Physical activity or fitness and the metabolic syndrome

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Highway, MS K66, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA.
Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy 12/2006; 4(6):897-915. DOI: 10.1586/14779072.4.6.897
Source: PubMed


The metabolic syndrome is highly prevalent in populations around the world, regardless of the definition used. Physical inactivity and obesity are two of the major modifiable risk factors for the metabolic syndrome. Cross-sectional and prospective studies have generally found that levels of physical activity and fitness are inversely related to the prevalence of this syndrome. More recent research has also suggested that sedentary behaviors, such as excessive time spent watching television or using a computer, are significantly associated with an increased risk for this syndrome. Separate but complementary approaches that encourage increased participation in physical activity and discourage sedentary behaviors, both at the individual and population level, may prove useful in reducing the prevalence of this syndrome.

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    • "Preventing and reversing metabolic syndrome is a promising strategy for reducing its obesity-related comorbidities, and evidence suggests that physical activity is effective in preventing and treating metabolic syndrome (Ford and Li, 2006). Studies in several international populations suggest that higher total levels of physical activity are associated with lower incidence and prevalence of metabolic syndrome (Bertrais et al., 2005; Cho et al., 2009; Dunstan et al., 2005; He et al., 2013; Irwin et al., 2002; Lakka and Laaksonen, 2007; Panagiotakos et al., 2004; Santos et al., 2007; Zhu et al., 2004) and that low levels of physical activity are associated with progression to metabolic syndrome over time (Ekelund et al., 2005); however, these relationships may not be consistent by type or intensity of physical activity (Ford et al., 2005; He et al., 2013; Lakka and Laaksonen, 2007; Lakka et al., 2003). "
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    ABSTRACT: To examine whether total physical activity or activity patterns are associated with metabolic syndrome and its components. Participants include 1994 controls from a case-control study of non-fatal myocardial infarction in Costa Rica (1994-2004). Physical activity was assessed via self-administered questionnaire and patterns were identified using principal components analysis. Metabolic syndrome was assessed via blood samples and anthropometry measurements from in-home study visits. Prevalence ratios (PRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using log binomial regression. Adjusted least squares means of metabolic syndrome components were calculated by quintile of total activity and pattern scores. Four activity patterns were identified: rest/sleep, agricultural, light indoor activity, and manual labor. Total activity was not associated with metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome prevalence was 20% lower in participants with the highest scores on the agricultural job pattern compared to those with the lowest (PR: 0.80, 95% CI: 0.68-0.94). Higher total activity was associated with lower triglycerides and lower HDL cholesterol. Higher scores on each pattern were inversely associated with metabolic syndrome components, particularly waist circumference and fasting blood glucose. Patterns or types of physical activity may be more strongly associated with metabolic syndrome and its components than total activity levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Preventive Medicine
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    • "MS is highly prevalent in populations around the world. Physical inactivity is one of the major modifiable risk factors for MS [24]. In this meta-analysis, we assessed the association between LPA and the risk of MS. "
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to assess the association between leisure-time physical activity (LPA) and the risk of metabolic syndrome (MS). Prospective cohort studies of the association between LPA and the risk of MS were retrieved from the PubMed and Embase databases up to 12 August 2013. The statistical analysis in this study was performed using Stata 11.0 software. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to evaluate the effect of LPA on the risk of MS. A total of five articles were included in this meta-analysis. The overall effect sizes indicated that people with moderate level LPA (OR = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.82 to 0.96, P = 0.003) or high level LPA (OR = 0.58, 95% CI: 0.38 to 0.89, P = 0.012) had lower risk of MS than people with low level LPA. The subgroup analysis by gender showed that high level LPA could reduce the risk of MS in populations of different genders (female, OR = 0.20, 95% CI: 0.08 to 0.49, P <0.001; male, OR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.43 to 0.82, P = 0.002). However, compared with low level LPA, Americans with high level LPA did not significantly reduce the risk of MS (OR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.43 to 0.82, P = 0.002), while a significant decrease of the risk of MS was found in Europeans with high level LPA (OR = 0.49, 95% CI 0.32 to 0.77, P = 0.002) in the subgroup analysis by region. The meta-analysis confirmed that a moderate and high level of LPA could reduce the risk of MS.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014
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    • "In contrast, the prevalence of diabetes in Mexican Pima Indians was only one-fifth of that of U.S. Pima Indians. Epidemiological studies showed that western lifestyle [19], sedentary lifestyle [20] and physical inactivity [21] increase the risk of CVD. A notable difference between both Mexican populations and the U.S. Pima population is the lower frequency and extent of obesity [22]. "
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and distribution of dyslipidemia among urban children from Buenos Aires (BA) versus Koya Indian from San Antonio de los Cobres (SAC). DESIGN AND METHODS: Anthropometric measures, blood pressure, Tanner stages, glucose, lipids and insulin were measured. Dyslipidemia was defined by the NCEP (the National Cholesterol Education Program standards) and AHA (American Heart Association) criteria. RESULTS: The mean ages were 10.6±3.0 of SAC and 9.5±2.0years of BA children. Of the 603 BA children, 97 (16.1%) were overweight (OW) and 82 (13.6%) obese (OB), and of 330 SAC, 15 (4.5%) were OW and 12 (3.6%) OB (p<0.01). Twenty six percent SAC vs 2.5% BA children ate ≥5 servings/day of fruits and vegetables (p<0.001), 30% SAC vs 59% BA children watched TV≥2h/day(p<0.001), and 8.2% SAC vs 13.1% BA children skipped breakfast (p<0.001). In separate linear regression models, we found that SAC children had a 1.8mmol/L (p<0.001) higher hemoglobin level, a 0.56mmol/L higher triglyceride level (p<0.001), a 0.15mmol/L higher total cholesterol level (p=0.001), a 0.19mmol/L higher LDL-C level (p<0.001), and a 0.33mmol/L lower HDL-C level (p<0.001) than BA children adjusted for confounding factors. CONCLUSION: Koya children have a higher risk for dyslipidemia in comparison with BA children, even after controlling for lifestyle behaviors, obesity, age, and sex , suggesting that dyslipidemia could be related to their genetic backgrounds.
    Full-text · Article · May 2012 · Clinical biochemistry
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