Role of Ultraviolet B Irradiance and Vitamin D in Prevention of Ovarian Cancer
Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, California, United States American Journal of Preventive Medicine
(Impact Factor: 4.53).
01/2007; 31(6):512-4. DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2006.08.018
There is a north-south gradient in age-adjusted mortality rates of ovarian cancer in the United States, with the highest rates in the Northeast and the lowest in the South through Southwest. This suggests that lower levels of solar irradiance might be associated with higher risk of ovarian cancer. Laboratory findings also suggest that low levels of vitamin D metabolites could play a role in the etiology of ovarian cancer.
The association of solar ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiance, stratospheric column ozone, and fertility rates at ages 15 to 19 years with incidence rates of ovarian cancer in 175 countries in 2002 were examined using multiple linear regression in 2006.
Age-adjusted ovarian cancer incidence rates generally were highest in countries located at higher latitudes (R(2)=0.45, p< or =0.01). According to multivariate analysis, UVB irradiance (p< or =0.002) and fertility rates at ages 15 to 19 (p=0.01) were inversely associated with incidence rates, while stratospheric ozone (p< or =0.0008), which reduces transmission of UVB, was positively associated with incidence (R(2)=0.49, p<0.0001).
Solar UVB irradiance was inversely associated with incidence rates of ovarian cancer in this study, adding new evidence to the theory that vitamin D might play a role in the prevention of ovarian cancer. Cohort studies are needed to confirm this possible association.
Available from: Raphael E. Cuomo
- "An updated analysis is needed since more recent data are available and many rates have changed due to shifts in cultural, political, and economic factors. It is also desirable since a new method for display of the association of solar UVB with incidence rates has been created that reveals a clearer association between UVB irradiance and risk than has been shown before: a stratified method according to hemisphere and cancer incidence . This new method allows visualization of the symmetry of this association in two hemispheres. "
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ABSTRACT: Controversy exists regarding whether vitamin D deficiency could influence etiology of pancreatic cancer. Several cohort studies have found that high serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations are associated with low risk of pancreatic cancer, while others have not.
Low ultraviolet B irradiance is associated with high incidence of pancreatic cancer.
Age-standardized pancreatic cancer incidence rates were obtained from GLOBOCAN in 2008. The association between cloud-adjusted UVB irradiance and age-standardized incidence rates of pancreatic cancer was analyzed using regression.
Overall, the lower the cloud-adjusted UVB irradiance, the higher the incidence rate of pancreatic cancer. Residents of countries with low UVB irradiance had approximately 6 times the incidence rates as those in countries with high UVB irradiance (p<0.0001 for males and p<0.0001 for females). This association persisted after adjustment for traditional risk factors of pancreatic cancer (p<0.0001 for males and p<0.0001 for females).
There was an inverse association of cloud-adjusted UVB irradiance with incidence of pancreatic cancer that persisted after adjustment. This result is consistent with an inverse association of overall vitamin D deficiency in countries with lower UVB irradiance with risk of pancreatic cancer. Further research on the role of 25(OH)D in reduction of pancreatic cancer in individuals would be desirable to expand the limited avenues available for prevention of this highly fatal disease. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled '17th Vitamin D Workshop'.
Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Available from: Alpana Saxena
- "Potential role of vitamin D in cancer prevention has been widely described [16-18]. There exist numerous studies which show inverse relationship of cancers of different organs with sun exposure including ovarian cancer [19-21]. However only a few studies have evaluated the role of serum vitamin D levels in ovarian cancer, and most are on Caucasian population [5,6]. "
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ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Vitamin D deficiency and vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphism, FokI, is reported to increase the risk of many cancers. Role of vitamin D and its receptor polymorphisms in ovarian cancer has not been clearly defined. OBJECTIVE: To study the levels of serum vitamin D and occurrence of vitamin D receptor gene polymorphism (FokI) in cases of ovarian cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: FokI genotyping was done by PCR-RFLP technique and vitamin D levels were estimated by chemiluminescence immunoassay. RESULTS: Serum vitamin D levels were significantly (p < 0.03) lower in ovarian cancer cases as compared to controls. The homozygous (TT) and heterozygous (CT) genotype predispose to the development of ovarian cancer in Indian population (OR: 2.37, 95% CI: 1.04-5.44) as compared to the homozygous (CC) genotype. Vitamin D deficiency and VDR gene polymorphism (FokI) act non-synergistically (p value < 0.4). CONCLUSION: Low blood levels of vitamin D and VDR receptor polymorphism (FokI) might be a risk factor for the development of ovarian cancer. Other novel ligands of vitamin D receptor might be responsible for the non-synergistic effect.
Available from: Jaymie R Meliker
- "The remaining 12 papers used remotely sensed data in studies of cancer. Seven papers used remotely sensed stratospheric ozone column data (U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer ) for predicting tropospheric levels of ultraviolet radiation, typically in studies of skin cancer, but also as an indication of vitamin D levels in studies of other cancers (Slaper et al., 1998; Piacentini et al., 2004; Solomon et al., 2004; Garland et al., 2006; Mohr et al., 2006, 2007; Tatalovich et al., 2006). The remaining five papers used land surface remotely sensed data for environmental exposure assessment in cancer research (Table 1). "
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ABSTRACT: In recent years, geographic information systems (GIS) have increasingly been used for reconstructing individual-level exposures to environmental contaminants in epidemiological research. Remotely sensed data can be useful in creating space-time models of environmental measures. The primary advantage of using remotely sensed data is that it allows for study at the local scale (e.g., residential level) without requiring expensive, time-consuming monitoring campaigns. The purpose of our study was to identify how land surface remotely sensed data are currently being used to study the relationship between cancer and environmental contaminants, focusing primarily on agricultural chemical exposure assessment applications. We present the results of a comprehensive literature review of epidemiological research where remotely sensed imagery or land cover maps derived from remotely sensed imagery were applied. We also discuss the strengths and limitations of the most commonly used imagery data (aerial photographs and Landsat satellite imagery) and land cover maps.
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