constant-phase element and a mechanistic model proposed to explain the electrical properties of the skin. The first comprehensive investigation of the effect of iontophoresis on the electrical properties of human skin in vivo has been described. It would appear from the results, and from their interpretation, that impedance spectroscopy may be an effective method to quantify the impact of iontophoresis on the skin, and to determine the extent to which proposed drug delivery regimens will perturb skin barrier function.
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Blister-skin and warts have been studied as possible sources of 'pure' stratum corneum without sweat ducts. The purpose of the study was to assess whether the DC electrical conductance measured on human skin is totally dominated by the sweat ducts, or is also significantly contributed to by the stratum corneum itself. By means of galvanic skin response (GSR) measurements, these tissues were found to be unrealiable as sources of 'pure' stratum corneum. This is because they displayed significant GSR waves, and hence should have some form of active pores. However, measurements on blister-skin and nail in situ revealed a substantial frequency independent electrical conductance at frequencies typically below 10 Hz.
Article
A colorimetric procedure, which is particularly adapted to quantitative histochemical studies on collagen in connective tissue, was described for the determination of millimicrogram quantities of hydroxyproline in microgram samples of tissue. A simplified procedure for the hydrolytic liberation of hydroxyproline from the tissue was given. Optimum conditions for the analysis were elaborated and the interference of tyrosine was shown to be negligible.
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The Journal of Investigative Dermatology publishes basic and clinical research in cutaneous biology and skin disease.
Sericin containing vinyl graft polymer
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  • H Sato
  • Shioraki
Nail cosmetics containing sericin
  • H Yamada
  • K Yamasaki
  • Zozaki